Cynthia G Whitney

Summary

Affiliation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint The potential of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines for children
    Cynthia G Whitney
    Respiratory Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 21:961-70. 2002
  2. ncbi request reprint Effectiveness of seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against invasive pneumococcal disease: a matched case-control study
    Cynthia G Whitney
    Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Lancet 368:1495-502. 2006
  3. ncbi request reprint Lower respiratory tract infections: prevention using vaccines
    Cynthia G Whitney
    Epidemiology Group, Respiratory Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE Mailstop C23, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Infect Dis Clin North Am 18:899-917. 2004
  4. ncbi request reprint Decline in invasive pneumococcal disease after the introduction of protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccine
    Cynthia G Whitney
    Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    N Engl J Med 348:1737-46. 2003
  5. doi request reprint Risk factors for invasive pneumococcal disease in children in the era of conjugate vaccine use
    Tamar Pilishvili
    Division of Bacterial Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Pediatrics 126:e9-17. 2010
  6. ncbi request reprint Effect of introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae
    Moe H Kyaw
    Respiratory Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA
    N Engl J Med 354:1455-63. 2006
  7. doi request reprint Sustained reductions in invasive pneumococcal disease in the era of conjugate vaccine
    Tamara Pilishvili
    Division of Bacterial Diseases and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    J Infect Dis 201:32-41. 2010
  8. doi request reprint Population snapshot of emergent Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A in the United States, 2005
    Matthew R Moore
    Respiratory Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    J Infect Dis 197:1016-27. 2008
  9. ncbi request reprint Delivering pneumococcal vaccine to a high risk population: the Navajo experience
    Andrea L Benin
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Hum Vaccin 1:66-9. 2005
  10. ncbi request reprint Incidence of pneumococcal disease due to non-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) serotypes in the United States during the era of widespread PCV7 vaccination, 1998-2004
    Lauri A Hicks
    Respiratory Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Infect Dis 196:1346-54. 2007

Detail Information

Publications91

  1. ncbi request reprint The potential of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines for children
    Cynthia G Whitney
    Respiratory Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 21:961-70. 2002
    ..Monitoring disease burden after widespread use in the US is critical for understanding the effects of the vaccine. In addition making pneumococcal vaccines available for children in developing countries should be a high priority...
  2. ncbi request reprint Effectiveness of seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against invasive pneumococcal disease: a matched case-control study
    Cynthia G Whitney
    Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Lancet 368:1495-502. 2006
    ..Our aim was to assess the effectiveness of the vaccine against various pneumococcal serotypes, and to measure the effectiveness of the recommended dose schedule and of catch-up and incomplete schedules...
  3. ncbi request reprint Lower respiratory tract infections: prevention using vaccines
    Cynthia G Whitney
    Epidemiology Group, Respiratory Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE Mailstop C23, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Infect Dis Clin North Am 18:899-917. 2004
    ..While research for new and improved vaccines to prevent lower respiratory tract infections continues,focusing on simple measures for increasing vaccine use can help prevent morbidity and mortality now...
  4. ncbi request reprint Decline in invasive pneumococcal disease after the introduction of protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccine
    Cynthia G Whitney
    Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    N Engl J Med 348:1737-46. 2003
    ..In early 2000, a protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccine targeting seven pneumococcal serotypes was licensed in the United States for use in young children...
  5. doi request reprint Risk factors for invasive pneumococcal disease in children in the era of conjugate vaccine use
    Tamar Pilishvili
    Division of Bacterial Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Pediatrics 126:e9-17. 2010
    ..We conducted a case-control study to evaluate risk factors for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children who were aged 3 to 59 months in the era of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7)...
  6. ncbi request reprint Effect of introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae
    Moe H Kyaw
    Respiratory Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA
    N Engl J Med 354:1455-63. 2006
    ..We examined the effect of this vaccine on invasive disease caused by resistant strains...
  7. doi request reprint Sustained reductions in invasive pneumococcal disease in the era of conjugate vaccine
    Tamara Pilishvili
    Division of Bacterial Diseases and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    J Infect Dis 201:32-41. 2010
    ..Changes in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) incidence were evaluated after 7 years of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) use in US children...
