A Gaedigk

Summary

Affiliation: Children's Mercy Hospital
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Identification of Novel CYP2D7-2D6 Hybrids: Non-Functional and Functional Variants
    Andrea Gaedigk
    Division of Developmental Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, The Children s Mercy Hospital and Clinics Kansas City, MO, USA
    Front Pharmacol 1:121. 2010
  2. ncbi request reprint Challenges in CYP2D6 phenotype assignment from genotype data: a critical assessment and call for standardization
    J Kevin Hicks
    Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutic Innovation, Children s Mercy Hospital, 2401 Gillham Rd, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA
    Curr Drug Metab 15:218-32. 2014
  3. pmc Introduction of the AmpliChip CYP450 Test to a South African cohort: a platform comparative prospective cohort study
    Tyren M Dodgen
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa
    BMC Med Genet 14:20. 2013
  4. doi request reprint Detection and characterization of the CYP2D6*9x2 gene duplication in two Spanish populations: resolution of AmpliChip CYP450 test no-calls
    Andrea Gaedigk
    Laboratori de Referència de Catalunya, El Prat de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain
    Pharmacogenomics 12:1617-22. 2011
  5. ncbi request reprint CYP2D7 splice variants in human liver and brain: does CYP2D7 encode functional protein?
    Andrea Gaedigk
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, The Children s Mercy Hospital and Clinics, Kansas City, MO, USA
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 336:1241-50. 2005
  6. ncbi request reprint CYP2D6*36 gene arrangements within the cyp2d6 locus: association of CYP2D6*36 with poor metabolizer status
    Andrea Gaedigk
    Section of Developmental Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Children s Mercy Hospital, 2401 Gillham Road, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA
    Drug Metab Dispos 34:563-9. 2006
  7. pmc Variability of CYP2J2 expression in human fetal tissues
    Andrea Gaedigk
    Children s Mercy Hospital, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, 2401 Gillham Rd, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 319:523-32. 2006
  8. ncbi request reprint Cytochrome P4502D6 (CYP2D6) gene locus heterogeneity: characterization of gene duplication events
    A Gaedigk
    Section of Developmental Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, The Children s Mercy Hospital and Clinics, Kansas City, Missouri, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 81:242-51. 2007
  9. ncbi request reprint Identification and characterization of CYP2D6*56B, an allele associated with the poor metabolizer phenotype
    A Gaedigk
    Section of Developmental Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Children s Mercy Hospital and Clinics, Kansas City, Missouri, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 81:817-20. 2007
  10. ncbi request reprint The CYP2D6 activity score: translating genotype information into a qualitative measure of phenotype
    A Gaedigk
    Section of Developmental Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Children s Mercy Hospital and Clinics, Kansas City, Missouri, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 83:234-42. 2008

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications52

  1. pmc Identification of Novel CYP2D7-2D6 Hybrids: Non-Functional and Functional Variants
    Andrea Gaedigk
    Division of Developmental Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, The Children s Mercy Hospital and Clinics Kansas City, MO, USA
    Front Pharmacol 1:121. 2010
    ..Detection of hybrid events, "single" and tandem, will contribute to more accurate phenotype prediction from genotype data...
  2. ncbi request reprint Challenges in CYP2D6 phenotype assignment from genotype data: a critical assessment and call for standardization
    J Kevin Hicks
    Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutic Innovation, Children s Mercy Hospital, 2401 Gillham Rd, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA
    Curr Drug Metab 15:218-32. 2014
    ....
  3. pmc Introduction of the AmpliChip CYP450 Test to a South African cohort: a platform comparative prospective cohort study
    Tyren M Dodgen
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa
    BMC Med Genet 14:20. 2013
    ..The objective of this study was to compare the AmpliChip CYP450 Test® (AmpliChip) to alternative genotyping platforms for phenotype prediction of CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 in a representative cohort of the South African population...
  4. doi request reprint Detection and characterization of the CYP2D6*9x2 gene duplication in two Spanish populations: resolution of AmpliChip CYP450 test no-calls
    Andrea Gaedigk
    Laboratori de Referència de Catalunya, El Prat de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain
    Pharmacogenomics 12:1617-22. 2011
    ..The goal of the study was to resolve this issue by characterizing the CYP2D6 gene locus in these patients...
