Lihua Xiao

Summary

Affiliation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Mixed Cryptosporidium infections and HIV
    Vitaliano Cama
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 12:1025-8. 2006
  2. pmc Cryptosporidium species and subtypes and clinical manifestations in children, Peru
    Vitaliano A Cama
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 14:1567-74. 2008
  3. pmc Molecular surveillance of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi by genotyping and subtyping parasites in wastewater
    Na Li
    State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, People s Republic of China
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6:e1809. 2012
  4. doi request reprint Cryptosporidium tyzzeri and Cryptosporidium pestis: which name is valid?
    Lihua Xiao
    Division of Foodborne, Waterborne and Environmental Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Exp Parasitol 130:308-9. 2012
  5. pmc Genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. in captive reptiles
    Lihua Xiao
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 70:891-9. 2004
  6. pmc Subtype analysis of Cryptosporidium specimens from sporadic cases in Colorado, Idaho, New Mexico, and Iowa in 2007: widespread occurrence of one Cryptosporidium hominis subtype and case history of an infection with the Cryptosporidium horse genotype
    Lihua Xiao
    Division of Parasitic Disease, National Center for Infectious Disease, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway, Atlanta, GA 30341 3717, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 47:3017-20. 2009
  7. ncbi request reprint Molecular epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis: an update
    Lihua Xiao
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector Borne and Enteric Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Bldg 22, Rm 14, 4770 Burford Highway, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Exp Parasitol 124:80-9. 2010
  8. pmc Cryptosporidium taxonomy: recent advances and implications for public health
    Lihua Xiao
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Chamblee, Georgia 30341, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 17:72-97. 2004
  9. ncbi request reprint Distribution of Cryptosporidium parvum subtypes in calves in eastern United States
    Lihua Xiao
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Parasitol Res 100:701-6. 2007
  10. doi request reprint Zoonotic cryptosporidiosis
    Lihua Xiao
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector Borne, and Enteric Disease, Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 52:309-23. 2008

Detail Information

Publications99

  1. pmc Mixed Cryptosporidium infections and HIV
    Vitaliano Cama
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 12:1025-8. 2006
    ..felis infections; 6 patients were infected with 2 Cryptosporidium spp. and 1 patient with 3 species. Mixed infections may occur more frequently than previously believed and should be considered when assessing cryptosporidiosis...
  2. pmc Cryptosporidium species and subtypes and clinical manifestations in children, Peru
    Vitaliano A Cama
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 14:1567-74. 2008
    ..genotypes or subtypes. These findings strongly suggest that Cryptosporidium spp. and subtypes are linked to different clinical manifestations in children...
  3. pmc Molecular surveillance of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi by genotyping and subtyping parasites in wastewater
    Na Li
    State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, People s Republic of China
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6:e1809. 2012
    ..The high concentration of pathogens in raw sewage makes the characterization of the transmission of these pathogens simple through the genotype and subtype analysis of a small number of samples...
  4. doi request reprint Cryptosporidium tyzzeri and Cryptosporidium pestis: which name is valid?
    Lihua Xiao
    Division of Foodborne, Waterborne and Environmental Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Exp Parasitol 130:308-9. 2012
    ..The designation of C. tyzzeri for the mouse genotype I brings further clarity to the taxonomy of Cryptosporidium spp. in humans, cattle, and domestic mice...
  5. pmc Genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. in captive reptiles
    Lihua Xiao
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 70:891-9. 2004
    ..Sequence and biologic characterizations indicated that the desert monitor genotype was Cryptosporidium saurophilum. Two host-adapted C. serpentis genotypes were found in snakes and lizards...
  6. pmc Subtype analysis of Cryptosporidium specimens from sporadic cases in Colorado, Idaho, New Mexico, and Iowa in 2007: widespread occurrence of one Cryptosporidium hominis subtype and case history of an infection with the Cryptosporidium horse genotype
    Lihua Xiao
    Division of Parasitic Disease, National Center for Infectious Disease, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway, Atlanta, GA 30341 3717, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 47:3017-20. 2009
    ..One previously rare Cryptosporidium hominis subtype was identified in 40 cases (70%) from all four states, and the Cryptosporidium horse genotype was identified in a pet shop employee with severe clinical symptoms...
  7. ncbi request reprint Molecular epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis: an update
    Lihua Xiao
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector Borne and Enteric Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Bldg 22, Rm 14, 4770 Burford Highway, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Exp Parasitol 124:80-9. 2010
    ..The wide use of a new generation of genotyping and subtyping tools in well designed epidemiologic studies should lead to a more in-depth understanding of the epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis in humans and animals...