  8. doi request reprint Population snapshot of emergent Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A in the United States, 2005
    Matthew R Moore
    Respiratory Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    J Infect Dis 197:1016-27. 2008
    ..To understand this increase, we characterized serotype 19A isolates recovered during 2005...
  9. ncbi request reprint Delivering pneumococcal vaccine to a high risk population: the Navajo experience
    Andrea L Benin
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Hum Vaccin 1:66-9. 2005
    ....
  10. ncbi request reprint Incidence of pneumococcal disease due to non-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) serotypes in the United States during the era of widespread PCV7 vaccination, 1998-2004
    Lauri A Hicks
    Respiratory Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Infect Dis 196:1346-54. 2007
    ..The benefits may be offset by increases in disease due to serotypes not included in the vaccine (hereafter, "nonvaccine serotypes"). We evaluated the effect of PCV7 on incidence of disease due to nonvaccine serotypes...
  11. pmc Emergence of Streptococcus pneumoniae with very-high-level resistance to penicillin
    Stephanie J Schrag
    Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:3016-23. 2004
    ..The emergence, clonality, and association of very-high-level penicillin resistance with multiple drug resistance requires further monitoring and highlights the need for novel agents active against the pneumococcus...
  12. ncbi request reprint Impact of childhood vaccination on racial disparities in invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae infections
    Brendan Flannery
    Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    JAMA 291:2197-203. 2004
    ....
  13. pmc Pre- and postvaccination clonal compositions of invasive pneumococcal serotypes for isolates collected in the United States in 1999, 2001, and 2002
    Bernard Beall
    Repsiratory Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd, NE, Mailstop C02, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 44:999-1017. 2006
    ..Continued genotypic surveillance is warranted, since certain clones not targeted by PCV7 are expanding, and their emergence as significant pathogens could occur with maintained vaccine pressure...
  14. pmc Clonal distribution of invasive pneumococcal isolates from children and selected adults in the United States prior to 7-valent conjugate vaccine introduction
    Robert E Gertz
    Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 41:4194-216. 2003
    ..In this work, we established the basic genetic structure within individual serotypes prior to PC7V use. The resultant database will be useful for detecting potential selective effects of this vaccine in postvaccine surveillance...
  15. doi request reprint Bacterial meningitis in the United States, 1998-2007
    Michael C Thigpen
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA
    N Engl J Med 364:2016-25. 2011
    ..More recent prevention measures such as the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and universal screening of pregnant women for group B streptococcus (GBS) have further changed the epidemiology of bacterial meningitis...
  16. pmc Socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in the incidence of bacteremic pneumonia among US adults
    Deron C Burton
    Respiratory Diseases Branch, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Am J Public Health 100:1904-11. 2010
    ..We examined associations between the socioeconomic characteristics of census tracts and racial/ethnic disparities in the incidence of bacteremic community-acquired pneumonia among US adults...
  17. ncbi request reprint Changes in invasive Pneumococcal disease among HIV-infected adults living in the era of childhood pneumococcal immunization
    Brendan Flannery
    National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Ann Intern Med 144:1-9. 2006
    ..Adults infected with HIV have high rates of invasive pneumococcal disease. Introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for children could affect disease among HIV-infected adults...
  18. pmc Levofloxacin-resistant invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae in the United States: evidence for clonal spread and the impact of conjugate pneumococcal vaccine
    Mathias W R Pletz
    Department of International Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, 1518 Clifton Rd, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:3491-7. 2004
    ..Our results suggest that invasive pneumococcal isolates resistant to levofloxacin in the United States show considerable evidence of multiple resistance and of clonal spread...
  19. ncbi request reprint Incidence of macrolide resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae after introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: population-based assessment
    David S Stephens
    Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Lancet 365:855-63. 2005
    ..We assessed emergence of macrolide-resistant invasive S pneumoniae disease in Atlanta, GA, USA, before and after the licensing, in February 2000, of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for young children...