  5. ncbi request reprint CYP2D7 splice variants in human liver and brain: does CYP2D7 encode functional protein?
    Andrea Gaedigk
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, The Children s Mercy Hospital and Clinics, Kansas City, MO, USA
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 336:1241-50. 2005
    ..14408G/G that causes a premature stop codon in any splice variants that contain the 57bp intron 6 insertion. Therefore, no evidence for functional CYP2D7 transcripts was observed in Asian, Caucasian or African American individuals...
  6. ncbi request reprint CYP2D6*36 gene arrangements within the cyp2d6 locus: association of CYP2D6*36 with poor metabolizer status
    Andrea Gaedigk
    Section of Developmental Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Children s Mercy Hospital, 2401 Gillham Road, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA
    Drug Metab Dispos 34:563-9. 2006
    ..Given a combined frequency of between 0.5 and 3% in African Americans and Asians, genotyping for CYP2D6*36 should improve the accuracy of genotype-based phenotype prediction in these populations...
  7. pmc Variability of CYP2J2 expression in human fetal tissues
    Andrea Gaedigk
    Children s Mercy Hospital, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, 2401 Gillham Rd, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 319:523-32. 2006
    ..Due to premature termination codons, none encodes functional protein. The mechanisms leading to variable amounts of immunoreactive protein and distinct pre- and postnatal CYP2J2 protein patterns warrant further investigation...
  8. ncbi request reprint Cytochrome P4502D6 (CYP2D6) gene locus heterogeneity: characterization of gene duplication events
    A Gaedigk
    Section of Developmental Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, The Children s Mercy Hospital and Clinics, Kansas City, Missouri, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 81:242-51. 2007
    ..Accurate identification of gene duplication events is essential to avoid false-positive ultrarapid metabolism assignments and thus, overestimation of predicted activity and increased risk for unwanted adverse events...
  9. ncbi request reprint Identification and characterization of CYP2D6*56B, an allele associated with the poor metabolizer phenotype
    A Gaedigk
    Section of Developmental Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Children s Mercy Hospital and Clinics, Kansas City, Missouri, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 81:817-20. 2007
    ..The rationale for this study was to resolve the discordance and to describe the novel non-functional allelic variant of CYP2D6 and its frequency in populations of different ethnic backgrounds...
  10. ncbi request reprint The CYP2D6 activity score: translating genotype information into a qualitative measure of phenotype
    A Gaedigk
    Section of Developmental Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Children s Mercy Hospital and Clinics, Kansas City, Missouri, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 83:234-42. 2008
    ..The AS tool warrants further prospective evaluation for CYP2D6 substrates and in additional ethnic populations...
  11. doi request reprint CYP2D6, SULT1A1 and UGT2B17 copy number variation: quantitative detection by multiplex PCR
    Andrea Gaedigk
    Division of Pediatric Pharmacology and Medical Toxicology, The Children s Mercy Hospital and Clinics, 2401 Gillham Rd, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA
    Pharmacogenomics 13:91-111. 2012
    ..Different platforms exist for copy number variation (CNV) detection; however, there are no gold standards. Robust methods are required that address specific challenges to accurately determine gene CNVs in complex gene loci...
  12. doi request reprint CYP2D7-2D6 hybrid tandems: identification of novel CYP2D6 duplication arrangements and implications for phenotype prediction
    Andrea Gaedigk
    Section of Developmental Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, The Children s Mercy Hospital and Clinics, 2401 Gillham Road, Kansas City, MO 62108, USA
    Pharmacogenomics 11:43-53. 2010
    ..Allelic variants of cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 (CYP2D6), such as gene deletion, duplication, multiplication and conversion, contribute to the wide range of CYP2D6 activity. Novel gene arrangements were discovered and characterized...
  13. doi request reprint UGT2B17 and SULT1A1 gene copy number variation (CNV) detection by LabChip microfluidic technology
    Andrea Gaedigk
    Section of Developmental Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, The Children s Mercy Hospital and Clinics, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA
    Clin Chem Lab Med 48:627-33. 2010
    ..Quantitative assays to assess gene copy number are therefore becoming an integral part of accurate genotype assessment and phenotype prediction...
