G S Visvesvara

Summary

Affiliation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc In vitro cultivation of microsporidia of clinical importance
    Govinda S Visvesvara
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341 3724, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 15:401-13. 2002
  2. doi request reprint The epidemiology of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in the USA, 1962-2008
    J S Yoder
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Epidemiol Infect 138:968-75. 2010
  3. doi request reprint Infections with free-living amebae
    Govinda S Visvesvara
    Division of Foodborne, Waterborne and Environmental Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA Electronic address
    Handb Clin Neurol 114:153-68. 2013
  4. doi request reprint Paravahlkampfia francinae n. sp. masquerading as an agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis
    Govinda S Visvesvara
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341 3724, USA
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 56:357-66. 2009
  5. ncbi request reprint Encephalitozoon cuniculi: light and electron microscopic evidence for di-, tetra-, and octosporous sporogony and a note on the molecular phylogeny of encephalitozoonidae
    G S Visvesvara
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341 3724, USA
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 46:110-5. 1999
  6. pmc Isolation and molecular typing of Naegleria fowleri from the brain of a cow that died of primary amebic meningoencephalitis
    Govinda S Visvesvara
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, MS F 13, Chamblee Campus, Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 3724, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 43:4203-4. 2005
  7. ncbi request reprint In vitro culture, serologic and molecular analysis of Acanthamoeba isolated from the liver of a keel-billed toucan (Ramphastos sulfuratus)
    Govinda S Visvesvara
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Vet Parasitol 143:74-8. 2007
  8. doi request reprint Amebic meningoencephalitides and keratitis: challenges in diagnosis and treatment
    Govinda S Visvesvara
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 23:590-4. 2010
  9. ncbi request reprint Public health importance of Brachiola algerae (Microsporidia)--an emerging pathogen of humans
    Govinda S Visvesvara
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Public Health Service, Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, Georgia 30341 3724, USA
    Folia Parasitol (Praha) 52:83-94. 2005
  10. doi request reprint Isolation, morphologic, serologic and molecular identification of Acanthamoeba T4 genotype from the liver of a Temminck's tragopan (Tragopan temminckii)
    Govinda S Visvesvara
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Vet Parasitol 170:197-200. 2010