  20. ncbi request reprint Adults with invasive pneumococcal disease: missed opportunities for vaccination
    Moe H Kyaw
    Respiratory Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Am J Prev Med 31:286-92. 2006
    ..Missed opportunities for vaccination were defined as one or more visits to a hospital, emergency room (ER), or main provider in the 2 years before infection among unvaccinated, adult IPD case-patients with a vaccine indication...
  21. ncbi request reprint Postvaccine genetic structure of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A from children in the United States
    Rekha Pai
    Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Respiratory Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Infect Dis 192:1988-95. 2005
    ..We estimated the rate of increase of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) caused by serotype 19A in children <5 years old and determined the genetic composition of these isolates...
  22. pmc In vitro evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of ceftaroline against cephalosporin-resistant isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae
    Lesley McGee
    Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:552-6. 2009
    ..pneumoniae strains resistant to existing parenteral cephalosporins and support its continued development for the treatment of infections caused by resistant S. pneumoniae strains...
  23. pmc Clonal association between Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 23A, circulating within the United States, and an internationally dispersed clone of serotype 23F
    Rekha Pai
    CDC Respiratory Diseases Branch, Mailstop C02, 1600 Clifton Rd, NE, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 43:5440-4. 2005
    ..The emergence of such new serotype and genotype associations highlights the dynamic nature of the pneumococcal population, necessitating continuous monitoring in the post-vaccine era...
  24. ncbi request reprint Increased prevalence of pediatric pneumococcal serotypes in elderly adults
    Daniel R Feikin
    Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Disease, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 41:481-7. 2005
    ..Pneumococcal disease is most prevalent among young children and elderly adults. We explored whether similarities exist in the serotypes that cause disease in these 2 high-risk groups...
  25. pmc Interspecies recombination in type II topoisomerase genes is not a major cause of fluoroquinolone resistance in invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in the United States
    Mathias W R Pletz
    Department of International Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, 1518 Clifton Rd, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:779-80. 2005
    ..We analyzed the nucleotide sequences of the quinolone resistance-determining regions of 49 invasive levofloxacin-resistant pneumococcal isolates and did not find any evidence for interspecies recombination...
  26. doi request reprint Invasive pneumococcal infections among vaccinated children in the United States
    Sarah Y Park
    Office of Workforce and Career Development, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    J Pediatr 156:478-483.e2. 2010
    ..We characterized a case series of US children in whom invasive pneumococcal infections developed despite vaccination...
  27. ncbi request reprint Herd immunity and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: a quantitative model
    Michael Haber
    Department of Biostatistics, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Vaccine 25:5390-8. 2007
    ..Because the model was based on incidence rates and PCV7 coverage in Atlanta, our findings should be validated in other geographic areas...
  28. doi request reprint Methods for a systematic review of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine dosing schedules
    Jennifer D Loo
    From the Respiratory Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial Diseases, National Center for Immunizations and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA International Vaccine Access Center, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD Epidemic Intelligence Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA Westat Inc, Rockville, MD Biostatistics Consulting, Chicago, IL and Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 33:S182-7. 2014
    ..As more lower income countries make decisions to introduce PCV into their national immunization programs, an optimal schedule with which to administer PCV has become a key policy question...
  29. ncbi request reprint Could a single dose of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children be effective? Modeling the optimal age of vaccination
    Ezra J Barzilay
    Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Vaccine 24:904-13. 2006
    ..IPD reduction ranged from 15 to 62%, depending on model parameters. A single PCV dose in infants could prevent substantial IPD...
  30. pmc Shifting genetic structure of invasive serotype 19A pneumococci in the United States
    Bernard W Beall
    Respiratory Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    J Infect Dis 203:1360-8. 2011
    ..7% to 43.7%). To better understand changes, we characterized sero19A isolates recovered during 2004-2008...
  31. doi request reprint Outbreak of late-onset group B Streptococcus in a neonatal intensive care unit
    Jennifer K MacFarquhar
    Epidemic Intelligence Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Am J Infect Control 38:283-8. 2010
    ..In September 2007, the Tennessee Department of Health was notified of a cluster of late-onset group B streptococcal (GBS) infections in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Outbreaks of late-onset GBS are rare...