  8. pmc Cryptosporidium taxonomy: recent advances and implications for public health
    Lihua Xiao
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Chamblee, Georgia 30341, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 17:72-97. 2004
    ..assessing the public health significance of Cryptosporidium spp. in animals and the environment, characterizing transmission dynamics, and tracking infection and contamination sources...
  9. ncbi request reprint Distribution of Cryptosporidium parvum subtypes in calves in eastern United States
    Lihua Xiao
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Parasitol Res 100:701-6. 2007
    ....
  10. doi request reprint Zoonotic cryptosporidiosis
    Lihua Xiao
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector Borne, and Enteric Disease, Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 52:309-23. 2008
    ..in humans. The use of a new generation of molecular diagnostic tools is likely to produce a more complete picture of zoonotic cryptosporidiosis...
  11. pmc Possible transmission of Cryptosporidium canis among children and a dog in a household
    Lihua Xiao
    Division of Parasitic Disease, National Center for Infectious Disease, Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 3717, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 45:2014-6. 2007
    ..Both children had transient diarrhea, but the dog was asymptomatic. This is the first report of possible transmission of cryptosporidiosis between humans and dogs...
  12. pmc Detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in water: effect of the number of samples and analytic replicates on test results
    Lihua Xiao
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Building 22, Mail Stop F 12, 4770 Buford Highway, Atlanta, GA 30341 3717, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 72:5942-7. 2006
    ..Samples/subsamples with more than one genotype had an overall PCR-positive rate of 73%, compared to 34% for those with one genotype. The PCR amplification rate of samples was affected by the volume of DNA used in PCR...
  13. ncbi request reprint Cryptosporidiosis: an update in molecular epidemiology
    Lihua Xiao
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 17:483-90. 2004
    ..These tools have been increasingly used in the characterization of the transmission of Cryptosporidium spp. This review addresses the most recent developments in molecular epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis...
  14. pmc Prevalence and identity of Cryptosporidium spp. in pig slurry
    Lihua Xiao
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Mail Stop F12, 4770 Buford Highway, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 72:4461-3. 2006
    ..suis, Cryptosporidium pig genotype II, and C. muris. We concluded that Cryptosporidium oocysts can persist in treated slurry and potentially contaminate surface water through improper discharge or uncontrolled runoff...
  15. ncbi request reprint A molecular biologic study of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in HIV-infected patients in Lima, Peru
    Irshad M Sulaiman
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 50:591-6. 2003
    ..Thus, there is a high genetic diversity of E. bieneusi in humans in Peru, and zoonotic transmission is possible if humans are in close contact with infected animals...
  16. ncbi request reprint Wide geographic distribution of Cryptosporidium bovis and the deer-like genotype in bovines
    Yaoyu Feng
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Vet Parasitol 144:1-9. 2007
    ..Thus, both C. bovis and the deer-like genotype are found in all age groups of cattle in diverse geographic areas and host adaptation of C. bovis might have occurred in yaks...
  17. pmc Genotypes of Cryptosporidium species infecting fur-bearing mammals differ from those of species infecting humans
    Ling Zhou
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Building 22, Mail Stop F 12, 4770 Buford Highway, Atlanta, GA 30341 3717, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 70:7574-7. 2004
    ..Thus, fur-bearing mammals in watersheds excreted host-adapted Cryptosporidium oocysts that are not known to be of significant public health importance...
  18. ncbi request reprint Molecular characterization of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in cattle indicates that only some isolates have zoonotic potential
    Irshad M Sulaiman
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Parasitol Res 92:328-34. 2004
    ..bieneusi genotypes from humans and other domestic animals. Therefore, only some E. bieneusi isolates from cattle may be of public health importance...
  19. ncbi request reprint Host adaptation and host-parasite co-evolution in Cryptosporidium: implications for taxonomy and public health
    Lihua Xiao
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Mail Stop F 12, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U S PHS DHHS, 4770 Buford Highway, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Int J Parasitol 32:1773-85. 2002
    ..Understanding the evolution of Cryptosporidium species is important not only for clarification of the taxonomy of the parasites but also for assessment of the public health significance of Cryptosporidium parasites from animals...
  20. ncbi request reprint Development of a multilocus sequence typing tool for Cryptosporidium hominis
    Wangeci Gatei
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 53:S43-8. 2006
  21. ncbi request reprint Identification of a new microsporidian parasite related to Vittaforma corneae in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients from Portugal
    Irshad M Sulaiman
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 50:586-90. 2003
    ..Results of the study demonstrate the presence of a new human-pathogenic microsporidian species, which is responsible for significant number of infections in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients in Portugal...
  22. pmc Occurrence, source, and human infection potential of cryptosporidium and Giardia spp. in source and tap water in shanghai, china
    Yaoyu Feng
    State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, School of Resource and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China
    Appl Environ Microbiol 77:3609-16. 2011
    ....