  14. doi request reprint Discovery of the nonfunctional CYP2D6 31 allele in Spanish, Puerto Rican, and US Hispanic populations
    Andrea Gaedigk
    Division of Developmental Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Children s Mercy Hospital and Clinics, 2401 Gillham Road, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol 66:859-64. 2010
    ..We aimed to resolve the CYP2D6 31 no-calls, determine the allele haplotype, and corroborate that CYP2D6 31 is associated with a poor metabolizer phenotype...
  15. pmc Identification and characterization of novel sequence variations in the cytochrome P4502D6 (CYP2D6) gene in African Americans
    A Gaedigk
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Children s Mercy Hospital and Clinics, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA
    Pharmacogenomics J 5:173-82. 2005
    ..CYP2D6(*)45 and (*)46 have a combined frequency of 4% and can be identified by a common SNP. Carriers are predicted to exhibit an extensive or intermediate CYP2D6 phenotype...
  16. ncbi request reprint Unique CYP2D6 activity distribution and genotype-phenotype discordance in black Americans
    Andrea Gaedigk
    Division of Pediatric Clinical Pharmacology and Medical Toxicology, Children s Mercy Hospital and Clinics, Kansas City, MO 64108 USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 72:76-89. 2002
    ..Although CYP2D6 has been studied extensively in different population groups, relatively little is known for black Americans...
  17. doi request reprint The CYP2D6 gene locus in South African Coloureds: unique allele distributions, novel alleles and gene arrangements
    Andrea Gaedigk
    Section of Developmental Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Children s Mercy Hospital and Clinics, 2401 Gillham Road, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol 64:465-75. 2008
    ..This study aimed at characterising the CYP2D6 gene locus in Coloured subjects and predict their phenotype status...
  18. ncbi request reprint CYP2D6 poor metabolizer status can be ruled out by a single genotyping assay for the -1584G promoter polymorphism
    Andrea Gaedigk
    Division of Developmental Pharmacology and Medical Toxicology, The Children s Mercy Hospital and Clinics, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA
    Clin Chem 49:1008-11. 2003
  19. ncbi request reprint Cytochrome P4502C9 (CYP2C9) allele frequencies in Canadian Native Indian and Inuit populations
    A Gaedigk
    Division of Pediatric Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, The Children s Mercy Hospital and Clinics, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA
    Can J Physiol Pharmacol 79:841-7. 2001
    ..Therefore, these alleles may be extremely rare or absent, and unless other novel polymorphisms exist in this Inuit group one would not anticipate any CYP2C9 poor metabolizer subjects among this population...
  20. ncbi request reprint Optimization of cytochrome P4502D6 (CYP2D6) phenotype assignment using a genotyping algorithm based on allele frequency data
    A Gaedigk
    Section of Pediatric Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, The Children s Mercy Hospital, and University of Missouri Kansas City, 64108, USA
    Pharmacogenetics 9:669-82. 1999
    ..For all individuals, the correct phenotype has been predicted. Discordant phenotype assignment occurred in only two individuals which subsequently was attributed to CYP2D6 inhibition by concomitant drug therapy...
  21. ncbi request reprint NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase: polymorphisms and allele frequencies in Caucasian, Chinese and Canadian Native Indian and Inuit populations
    A Gaedigk
    Section of Pediatric Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, The Children s Mercy Hospital, Kansas City, Missouri 64108, USA
    Pharmacogenetics 8:305-13. 1998
    ..Affected individuals may not only exhibit resistance to quinone-based cancer therapy because of a decreased production of cytotoxic drug metabolites, but may also be more susceptible to toxicities associated with toxicants...
  22. ncbi request reprint Ontogeny of dextromethorphan O- and N-demethylation in the first year of life
    M J Blake
    Division of Pediatric Pharmacology and Medical Toxicology, Department of Pediatrics, Children s Mercy Hospitals and Clinics, Kansas City, Missouri, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 81:510-6. 2007
    ..In contrast, DM N-demethylation developed significantly more slowly over the first year of life. Genotype and the temporal acquisition of drug biotransformation are critical determinants of a drug response in infants...
  23. pmc Genetic Heterogeneity in the rRNA Gene Locus of Trichophyton tonsurans
    Andrea Gaedigk
    Division of Pediatric Clinical Pharmacology and Medical Toxicology, Children s Mercy Hospital, Kansas City, Missouri 64108, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 41:5478-87. 2003
    ..tonsurans from other dermatophytes. Of the 92 isolates evaluated, this genotyping scheme distinguished 12 distinct strains, providing evidence of genetic heterogeneity in T. tonsurans...