  32. pmc PCR-based quantitation and clonal diversity of the current prevalent invasive serogroup 6 pneumococcal serotype, 6C, in the United States in 1999 and 2006 to 2007
    Maria Da Gloria Carvalho
    Respiratory Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 47:554-9. 2009
    ..Fifteen 6C isolates shared one of four different MLST types with 6C-negative CS6As. MLST results suggest 6C strains arose from independent recombination events involving only serotype 6A and 6C parental strains...
  33. ncbi request reprint Invasive pneumococcal disease among Navajo adults, 1989-1998
    James P Watt
    Respiratory Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 38:496-501. 2004
    ..Navajo adults have rates of IPD that are 3-5-fold higher than those of the general US population. Additional research is needed to understand the reasons for this elevated risk and to develop prevention strategies...
  34. pmc Prevalence of first-step mutants among levofloxacin-susceptible invasive isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the United States
    Mathias W R Pletz
    Hubert Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:1561-3. 2006
    ..Among those with a levofloxacin MIC of 2 mg/liter, 16.2% of isolates recovered from nursing home residents and 6.4% from non-nursing home residents had first-step mutations...
  35. doi request reprint The differential impact of coadministered vaccines, geographic region, vaccine product and other covariates on pneumococcal conjugate vaccine immunogenicity
    Daniel E Park
    From the International Vaccine Access Center, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD Biostatistics Consulting, Chicago, IL Respiratory Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial Diseases, National Center for Immunizations and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA Epidemic Intelligence Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA and Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 33:S130-9. 2014
    ..We aimed to systematically assess local setting factors, beyond dosing schedule, which may affect PCV antibody levels...
  36. doi request reprint Systematic review of the effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine dosing schedules on prevention of pneumonia
    Jennifer D Loo
    From the Respiratory Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial Diseases, National Center for Immunizations and Respiratory Diseases Epidemic Intelligence Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA International Vaccine Access Center, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD Westat Inc, Rockville, MD and Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 33:S140-51. 2014
    ..Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are known to provide protection against vaccine serotype pneumococcal pneumonia; uncertainty exists regarding the optimum PCV dosing schedule...
  37. doi request reprint Systematic review of the indirect effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine dosing schedules on pneumococcal disease and colonization
    Jennifer D Loo
    From the Respiratory Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial Diseases, National Center for Immunizations and Respiratory Diseases Epidemic Intelligence Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA International Vaccine Access Center, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore Westat Inc, Rockville, MD and Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 33:S161-71. 2014
    ..To aid decision making for pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) use in infant national immunization programs, we summarized the indirect effects of PCV on clinical outcomes among nontargeted age groups...
  38. ncbi request reprint Association between antimicrobial resistance among pneumococcal isolates and burden of invasive pneumococcal disease in the community
    Julia Y Morita
    Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Centers for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 35:420-7. 2002
    ..The proportion of multidrug-resistant pneumococcal isolates did not predict invasive cases among adults. The increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant pneumococci among children may be leading to an increase in invasive disease...
  39. ncbi request reprint Persistence of fluoroquinolone-resistant, multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in a long-term-care facility: efforts to reduce intrafacility transmission
    Alicia M Fry
    espiratory Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 26:239-47. 2005
    ..We describe an effort to reduce transmission of a multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (MDRSP) in a long-term-care facility (LTCF)...
  40. pmc Revisiting pneumococcal carriage by use of broth enrichment and PCR techniques for enhanced detection of carriage and serotypes
    Maria da Gloria Carvalho
    Streptococcus Laboratory, Respiratory Disease Branch, Division of Bacterial Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd, NE, Mailstop C02, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 48:1611-8. 2010
    ..A PCR-based approach that employed a broth enrichment step appeared to best enhance the detection of mixed serotypes and low-density pneumococcal carriage...