  23. pmc Zoonotic Cryptosporidium species and Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes in HIV-positive patients on antiretroviral therapy
    Lin Wang
    State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China
    J Clin Microbiol 51:557-63. 2013
    ..Contact with animals was a risk factor for both cryptosporidiosis and microsporidiosis. The results suggest that zoonotic transmission was significant in the epidemiology of both diseases in rural AIDS patients in China...
  24. doi request reprint Prevalence and characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in dairy cattle in Nile River delta provinces, Egypt
    Said Amer
    Division of Foodborne, Waterborne and Environmental Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd, Atlanta, GA, USA Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Kafr El Sheikh University, Kafr El Sheikh 33516, Egypt
    Exp Parasitol 135:518-23. 2013
    ..The finding of the same two dominant IIa and IId C. parvum subtypes recently found in humans in Egypt suggests calves can be potential reservoirs of zoonotic cryptosporidiosis. ..
  25. ncbi request reprint Differences in clinical manifestations among Cryptosporidium species and subtypes in HIV-infected persons
    Vitaliano A Cama
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector Borne and Enteric Diseases, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    J Infect Dis 196:684-91. 2007
    ..parvum was associated with chronic diarrhea and vomiting. These results demonstrate that different Cryptosporidium genotypes and subtype families are linked to different clinical manifestations...
  26. ncbi request reprint Detection and differentiation of Cryptosporidium oocysts in water by PCR-RFLP
    Lihua Xiao
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Methods Mol Biol 268:163-76. 2004
    ..parvum contamination of surface water and the risk of cryptosporidiosis. Thus, identification of oocysts to species and genotype levels is of public health importance...
  27. ncbi request reprint Occurrence of human-pathogenic Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium genotypes in laboratory macaques in Guangxi, China
    Jianbin Ye
    State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Parasitol Int 63:132-7. 2014
    ..bieneusi could be transmitted efficiently in captive nonhuman primates, and group-housing was a risk factor for transmission of zoonotic pathogens in young nonhuman primates in research facilities. ..
  28. pmc Unique Cryptosporidium population in HIV-infected persons, Jamaica
    Wangeci Gatei
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 14:841-3. 2008
    ..hominis and C. felis. Multilocus sequence typing indicated the presence of a homogeneous but geographically distinct C. hominis population in Jamaica...
  29. ncbi request reprint The epidemiology of intestinal microsporidiosis in patients with HIV/AIDS in Lima, Peru
    Caryn Bern
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    J Infect Dis 191:1658-64. 2005
    ..0001), no ART (P<.0001), and cryptosporidiosis (P=.004) but not with microsporidiosis (P=.48). Our data suggest the possibility of zoonotic E. bieneusi transmission and an association with poor sanitary conditions...
  30. pmc Distribution of cryptosporidium genotypes in storm event water samples from three watersheds in New York
    Jianlin Jiang
    Division of Parasitic Disease, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Building 22, Mail Stop F 12, 4770 Buford Highway, Atlanta, GA 30341 3717, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 71:4446-54. 2005
    ..Results of this study demonstrate that molecular techniques can complement traditional detection methods by providing information on the source of contamination and the human-infective potential of Cryptosporidium oocysts found in water...
  31. ncbi request reprint Genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. in cattle in Michigan: implications for understanding the transmission dynamics
    Michael M Peng
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Parasitol Res 90:175-80. 2003
    ..The results of this study demonstrate the potential use of molecular methods in tracking the transmission of Cryptosporidium...
  32. pmc Transmission of Enterocytozoon bieneusi between a child and guinea pigs
    Vitaliano A Cama
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 45:2708-10. 2007
    ..The genetic uniqueness of the parasite, its wide occurrence in other guinea pigs in the community, and its absence in other children in the community suggest the possibility of zoonotic transmission of the infection to the study child...
  33. pmc Cryptosporidium genotypes in wildlife from a new york watershed
    Yaoyu Feng
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Building 22, Mail Stop F 12, 4770 Buford Highway, Atlanta, GA 30341 3717, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 73:6475-83. 2007
    ..With the exception of the cervine genotype, most genotypes were found in a limited number of animal species and have no major public health significance...
  34. ncbi request reprint Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in HIV-positive patients in Lima, Peru
    Vitaliano A Cama
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 50:531-3. 2003
    ..5%) were also found. These findings indicate that C. hominis is the predominant species in Peruvian HIV-positive persons, and that zoonotic Cryptosporidium spp. account for about 30% of cryptosporidiosis in these patients...
  35. pmc Three drinking-water-associated cryptosporidiosis outbreaks, Northern Ireland
    Scott Glaberman
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:631-3. 2002
    ..Subgenotyping analyses indicate that two predominant subgenotypes were associated with these outbreaks and had been circulating in the community...