  24. ncbi request reprint Non-monooxygenase cytochromes P450 as potential human autoantigens in anticonvulsant hypersensitivity reactions
    J S Leeder
    Department of Pediatrics, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Pharmacogenetics 8:211-25. 1998
    ....
  25. ncbi request reprint Tracking Trichophyton tonsurans through a large urban child care center: defining infection prevalence and transmission patterns by molecular strain typing
    Susan M Abdel-Rahman
    Department of Pediatric Clinical Pharmacology, Children s Mercy Hospitals and Clinics, 2401 Gillham Rd, Suite 0411, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA
    Pediatrics 118:2365-73. 2006
    ..This investigation was designed to gain insight into the natural course of T. tonsurans infection...
  26. doi request reprint Single-dose pharmacokinetics of oral and intravenous pantoprazole in children and adolescents
    Gregory L Kearns
    Division of Pediatric Pharmacology and Medical Toxicology, The Children s Mercy Hospitals and Clinics, 2401 Gillham Road, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA
    J Clin Pharmacol 48:1356-65. 2008
    ..The pharmacokinetic profile of oral and intravenous pantoprazole was similar in children ages 2 to 16 years. The doses used here were safe and well tolerated in this population...
  27. doi request reprint Evaluation of a [13C]-dextromethorphan breath test to assess CYP2D6 phenotype
    J Steven Leeder
    Section of Developmental Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Department of Pediatrics, Children s Mercy Hospitals and Clinics, 2401 Gillham Road, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA
    J Clin Pharmacol 48:1041-51. 2008
    ..Although further development is required, these studies suggest that the [(13)C]-DM breath test offers promise as a rapid, minimally invasive phenotyping assay for CYP2D6 activity...
  28. pmc Multilocus genotyping identifies infections by multiple strains of Trichophyton tonsurans
    Susan M Abdel-Rahman
    Division of Pediatric Clinical Pharmacology and Medical Toxicology, The Children s Mercy Hospitals and Clinics, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 45:1949-53. 2007
    ..This communication details mixed Trichophyton tonsurans infections and highlights the need to confirm the presence of multiple strains in a clinical single isolate by use of a multilocus approach...
  29. ncbi request reprint Variability of CYP3A7 expression in human fetal liver
    J Steven Leeder
    Section of Developmental Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Children s Mercy Hospital and Clinics, 2401 Gillham Road, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 314:626-35. 2005
    ..2-fold (8.07 +/- 2.87, range 2.41 to 14.9 nmol/min/mg). Observed variability in CYP3A7 activity was not related to CYP3A7*2, and alternative regulatory mechanisms require further investigation...
  30. ncbi request reprint Identification of CYP2D6 impaired functional alleles in Mexican Americans
    Huai Rong Luo
    Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Mail Stop 1018, Breidenthal Building, 3901 Rainbow Blvd, Kansas City, KS 66160 7417, USA
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol 61:797-802. 2005
    ..To extend the genotyping analysis of the CYP2D6 gene and further explain variability of CYP2D6 activity in Mexican Americans by genetic factors...
  31. ncbi request reprint Characterization of cytochrome P450 2D6.1 (CYP2D6.1), CYP2D6.2, and CYP2D6.17 activities toward model CYP2D6 substrates dextromethorphan, bufuralol, and debrisoquine
    Kenda A Marcucci
    Section of Developmental Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Division of Pediatric Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Children s Mercy Hospital and Clinics, Kansas City, Missouri 64108, USA
    Drug Metab Dispos 30:595-601. 2002
    ..1. These data indicate that CYP2D6.17 exhibits reduced metabolic activity toward all three commonly used CYP2D6 substrates, although specific effects on substrate affinity and turnover demonstrate some substrate dependence...
  32. ncbi request reprint Omeprazole disposition in children following single-dose administration
    Gregory L Kearns
    Departments of Pediatrics and Pharmacology, University of Missouri, Division of Pediatric Clinical Pharmacology and Medical Toxicology, Children s Mercy Hospitals and Clinics, Kansas City, Missouri, USA
    J Clin Pharmacol 43:840-8. 2003
    ..No association between age and CL/F, t1/2, or lambda z was observed. The range of t1/2 values for omeprazole was similar to those reported in adults (1-1.5 h)...