  41. ncbi request reprint An in vitro model to assess pneumococcal adherence to nasopharyngeal cells under competition conditions
    Gowrisankar Rajam
    Division of Bacterial Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    J Microbiol Methods 70:219-26. 2007
    ..This model may be used to identify Pnc strains of a given serotype with competitive potentials for replacement of VS in the nasopharynx and to screen Pnc strains for animal colonization models...
  42. doi request reprint Systematic review of the effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine dosing schedules on vaccine-type nasopharyngeal carriage
    Katherine E Fleming-Dutra
    From the Epidemic Intelligence Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA Respiratory Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial Diseases, National Center for Immunizations and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA International Vaccine Access Center, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD Westat Inc, Rockville, MD and Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 33:S152-60. 2014
    ..Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) reduce nasopharyngeal carriage of vaccine type (VT) pneumococci, an important driver of vaccine programs' overall benefits. The dosing schedule that best reduces carriage is unclear...
  43. pmc Immunoblot method to detect Streptococcus pneumoniae and identify multiple serotypes from nasopharyngeal secretions
    Melinda A Bronsdon
    Respiratory Diseases Branch, National Center for Infectious Disease, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 42:1596-600. 2004
    ..The IB method identified multiple clones and minor populations of pneumococci in NP secretions. This method is useful for detecting specific serotypes and carriage of multiple serotypes in epidemiologic surveillance and carriage studies...
  44. ncbi request reprint Preventability of invasive pneumococcal disease and assessment of current polysaccharide vaccine recommendations for adults: United States, 2001-2003
    Carolyn M Greene
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 43:141-50. 2006
    ..Our objectives were to determine the proportion of IPD cases that might have been prevented if all persons with vaccine indications had been vaccinated and to evaluate new indications...
  45. doi request reprint Systematic review of the effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine dosing schedules on immunogenicity
    Maria Deloria Knoll
    From the International Vaccine Access Center, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD Biostatistics Consulting, Chicago, IL Respiratory Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial Diseases, National Center for Immunizations and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA Epidemic Intelligence Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 33:S119-29. 2014
    ..Despite the breadth of studies demonstrating benefits of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), uncertainty remains regarding the optimal PCV dosing schedule in infants...
  46. ncbi request reprint Bacterial meningitis among children with cochlear implants beyond 24 months after implantation
    Krista R Biernath
    National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Pediatrics 117:284-9. 2006
    ..Children with implants with positioners were at higher risk than children with other implant models. This higher risk of bacterial meningitis continued for up to 24 months after implantation...
  47. ncbi request reprint Recurrent invasive pneumococcal disease: a population-based assessment
    Mark D King
    Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 37:1029-36. 2003
    ..Most (92%) persons with recurrence had a vaccine indication. The risk of recurrence among certain persons with IPD is extremely high...
  48. ncbi request reprint Comparing potential benefits of new pneumococcal vaccines with the current polysaccharide vaccine in the elderly
    Alicia M Fry
    Respiratory Diseases Branch, Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Mailstop C 23, 1600 Clifton Road, NE, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Vaccine 21:303-11. 2002
    ..Superior effectiveness of new vaccines was dependent upon a presumed longer duration of protection than the 23V-PPV and effectiveness against noninvasive pneumonia. Our results suggest that new vaccines could improve disease prevention...
  49. ncbi request reprint Effectiveness of the 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine against invasive pneumococcal disease in Navajo adults
    Andrea L Benin
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    J Infect Dis 188:81-9. 2003
    ..PPV23 was not significantly effective among Navajo adults and may be inadequate to prevent serious pneumococcal disease in this population...
  50. ncbi request reprint Vaccines as tools against resistance: the example of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine
    Cynthia G Whitney
    Epidemiology Section, Respiratory Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Disease, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE, MS C23, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 15:86-93. 2004
    ..Surveillance is needed to monitor the spread of antimicrobial resistance into nonvaccine serotypes, which may lead to a resurgence of resistance...
  51. ncbi request reprint Emergence of nonvaccine serotypes following introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: cause and effect?