  36. pmc Anthroponotic enteric parasites in monkeys in public park, China
    Jianbin Ye
    East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, People s Republic of China
    Emerg Infect Dis 18:1640-3. 2012
    ..Most genotypes and subtypes detected were anthroponotic, indicating these animals might be reservoirs for human cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis, and microsporidiosis...
  37. pmc Concurrent infections of Giardia duodenalis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, and Clostridium difficile in children during a cryptosporidiosis outbreak in a pediatric hospital in China
    Lin Wang
    State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, People s Republic of China
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7:e2437. 2013
    ..In this study, the concurrence during the outbreak of three other enteric pathogens with a similar transmission route, Giardia duodenalis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, and Clostridium difficile, was assessed...
  38. pmc Development of a multilocus sequence typing tool for high-resolution genotyping of Enterocytozoon bieneusi
    Yaoyu Feng
    State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, School of Resource and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China
    Appl Environ Microbiol 77:4822-8. 2011
    ..bieneusi. Data obtained in the study should also have implications for understanding the taxonomy of Enterocytozoon spp., the public health significance of E. bieneusi in animals, and the sources of human E. bieneusi infections...
  39. doi request reprint Molecular characterizations of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Enterocytozoon in humans in Kaduna State, Nigeria
    Beatty V Maikai
    Division of Foodborne, Waterborne and Environmental Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Exp Parasitol 131:452-6. 2012
    ..and G. duodenalis while zoonotic transmissions may also play a role in the transmission of E. bieneusi in humans in Kaduna State, Nigeria...
  40. pmc Unique endemicity of cryptosporidiosis in children in Kuwait
    Irshad M Sulaiman
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Building 22, Mail Stop F 12, 4770 Buford Highway, Atlanta, GA 30341 3717, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 43:2805-9. 2005
    ..Thus, the transmission of cryptosporidiosis in Kuwaiti children differed significantly from other tropical countries...
  41. ncbi request reprint Multilocus sequence typing and genetic structure of Cryptosporidium hominis from children in Kolkata, India
    Wangeci Gatei
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Infect Genet Evol 7:197-205. 2007
    ..The significance of the diverse MLST within C. hominis in relation to geographical and temporal factors and clinical manifestations of disease warrants further investigations...
  42. ncbi request reprint Molecular characterisation of species and genotypes of Cryptosporidium and Giardia and assessment of zoonotic transmission
    Lihua Xiao
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Int J Parasitol 38:1239-55. 2008
    ..As molecular data accumulate, our understanding of the role of zoonotic transmission in epidemiology and clinical manifestations is becoming clearer...
  43. pmc Detection of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in water sample concentrates by real-time PCR
    Wenli Yang
    National Center for Zoonotic, Vector Borne and Enteric Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 75:3477-83. 2009
    ..5 ml of packed pellets from water samples concentrated by Envirocheck filters. Thus, this real-time PCR may provide a detection method alternative to the traditional mouse assay and microscopy...
  44. pmc Cryptosporidium source tracking in the Potomac River watershed
    Wenli Yang
    National Center for Infectious Disease, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 3717, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 74:6495-504. 2008
    ..The genotyping results suggest that many of the Cryptosporidium oocysts in the water treatment plant source waters were from old calves and adult cattle and might not pose a significant risk to human health...
  45. pmc 90-kilodalton heat shock protein, Hsp90, as a target for genotyping Cryptosporidium spp. known to infect humans
    Yaoyu Feng
    School of Resource and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China
    Eukaryot Cell 8:478-82. 2009
    ..These data confirm the utility of the Hsp90 gene as a sensitive, specific, and robust molecular tool for differentiating species and/or genotypes of Cryptosporidium in clinical specimens...
  46. pmc Longitudinal analysis of cryptosporidium species-specific immunoglobulin G antibody responses in Peruvian children
    Jeffrey W Priest
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 13:123-31. 2006
    ..parvum antigens. Antibody responses were not associated with infections with either Cyclospora sp. or Giardia sp. We believe the antibody assays will be important tools for monitoring the success of future public health interventions...
  47. pmc Triosephosphate isomerase gene characterization and potential zoonotic transmission of Giardia duodenalis
    Irshad M Sulaiman
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341 3717, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 9:1444-52. 2003
    ..These data confirm that G. duodenalis from certain animals can potentially infect humans and should be useful in the detection, differentiation, and taxonomy of Giardia spp...
  48. pmc Development of a multilocus sequence tool for typing Cryptosporidium muris and Cryptosporidium andersoni
    Yaoyu Feng
    State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, School of Resource and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China
    J Clin Microbiol 49:34-41. 2011
    ..andersoni. Thus, an MLST technique was developed for the high-resolution typing of C. muris and C. andersoni. It should be useful for the characterization of the population genetics and transmission of gastric Cryptosporidium spp...