  33. pmc Impact of the CYP2C19*17 allele on the pharmacokinetics of omeprazole and pantoprazole in children: evidence for a differential effect
    Gregory L Kearns
    Director, Pharmacogenetics Core Laboratory, Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Medical Toxicology, Children s Mercy Hospitals and Clinics, 2401 Gillham Road, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA
    Drug Metab Dispos 38:894-7. 2010
    ..0001) and the apparent elimination rate constant (K(el); p = 0.0012); no significant genotype-phenotype relationships were observed for omeprazole...
  34. doi request reprint Interindividual variability in acetaminophen sulfation by human fetal liver: implications for pharmacogenetic investigations of drug-induced birth defects
    Araba A Adjei
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA
    Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 82:155-65. 2008
    ..The purpose of this study was to characterize the variability of APAP sulfation in a panel of human fetal livers and to identify the sulfotransferases (SULT) isoform(s) responsible for catalyzing that activity...
  35. ncbi request reprint Activities of cytochrome P450 1A2, N-acetyltransferase 2, xanthine oxidase, and cytochrome P450 2D6 are unaltered in children with cystic fibrosis
    Mary Jayne Kennedy
    Division of Pediatric Clinical Pharmacology and Medical Toxicology, The Children s Mercy Hospitals and Clinics, Kansas City, MO, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 75:163-71. 2004
    ..Altered biotransformation of drugs in this patient population is likely enzyme- and isoform-specific and thus is apparent for only selected compounds that are substrates for enzymes other than CYP1A2, NAT-2, XO, and CYP2D6...
  36. ncbi request reprint Effect of sex and menstrual cycle phase on cytochrome P450 2C19 activity with omeprazole used as a biomarker
    Myong Jin Kim
    Clinical Pharmacology Research Center, Department of Medicine, Bassett Healthcare, One Atwell Road, Cooperstown, NY 13326 1394, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 72:192-9. 2002
    ..However, the effect of variations in endogenous sex steroid concentrations throughout the menstrual cycle has not been investigated...
  37. ncbi request reprint CYP2D6 inhibition by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: analysis of achievable steady-state plasma concentrations and the effect of ultrarapid metabolism at CYP2D6
    Y W Francis Lam
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 78284 6220, USA
    Pharmacotherapy 22:1001-6. 2002
    ..To assess the correlation between plasma concentrations of four commonly administered selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and the magnitude of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 inhibition...
  38. ncbi request reprint Combined phenotypic assessment of cytochrome p450 1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A, N-acetyltransferase-2, and xanthine oxidase activities with the "Cooperstown 5+1 cocktail"
    Siwaporn Chainuvati
    Department of Medicine, Bassett Healthcare, Cooperstown, NY 13326, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 74:437-47. 2003
    ..The Cooperstown 5+1 cocktail may be used to simultaneously assess the activities of CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A, NAT2, and XO...
  39. ncbi request reprint Effect of a triphasic oral contraceptive on drug-metabolizing enzyme activity as measured by the validated Cooperstown 5+1 cocktail
    Tatiana Shelepova
    Department of Medicine, Clinical Pharmacology Research Center, Bassett Healthcare, Cooperstown, New York, USA
    J Clin Pharmacol 45:1413-21. 2005
    ..This triphasic oral contraceptive may have a clinically significant effect on the activity of some drug-metabolizing enzymes...
  40. ncbi request reprint Pharmacokinetics and CYP2D6 genotypes do not predict metoprolol adverse events or efficacy in hypertension
    Issam Zineh
    Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 76:536-44. 2004
    ..We investigated whether metoprolol plasma concentrations, CYP2D6 polymorphisms, or genotype-derived phenotype was associated with adverse effects or efficacy in patients with hypertension...
  41. ncbi request reprint Lack of weight-based dose dependency and intraindividual variability of omeprazole for CYP2C19 phenotyping
    Myong Jin Kim
    Clinical Pharmacology Research Center, Bassett Healthcare, One Atwell Road, Cooperstown, NY 13326 1394, USA
    J Clin Pharmacol 44:966-73. 2004
    ..5%, interquartile range = 14.8%-23.5%). Weight-based single doses of omeprazole for CYP2C19 phenotyping did not exhibit dose dependency. Therefore, a weight-based approach may improve the quantitation of omeprazole/metabolites...