    Matthew R Moore
    Respiratory Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 46:183-5. 2008
  52. pmc Application of TaqMan low-density arrays for simultaneous detection of multiple respiratory pathogens
    Maja Kodani
    Division of Bacterial Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 49:2175-82. 2011
    ..The TLDA card approach offers promise for rapid and simultaneous identification of multiple respiratory pathogens for outbreak investigations and disease surveillance...
  53. ncbi request reprint Emergence of a novel penicillin-nonsusceptible, invasive serotype 35B clone of Streptococcus pneumoniae within the United States
    Bernard Beall
    Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    J Infect Dis 186:118-22. 2002
    ..The mosaic pbp2b and divergent ddl sequences were suggestive of interspecies recombination at the ddl-pbp2b chromosomal region...
  54. ncbi request reprint The influence of chronic illnesses on the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease in adults
    Moe H Kyaw
    Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Infect Dis 192:377-86. 2005
    ..These data support recommendations to provide pneumococcal vaccine to persons in these at-risk groups and underscore the need for better prevention strategies for immunocompromised persons...
  55. ncbi request reprint Invasive pneumococcal disease in older adults residing in long-term care facilities and in the community
    Benjamin A Kupronis
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    J Am Geriatr Soc 51:1520-5. 2003
    ..To examine the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in older adults hospitalized for invasive pneumococcal disease who are living in the community and in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) in the United States...
  56. ncbi request reprint An outbreak of conjunctivitis due to atypical Streptococcus pneumoniae
    Michael Martin
    Respiratory Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    N Engl J Med 348:1112-21. 2003
    ..An investigation was begun to determine the extent of the outbreak, confirm the cause, identify modes of transmission, and implement control measures...
  57. pmc Non-pneumococcal mitis-group streptococci confound detection of pneumococcal capsular serotype-specific loci in upper respiratory tract
    Maria Da Gloria Carvalho
    National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA
    Peerj 1:e97. 2013
    ..Our findings indicate that non-pneumococcal species can confound serotype-specific PCR and other sequence-based assays due to evolutionarily conserved genes most likely involved in biosynthesis of surface polysaccharide structures. ..
  58. ncbi request reprint A systematic approach for increasing pneumococcal vaccination rates at an inner-city public hospital
    Jennifer D Shevlin
    Department of Medicine, Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Am J Prev Med 22:92-7. 2002
    ....
  59. pmc Specificity of the antibody response to the pneumococcal polysaccharide and conjugate vaccines in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults
    Daniel R Feikin
    Respiratory Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Centers for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 11:137-41. 2004
    ..These findings confirm that absorption with a heterologous pneumococcal polysaccharide (e.g., 22F) is necessary to remove nonspecific antibodies in a standardized IgG ELISA for pneumococcal capsular antibodies in HIV-infected adults...
  60. ncbi request reprint Two outbreaks of severe respiratory disease in nursing homes associated with rhinovirus
    Lauri A Hicks
    Respiratory Diseases Branch, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Epidemic Intelligence Service, Office of Workforce and Career Development, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Am Geriatr Soc 54:284-9. 2006
    ..To characterize illness and identify the etiology for two nursing home outbreaks of respiratory illness...
  61. pmc Aggregated antibiograms and monitoring of drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae
    Chris A Van Beneden
    Respiratory Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 9:1089-95. 2003
    ....
  62. ncbi request reprint Impact of conjugate pneumococcal vaccines
    Cynthia G Whitney
    Respiratory Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Atlanta, GA, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 24:729-30. 2005
  63. ncbi request reprint Seasonal patterns of invasive pneumococcal disease
    Scott F Dowell
    International Emerging Infections Program, Department of Medical Sciences, Ministry of Public Health, Building 2, Tivanon Road, Nonthaburi 11000, Bangkok, Thailand
    Emerg Infect Dis 9:573-9. 2003
    ....
  64. ncbi request reprint Risk of bacterial meningitis in children with cochlear implants
    Jennita Reefhuis
    National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    N Engl J Med 349:435-45. 2003
    ....
  65. pmc Drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus surveillance
    Leigh Ann Hawley
    Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Mailstop C23, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 9:1358-9. 2003
  66. pmc Sentinel surveillance: a reliable way to track antibiotic resistance in communities?