  49. pmc Development of procedures for direct extraction of Cryptosporidium DNA from water concentrates and for relief of PCR inhibitors
    Jianlin Jiang
    Division of Parasitic Disease, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Mail Stop F 12, 4770 Buford Hwy, Atlanta, GA 30341 3717, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 71:1135-41. 2005
    ....
  50. ncbi request reprint PCR-mediated recombination between Cryptosporidium spp. of lizards and snakes
    Ling Zhou
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 50:563-5. 2003
    ..serpentis, C. saurophilum and the unnamed Cryptosporidium sp. Thus, care should be taken to eliminate PCR artifacts when determining the presence of genetic recombination or interpreting results of population genetic studies...
  51. ncbi request reprint Molecular characterization of the Cryptosporidium parvum IOWA isolate kept in different laboratories
    Vitaliano A Cama
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 53:S40-2. 2006
  52. pmc Distribution of Giardia duodenalis genotypes and subgenotypes in raw urban wastewater in Milwaukee, Wisconsin
    Irshad M Sulaiman
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U S Public Health Service, U S Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA 30341 3717, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 70:3776-80. 2004
    ..A high degree of genetic polymorphism was evident within the assemblage B cluster, with 10 distinct subgenotypes identified, eight of which have not been reported before...
  53. ncbi request reprint Population genetic characterisation of dominant Cryptosporidium parvum subtype IIaA15G2R1
    Yaoyu Feng
    State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China Electronic address
    Int J Parasitol 43:1141-7. 2013
    ..Thus, the IIaA15G2R1 subtype at gp60 is likely a fitness marker for C. parvum and the wide spread of IIaA15G2R1 subtype around the world is probably independent of the sequence characteristics at other genetic loci...
  54. ncbi request reprint High intragenotypic diversity of Giardia duodenalis in dairy cattle on three farms
    Yaoyu Feng
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Parasitol Res 103:87-92. 2008
    ..The zoonotic potential of bovine G. duodenalis needs to be further studied by extensive characterization of assemblage A specimens at the subtype level...
  55. ncbi request reprint Periparturient transmission of Cryptosporidium xiaoi from ewes to lambs
    Jianbin Ye
    State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Vet Parasitol 197:627-33. 2013
    ..parvum (of the IIaA15G2R1 subtype), was only found in one lamb. These data support the occurrence of periparturient transmission of Cryptosporidium spp., especially C. xiaoi, from ewes to lambs...
  56. pmc Cyclospora papionis, Cryptosporidium hominis, and human-pathogenic Enterocytozoon bieneusi in captive baboons in Kenya
    Wei Li
    Division of Foodborne, Waterborne and Environmental Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Building 23, Mail Stop D 66, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 49:4326-9. 2011
    ..Most C. hominis subtypes and E. bieneusi genotypes found have been detected in humans in the area, suggesting that cross-species transmission of cryptosporidiosis and microsporidiosis is possible...
  57. pmc Extended outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in a pediatric hospital, China
    Yaoyu Feng
    East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, People s Republic of China
    Emerg Infect Dis 18:312-4. 2012
    ..A cryptosporidiosis outbreak was identified retrospectively. The outbreak lasted >1 year and affected 51.4% of patients in 1 hospital ward, where 2 C. hominis subtypes with different virulence were found...
  58. ncbi request reprint Population genetics of Cryptosporidium meleagridis in humans and birds: evidence for cross-species transmission
    Yuanfei Wang
    State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China
    Int J Parasitol 44:515-21. 2014
    ..We believe that these results provide the first evidence of a clonal population structure of C. meleagridis and the likely occurrence of cross-species transmission of C. meleagridis between birds and humans...
  59. ncbi request reprint Epidemiologic and environmental investigation of a recreational water outbreak caused by two genotypes of Cryptosporidium parvum in Ohio in 2000
    Els Mathieu
    Epidemic Intelligence Service, Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center of Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway, Atlanta, GA 30341 3724, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 71:582-9. 2004
    ..parvum genotypes (human and bovine), underscores the need for concerted action to improve public health policies for recreational water facilities and enhanced education regarding the potential for disease transmission through pools...
  60. doi request reprint Population genetic analysis of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in humans
    Wei Li
    Division of Foodborne, Waterborne and Environmental Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Int J Parasitol 42:287-93. 2012
    ..The formation of the two sub-populations was confirmed by STRUCTURE and Wright's fixation index (FST) analyses. The data highlight the power of MLST in understanding the epidemiology of E. bieneusi...
  61. ncbi request reprint An evaluation of molecular diagnostic tools for the detection and differentiation of human-pathogenic Cryptosporidium spp
    Jianlin Jiang
    Division of Parasitic Disease, National Center for Infectious Disease, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 50:542-7. 2003
    ..Thus, a thorough understanding of the strength and weakness of each technique is needed when using molecular diagnostic tool in epidemiological investigations of human cryptosporidiosis...