  42. ncbi request reprint Comments on Hoskins et al. [(2005) drug metab dispos 33:1564-1565]
    Andrea Gaedigk
    Drug Metab Dispos 34:504-5; author reply 506. 2006
  43. ncbi request reprint Limited association of the 2988g > a single nucleotide polymorphism with CYP2D641 in black subjects
    Andrea Gaedigk
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 77:228-30; author reply 230-1. 2005
  44. ncbi request reprint Effects of fluvastatin and cigarette smoking on CYP2C9 activity measured using the probe S-warfarin
    Myong Jin Kim
    Clinical Pharmacology Research Center, Bassett Healthcare, One Atwell Road, Cooperstown, NY 13326 1394, USA
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol 62:431-6. 2006
    ..In addition, the effect of the CYP2C9 inhibitor fluvastatin was evaluated using S-warfarin as a probe...
  45. ncbi request reprint Pharmacogenetics of morphine poisoning in a breastfed neonate of a codeine-prescribed mother
    Gideon Koren
    Motherisk Program, Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada
    Lancet 368:704. 2006
  46. ncbi request reprint Limited sampling strategy of S-warfarin concentrations, but not warfarin S/R ratios, accurately predicts S-warfarin AUC during baseline and inhibition in CYP2C9 extensive metabolizers
    Joseph D Ma
    PharmD, Clinical Pharmacology Research Center, Bassett Healthcare, One Atwell Road, Cooperstown, NY 13326 1394, USA
    J Clin Pharmacol 44:570-6. 2004
    ..LSS using S-warfarin concentrations is an efficient and accurate technique to evaluate S-warfarin AUC(0- infinity ) when using warfarin as a CYP2C9 probe drug...
  47. ncbi request reprint Discovery of a novel nonfunctional cytochrome P450 2D6 allele, CYP2D642, in African American subjects
    Andrea Gaedigk
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 73:575-6. 2003
  48. ncbi request reprint Coadministration of lopinavir/ritonavir and phenytoin results in two-way drug interaction through cytochrome P-450 induction
    Michael L Lim
    School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 36:1034-40. 2004
    ..LPV/RTV may increase PHT clearance via CYP2C9 induction. Management should be individualized to each patient; dosage or medication adjustments may be necessary...
  49. ncbi request reprint Multiple dose pharmacokinetics of paroxetine in children and adolescents with major depressive disorder or obsessive-compulsive disorder
    Robert L Findling
    Department of Psychiatry, Case Western Reserve University, University Hospitals of Cleveland, OH 44106 5080, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 31:1274-85. 2006
    ..Certain gastrointestinal and behavioral activation events (aggressive reaction and nervousness) were reported more frequently in the youngest age group...
  50. pmc Safety of codeine during breastfeeding: fatal morphine poisoning in the breastfed neonate of a mother prescribed codeine
    Parvaz Madadi
    Can Fam Physician 53:33-5. 2007
    ..Options to reduce this risk include discontinuing codeine after 2 to 3 days of use and being aware of symptoms of potential opioid toxicity in both mothers and newborns...
  51. pmc Maribavir pharmacokinetics and the effects of multiple-dose maribavir on cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2, CYP 2C9, CYP 2C19, CYP 2D6, CYP 3A, N-acetyltransferase-2, and xanthine oxidase activities in healthy adults
    Joseph D Ma
    Clinical Pharmacology Research Center, The Research Institute, Inc, 150 New Scotland Ave, Albany, NY 12208, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:1130-5. 2006
    ..Maribavir was safe and well tolerated. Taste disturbance was the most frequently reported adverse event. These results will further guide evaluation of the drug interaction potential and clinical development of maribavir...
  52. ncbi request reprint Generation and functional characterization of arylamine N-acetyltransferase Nat1/Nat2 double-knockout mice
    Kim S Sugamori
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Medical Sciences Building 1, King s College Circle, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada
    Mol Pharmacol 64:170-9. 2003
    ..This knockout mouse model should be helpful in delineating the role that variation in acetylating enzymes plays in mediating interindividual differences in susceptibility to arylamine-induced chemical toxicity and/or carcinogenesis...