    Stephanie J Schrag
    Respiratory Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:496-502. 2002
    ..Sentinel surveillance for resistant pneumococci can detect important trends over time but rarely detects newly emerging resistance profiles...
  67. ncbi request reprint Patient education strategies to improve pneumococcal vaccination rates: randomized trial
    Donna M Thomas
    Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA
    J Investig Med 51:141-8. 2003
    ..The pneumococcal vaccine is widely underused. Patient education is one mechanism not widely explored for increasing vaccination rates...
  68. ncbi request reprint Cochlear implants and meningitis in children
    Cynthia G Whitney
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 23:767-8. 2004
  69. pmc SARS surveillance during emergency public health response, United States, March-July 2003
    Stephanie J Schrag
    Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Respiratory Diseases Branch, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 10:185-94. 2004
    ..Successes and limitations of this emergency surveillance can guide preparations for future outbreaks of SARS or respiratory diseases of unknown etiology...
  70. ncbi request reprint Risk of hospital-acquired legionnaires' disease in cities using monochloramine versus other water disinfectants
    James D Heffelfinger
    Respiratory Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 24:569-74. 2003
    ..To measure the association between the disinfection of municipal drinking water with monochloramine and the occurrence of hospital-acquired legionnaires' disease (LD)...
  71. doi request reprint Community outbreak of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection: school-based cluster of neurologic disease associated with household transmission of respiratory illness
    Nicholas D Walter
    Epidemic Intelligence Service, Office of Workforce and Career Development, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    J Infect Dis 198:1365-74. 2008
    ..We investigated an outbreak of severe neurologic disease and pneumonia that occurred among students at 4 schools in Rhode Island...
  72. pmc Erythromycin-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae in children, 1999-2001
    M Catherine McEllistrem
    University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health and School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 2582, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 11:969-72. 2005
    ..The decline in infection rates was likely due to the pneumococcal 7-valent conjugate vaccine...
  73. pmc Activities of cethromycin and telithromycin against recent North American isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae
    James H Jorgensen
    Department of Pathology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:605-7. 2004
    ..25 micro g/ml, respectively. For six quinupristin-dalfopristin-resistant strains, the cethromycin MICs were 0.25 to 16 micro g/ml and the telithromycin MICs were 1 to 4 micro g/ml. However, there was only 0.3% resistance to telithromycin...
  74. ncbi request reprint Geographic, demographic, and seasonal differences in penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in Baltimore
    Bernadette A Albanese
    Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 34:15-21. 2002
    ..The incidence of PRSP is increasing in Baltimore, and the seasonality of PRSP suggests that recent antibiotic use, which is more common in winter months, may rapidly affect the prevalence of resistant pneumococcal infections...
  75. ncbi request reprint Distribution of penicillin-nonsusceptible pneumococcal clones in the Baltimore metropolitan area and variables associated with drug resistance
    M Catherine McEllistrem
    Infectious Diseases Epidemiology Research Unit, University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, PA, 15213, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 34:704-7. 2002
    ....
  76. ncbi request reprint Failure to control an outbreak of multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in a long-term-care facility: emergence and ongoing transmission of a fluoroquinolone-resistant strain
    Rosalind J Carter
    Bureau of Communicable Disease, New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, New York, New York 10013, USA
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 26:248-55. 2005
    ....
  77. ncbi request reprint Changing epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease among older adults in the era of pediatric pneumococcal conjugate vaccine
    Catherine A Lexau
    Minnesota Department of Health, Minneapolis 55155 2538, USA
    JAMA 294:2043-51. 2005
    ..Early after its introduction, incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease declined among older adults, a group at high risk for pneumococcal disease...
  78. ncbi request reprint Cost-effectiveness of vaccination against invasive pneumococcal disease among people 50 through 64 years of age: role of comorbid conditions and race
    Jane E Sisk
    Department of Health Policy, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Room 2 34, 1425 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Ann Intern Med 138:960-8. 2003
    ....