  62. doi request reprint Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in native breeds of cattle in Kaduna State, Nigeria
    Beatty V Maikai
    Division of Foodborne, Waterborne and Environmental Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Vet Parasitol 178:241-5. 2011
    ..bovis and C. ryanae (p=0.022). The absence of zoonotic Cryptosporidium parvum in the calves studied suggests that native breeds of cattle may not be important in the transmission of human cryptosporidiosis in Kaduna State, Nigeria...
  63. doi request reprint Identity and public health potential of Cryptosporidium spp. in water buffalo calves in Egypt
    Said Amer
    Division of Foodborne, Waterborne and Environmental Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Vet Parasitol 191:123-7. 2013
    ..The prevailing occurrence of C. ryanae and the subtype family IId of C. parvum and the absence of C. bovis and C. andersoni represent some features of Cryptosporidium transmission in water buffaloes in Egypt...
  64. ncbi request reprint Enhanced expression of a recombinant malaria candidate vaccine in Escherichia coli by codon optimization
    Zhiyong Zhou
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway, Chamblee, GA 30341, USA
    Protein Expr Purif 34:87-94. 2004
    ..Thus, codon optimization significantly increases the yield of P. falciparum candidate vaccines in the E. coli expression system...
  65. ncbi request reprint Development, characterization and immunogenicity of a multi-stage, multi-valent Plasmodium falciparum vaccine antigen (FALVAC-1A) expressed in Escherichia coli
    Zhiyong Zhou
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Hum Vaccin 2:14-23. 2006
    ..falciparum parasites as demonstrated by inhibition of sporozoite invasion, antibody dependent cellular inhibition and the immunofluorescence assay...
  66. ncbi request reprint Molecular epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis in children in Malawi
    Michael M Peng
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 50:557-9. 2003
    ..The high intraspecific variation and existence of genetic recombination were probably results of high transmission of cryptosporidiosis in this area...
  67. doi request reprint Multilocus sequence typing of Enterocytozoon bieneusi: Lack of geographic segregation and existence of genetically isolated sub-populations
    Wei Li
    Division of Foodborne, Waterborne and Environmental Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Infect Genet Evol 14:111-9. 2013
    ..The data confirmed the existence of genetic sub-populations in E. bieneusi that may be transmitted differently in humans...
  68. pmc Molecular surveillance of Cryptosporidium spp. in raw wastewater in Milwaukee: implications for understanding outbreak occurrence and transmission dynamics
    Ling Zhou
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 41:5254-7. 2003
    ....
  69. ncbi request reprint Genetic variations in the internal transcribed spacer and mitochondrial small subunit rRNA gene of Naegleria spp
    Ling Zhou
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 50:522-6. 2003
    ..These data should be useful in the development of molecular tools for rapid species differentiation and genotyping of Naegleria spp...
  70. ncbi request reprint Molecular phylogeny and evolutionary relationships of Cryptosporidium parasites at the actin locus
    Irshad M Sulaiman
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U S Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    J Parasitol 88:388-94. 2002
    ..andersoni, C. muris, and C. serpentis formed the first major group, whereas isolates of all other species, as well as various C. parvum genotypes, formed the second major group. Intragenotype variations were low or absent at this locus...
  71. ncbi request reprint Characterization of a Cryptosporidium parvum gene encoding a protein with homology to long chain fatty acid synthetase
    Leonardo Camero
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Chamblee, GA 30341, USA
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 50:534-8. 2003
    ..These results suggest that the fatty acyl-CoA synthetase may be a useful target in the development of selective inhibitors and immunologic interventions against C. parvum...
  72. pmc Detection and differentiation of Cryptosporidium parasites that are pathogenic for humans by real-time PCR
    Josef R Limor
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Public Health Service, U S Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 40:2335-8. 2002
    ..We evaluated and validated the test using samples from presently known Cryptosporidium parasites that are pathogenic for humans. This technique provides an alternative molecular tool in epidemiologic studies of human cryptosporidiosis...
  73. ncbi request reprint Outbreak of cryptosporidiosis associated with a man-made chlorinated lake--Tarrant County, Texas, 2008
    Paul T Cantey
    Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Center for Global Health Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Environ Health 75:14-9. 2012
    ..This same collaborative effort will be needed to develop and maintain an effective national Model Aquatic Health Code...
  74. pmc Molecular characterization of microsporidia indicates that wild mammals Harbor host-adapted Enterocytozoon spp. as well as human-pathogenic Enterocytozoon bieneusi
    Irshad M Sulaiman
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 69:4495-501. 2003
    ..However, there are also host-adapted Enterocytozoon genotypes in wildlife, which may represent species different from E. bieneusi and have no apparent public health significance. This is the first report of E. bieneusi in wildlife...
  75. pmc Host-adapted Cryptosporidium spp. in Canada geese (Branta canadensis)
    Ling Zhou
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Building 22, Mail Stop F 12, 4770 Buford Highway, Atlanta, GA 30341 3717, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 70:4211-5. 2004
    ..hominis. The results of this study indicate that Canada geese might only serve as accidental carriers of cryptosporidia infectious to humans and probably play a minor role in the animal-to-human transmission cycle of the pathogen...
  76. pmc Cryptosporidiosis associated with ozonated apple cider
    Brian G Blackburn
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 12:684-6. 2006
    ..Because ozonation was insufficient in preventing this outbreak, its use in rendering apple cider safe for drinking is questioned...
  77. pmc Comment on zoonoses in the bedroom
    Susan P Montgomery
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 17:1340. 2011
    ..The bloodborne protozoan that causes Chagas disease is transmitted not by contact with an infected mammal but by contact with a vector insect that has bitten an infected mammal (2)...
  78. ncbi request reprint Adjuvants and malaria vaccine development
    Lihua Xiao
    Molecular Vaccine Section, Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Centers for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Chem Immunol 80:343-65. 2002
  79. ncbi request reprint Cryptosporidiosis associated with animal contacts
    Mirjana Stantic-Pavlinic
    Institute of Public Health of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia
    Wien Klin Wochenschr 115:125-7. 2003
    ..These data indicate that genetic heterogeneity in C. parvum bovine genotype exists in a localized area and that farm animals can be a source of infection...
  80. ncbi request reprint Cryptosporidium hominis n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) from Homo sapiens
    Una M Morgan-Ryan
    Division of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia 6150
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 49:433-40. 2002
    ..Based on biological and molecular data, this Cryptosporidium infecting the intestine of humans is proposed to be a new species Cryptosporidium hominis n. sp...
  81. pmc Molecular and biological characterization of a Cryptosporidium molnari-like isolate from a guppy (Poecilia reticulata)
    Una Ryan
    Division of Health Sciences, School of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia 6150, Australia
    Appl Environ Microbiol 70:3761-5. 2004
    ..molnari and revealed that C. molnari is genetically very distinct from all other species of Cryptosporidium. This study represents the first genetic characterization of C. molnari...
  82. ncbi request reprint Identification of the cryptosporidium pig genotype in a human patient
    Lihua Xiao
    J Infect Dis 185:1846-8. 2002
  83. ncbi request reprint Genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in mammals in Portugal
    Maria L Lobo
    Unidade de Protozoários Oportunistas VIH e Outras Protozooses, UPMM, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, 96, 1349 008 Lisboa, Portugal
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 53:S61-4. 2006
  84. ncbi request reprint Genotypes and subtypes of Cryptosporidium spp. in neonatal calves in Northern Ireland
    Heather P Thompson
    School of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Life and Health Sciences, University of Ulster, Coleraine, Northern Ireland, UK
    Parasitol Res 100:619-24. 2007
    ..This work demonstrates the utility of genotyping and subtyping tools in characterizing the transmission of Cryptosporidium spp. in calves and humans...
  85. ncbi request reprint Prevalence and age-related variation of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in dairy calves
    Monica Santin
    Environmental Microbial Safety Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Building 173, BARC East, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    Vet Parasitol 122:103-17. 2004
    ..This finding also indicates that persons handling or otherwise exposed to calves under 2 months of age are at greater risk of zoonotic infection from Cryptosporidium than the risk of infection from exposure to older calves...
  86. pmc Cryptosporidium muris, a rodent pathogen, recovered from a human in Perú
    Carol J Palmer
    University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 9:1174-6. 2003
    ..We report the first case of C. muris in a human in the Western Hemisphere. This species may be an emerging zoonotic pathogen capable of infecting humans...
  87. ncbi request reprint Specific and genotypic identification of Cryptosporidium from a broad range of host species by nonisotopic SSCP analysis of nuclear ribosomal DNA
    Aaron R Jex
    Department of Veterinary Science, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Electrophoresis 28:2818-25. 2007
    ..Although applied herein to pSSU, this low cost approach should be applicable to a wide range of genetic loci for population genetic investigations of Cryptosporidium...
  88. pmc Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. from children in Kolkata, India
    Pradeep Das
    Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Agam Kuan, Patna 800 007, India
    J Clin Microbiol 44:4246-9. 2006
    ..hominis, 4 were positive for C. parvum, and 1 was positive for C. felis. This study clearly suggests that cryptosporidiosis in this region is caused largely by anthroponotic transmission...