  79. ncbi request reprint Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society consensus guidelines on the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults
    Lionel A Mandell
    McMaster University Medical School, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Clin Infect Dis 44:S27-72. 2007
  80. ncbi request reprint A community outbreak of conjunctivitis caused by nontypeable Streptococcus pneumoniae in Minnesota
    Jessica M Buck
    Acute Disease Investigation and Control Section, Minnesota Department of Health, St Paul, MN 55164 0975, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 25:906-11. 2006
    ..The Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) was notified of an outbreak of conjunctivitis in city A with cultures positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae...
  81. ncbi request reprint Pneumococcal vaccination in developing countries
    Orin S Levine
    Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Lancet 367:1880-2. 2006
  82. ncbi request reprint Risk factors for invasive pneumococcal disease among Navajo adults
    James P Watt
    Center for American Indian Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 166:1080-7. 2007
    ..The high prevalence of renal failure, alcoholism, and unemployment among Navajo adults compared with the general US population may explain some of their increased risk of IPD...
  83. ncbi request reprint Effect of community-wide conjugate pneumococcal vaccine use in infancy on nasopharyngeal carriage through 3 years of age: a cross-sectional study in a high-risk population
    Eugene V Millar
    Center for American Indian Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 43:8-15. 2006
    ..Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines also protect against nasopharyngeal carriage of vaccine serotypes, but the duration of protection against nasopharyngeal carriage is not known...
  84. ncbi request reprint Effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on nasopharyngeal colonization among immunized and unimmunized children in a community-randomized trial
    Katherine L O'Brien
    Center for American Indian Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
    J Infect Dis 196:1211-20. 2007
    ..The impact of PCV on nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization is essential to understanding disease effects...
  85. ncbi request reprint Cost-effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: evidence from the first 5 years of use in the United States incorporating herd effects
    G Thomas Ray
    Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program Northern California Region, Oakland, CA 94612, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 25:494-501. 2006
    ..Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) has been in routine use in the United States for 5 years. Prior U.S. cost-effectiveness analyses have not taken into account the effect of the vaccine on nonvaccinated persons...
  86. pmc Changes in serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae strains in Cleveland: a quarter century of experience
    Michael R Jacobs
    Department of Pathology, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University, 11100 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 46:982-90. 2008
    ..This study documents the emergence of resistance over a quarter century among invasive pneumococci in the Cleveland area, as well as the reduction in disease caused by PCV7 serotypes following the introduction of PCV7 in 2000...
  87. pmc Comparative activities of the oxazolidinone AZD2563 and linezolid against selected recent North American isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae
    Sue E Baum
    Infectious Disease Service of Brooke Army Medical Center, San Antonio, Texas, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:3094-5. 2002
    ..The AZD2563 MICs for 50 and 90% of the strains tested were 1 and 2 micro g/ml and 0.5 and 1 micro g/ml, respectively, for the two isolate groups. These MICs were within 1 log(2) dilution of those of linezolid...
  88. ncbi request reprint Invasive pneumococcal disease among infants before and after introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine
    Katherine A Poehling
    Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 2504, USA
    JAMA 295:1668-74. 2006
    ..Streptococcus pneumoniae is a serious infection in young infants. A heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was licensed in 2000 and recommended for all children aged 2 to 23 months...
  89. doi request reprint Optimising the use of conjugate vaccines to prevent disease caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b, Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae
    Caroline L Trotter
    Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Canynge Hall, Whiteladies Road, Bristol, BS8 2PR, UK
    Vaccine 26:4434-45. 2008
    ..The aim of this paper is to review the state of the current evidence on conjugate vaccines and to identify important areas for further study, in order to inform the debate regarding the best use of these vaccines...
  90. doi request reprint Impact of the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on rates of community acquired pneumonia in children and adults
    Jennifer C Nelson
    Group Health Center for Health Studies, Seattle, WA, United States
    Vaccine 26:4947-54. 2008
    ....
  91. doi request reprint It's time for a change in practice: reducing antibiotic use can alter antibiotic resistance
    Cindy R Friedman
    J Infect Dis 197:1082-3. 2008