  89. ncbi request reprint Molecular characterization of the Cryptosporidium cervine genotype from a sika deer (Cervus nippon Temminck) in Zhengzhou, China and literature review
    Rongjun Wang
    The College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, 450002, People s Republic of China
    Parasitol Res 103:865-9. 2008
    ..1-99.8%, 9.8%, 99.7%, and 100% at the 18S rRNA, HSP70, actin, and COWP loci, respectively. This study is the first report of Cryptosporidium infection in sika deer in China...
  90. ncbi request reprint Distribution of Cryptosporidium subtypes in humans and domestic and wild ruminants in Portugal
    Margarida Alves
    Unidade de Protozoários Oportunistas VIH e Outras Protozooses, Unidade de Parasitologia e Microbiologia Médicas UPMM, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Rua da Junqueira, 96, 1349 008, Lisboa, Portugal
    Parasitol Res 99:287-92. 2006
    ..The high overall parasite diversity and high percentage of C. hominis infections attributable to Ib and C. parvum infections to IId represent unique characteristics of Cryptosporidium transmission in humans in Portugal...
  91. ncbi request reprint Cryptosporidium bovis n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) in cattle (Bos taurus)
    Ronald Fayer
    Environmental Microbial Safety Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA
    J Parasitol 91:624-9. 2005
    ..Based on these biological and molecular data, we consider this highly prevalent Cryptosporidium that infects primarily postweaned calves to be a new species and propose the name Cryptosporidium bovis n. sp. for this parasite...
  92. ncbi request reprint Infectivity, pathogenicity, and genetic characteristics of mammalian gastric Cryptosporidium spp. in domestic ruminants
    Martin Kvac
    Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic
    Vet Parasitol 153:363-7. 2008
    ..Histopathological changes were characterized by dilatation and epithelial metaplasia of infected gastric glands with no significant inflammatory responses in the lamina propria...
  93. ncbi request reprint Direct comparison of selected methods for genetic categorisation of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis species
    Rachel M Chalmers
    Cryptosporidium Reference Unit, NPHS Microbiology Swansea, Singleton Hospital, Swansea SA2 8QA, UK
    Int J Parasitol 35:397-410. 2005
    ....
  94. doi request reprint Cryptosporidium fayeri n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) from the Red Kangaroo (Macropus rufus)
    Una M Ryan
    School of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Division of Health Sciences, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Perth, WA 6150, Australia
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 55:22-6. 2008
    ..64%-97.88% similarity) from C. parvum. Based on biological and molecular data, this Cryptosporidium infecting marsupials is proposed to be a new species Cryptosporidium fayeri n. sp...
  95. pmc Identification of novel Cryptosporidium genotypes from the Czech Republic
    Una Ryan
    Division of Health Sciences, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia 6150, Australia
    Appl Environ Microbiol 69:4302-7. 2003
    ..Analysis expanded the host range of accepted species and identified several novel genotypes, including horse, Eurasian woodcock, rabbit, and cervid genotypes...
  96. doi request reprint Multilocus phylogenetic analysis of Cryptosporidium andersoni (Apicomplexa) isolated from a bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) in China
    Rongjun Wang
    The College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, The People s Republic of China
    Parasitol Res 102:915-20. 2008
    ..Thus, the C. andersoni isolates from the bactrian camel were biologically similar to most bovine C. andersoni isolates characterized so far, but are different from bovine isolates from Japan...
  97. pmc Subgenotype analysis of Cryptosporidium isolates from humans, cattle, and zoo ruminants in Portugal
    Margarida Alves
    Unidade de Protozoários Oportunistas VIH e Outras Protozooses, Unidade de Parasitologia e Microbiologia Médicas UPMM, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 1349 008 Lisbon, Portugal
    J Clin Microbiol 41:2744-7. 2003
    ..One new allele was found (IId), and one (IIb) had only been found in Portugal. Isolates from cattle and wild ruminants clustered in two alleles. In contrast, human isolates clustered in seven alleles, showing extensive allelic diversity...
  98. pmc The population structure of the Cryptosporidium parvum population in Scotland: a complex picture
    Liam J Morrison
    Wellcome Centre for Molecular Parasitology, University of Glasgow, Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre, 120 University Place, Glasgow G12 8TA, UK
    Infect Genet Evol 8:121-9. 2008
    ..Thus, the population structure of C. parvum is complex, with sub-populations differing in structure and being influenced by host movements, including the introduction of novel multilocus genotypes from geographically distinct regions...
  99. ncbi request reprint Occurrence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in mammals and reptiles at the Lisbon Zoo
    Margarida Alves
    Unidade de Protozoários Oportunistas VIH e Outras Protozooses, Unidade de Parasitologia e Microbiologia Médicas UPMM, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Rua da Junqueira n 96, 1349 008, Lisboa, Portugal
    Parasitol Res 97:108-12. 2005
    ..The present work reports a new Cryptosporidium genotype in a black wildebeest and the first finding of the Cryptosporidium mouse genotype in a ruminant...