Detail Information

Publications76

  1. pmc In vitro cultivation of microsporidia of clinical importance
    Govinda S Visvesvara
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341 3724, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 15:401-13. 2002
    ..hellem, E. intestinalis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Trachipleistophora hominis, and Vittaforma corneae that cause human disease...
  2. doi request reprint The epidemiology of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in the USA, 1962-2008
    J S Yoder
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Epidemiol Infect 138:968-75. 2010
    ..Because PAM is a rare disease, it is challenging to understand the environmental and host-specific factors associated with infection in order to develop science-based, risk reduction messages for swimmers...
  3. doi request reprint Infections with free-living amebae
    Govinda S Visvesvara
    Division of Foodborne, Waterborne and Environmental Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA Electronic address
    Handb Clin Neurol 114:153-68. 2013
    ..In this review the biology of these amebae, clinical manifestations, molecular and immunological diagnosis, and epidemiological features associated with GAE and PAM are discussed. ..
  4. doi request reprint Paravahlkampfia francinae n. sp. masquerading as an agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis
    Govinda S Visvesvara
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341 3724, USA
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 56:357-66. 2009
    ..francinae showed that they were distinct from those of other Paravahlkampfia species. The patient recovered within a few days indicating that some of the previously reported cases of PAM that survived may have been due to P. francinae...
  5. ncbi request reprint Encephalitozoon cuniculi: light and electron microscopic evidence for di-, tetra-, and octosporous sporogony and a note on the molecular phylogeny of encephalitozoonidae
    G S Visvesvara
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341 3724, USA
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 46:110-5. 1999
    ..Additionally, the molecular phylogenetic analysis indicates that E. cuniculi, E. hellem, and E. (Septata) intestinalis form a cohesive group...
  6. pmc Isolation and molecular typing of Naegleria fowleri from the brain of a cow that died of primary amebic meningoencephalitis
    Govinda S Visvesvara
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, MS F 13, Chamblee Campus, Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 3724, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 43:4203-4. 2005
    ..We describe here the identification of N. fowleri isolated from the brain of one of several cows that died of PAM based on sequencing of the internal transcribed spacers, including the 5.8S rRNA genes...
  7. ncbi request reprint In vitro culture, serologic and molecular analysis of Acanthamoeba isolated from the liver of a keel-billed toucan (Ramphastos sulfuratus)
    Govinda S Visvesvara
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Vet Parasitol 143:74-8. 2007
    ..Further, we characterized the cultured amoeba and also the amoeba in the liver tissue as Acanthamoeba, genotype T4, by sequencing a diagnostic region of the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene...
  8. doi request reprint Amebic meningoencephalitides and keratitis: challenges in diagnosis and treatment
    Govinda S Visvesvara
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 23:590-4. 2010
    ..This review focuses on the recent developments in the diagnosis and treatment and clinical management of the diseases caused by these amebae...
  9. ncbi request reprint Public health importance of Brachiola algerae (Microsporidia)--an emerging pathogen of humans
    Govinda S Visvesvara
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Public Health Service, Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, Georgia 30341 3724, USA
    Folia Parasitol (Praha) 52:83-94. 2005
    ..These observations indicate that the spores have potential to be a risk factor for humans, especially those with immunodeficiency...
  10. doi request reprint Isolation, morphologic, serologic and molecular identification of Acanthamoeba T4 genotype from the liver of a Temminck's tragopan (Tragopan temminckii)
    Govinda S Visvesvara
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Vet Parasitol 170:197-200. 2010
    ..based on culture characteristics, cyst morphology and immunofluorescence assays. Additionally, we identified the amoeba as Acanthamoeba, genotype T4, by sequencing a diagnostic region of the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene...
  11. pmc Culture of protozoan parasites
    Govinda S Visvesvara
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, Santa Monica, California 90402, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 15:327-8. 2002
    ....
  12. ncbi request reprint Pathogenic and opportunistic free-living amoebae: Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri, and Sappinia diploidea
    Govinda S Visvesvara
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Atlanta, Georgia 30341 3724, USA
    FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 50:1-26. 2007
    ..We also discuss the clinical profiles, mechanisms of pathogenesis, pathophysiology, immunology, antimicrobial sensitivity and molecular characteristics of these amoebae...
  13. ncbi request reprint Morphologic and molecular identification of Naegleria dunnebackei n. sp. isolated from a water sample
    Govinda S Visvesvara
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, M S F 36, Chamberlee Campus, Bldg 109, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway NE, Atlanta, Georgia 30341 3724, USA
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 52:523-31. 2005
    ..Virus-like elements were found in the cytoplasm of trophic amoebae, often in association with crystalloids, and may be the cause of lysis of amoebae in culture...
  14. pmc In vitro culture and serologic and molecular identification of Septata intestinalis isolated from urine of a patient with AIDS
    G S Visvesvara
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, 30341 3724, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 33:930-6. 1995
    ..hellem and E. cuniculi, respectively. On the basis of these studies, we concluded that CDC:V297 fits the description of Septata intestinalis (A. Cali, D. P. Kotler, and J. M. Orenstein, J. Eukaryot, Microbiol. 40:101-112, 1993)...
  15. pmc Genotyping Encephalitozoon cuniculi by multilocus analyses of genes with repetitive sequences
    L Xiao
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention PHS, U S Department of Health and Human Services, 4770 Buford Highway, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 39:2248-53. 2001
    ..Intragenotypic variation was also observed at the SWP-1 locus. Based on the length polymorphism and sequence diversities of the PTP and SWP-1 genes, two simple PCR tests were developed to differentiate E. cuniculi in clinical samples...
  16. ncbi request reprint Diagnosis of Enterocytozoon bieneusi (microsporidia) infections by polymerase chain reaction in stool samples using primers based on the region coding for small-subunit ribosomal RNA
    A J da Silva
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 3724, USA
    Arch Pathol Lab Med 121:874-9. 1997
    ....
  17. ncbi request reprint Improved light-microscopical detection of microsporidia spores in stool and duodenal aspirates. The Enteric Opportunistic Infections Working Group
    R Weber
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333
    N Engl J Med 326:161-6. 1992
    ..We have developed a new method to detect microsporidia spores in feces and duodenal aspirates...
  18. pmc Sensitive PCR diagnosis of Infections by Enterocytozoon bieneusi (microsporidia) using primers based on the region coding for small-subunit rRNA
    A J da Silva
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341 3724, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 34:986-7. 1996
    ..Compared with other PCR-based methods, this primer pair shows a higher efficiency of detection in diagnostic applications than does another previously described primer pair, V1/EB450...
  19. ncbi request reprint Pathology of symptomatic microsporidial (Encephalitozoon hellem) bronchiolitis in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a new respiratory pathogen diagnosed from lung biopsy, bronchoalveolar lavage, sputum, and tissue culture
    D A Schwartz
    Department of Pathology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA
    Hum Pathol 24:937-43. 1993
    ....
  20. ncbi request reprint A new and improved "quick-hot Gram-chromotrope" technique that differentially stains microsporidian spores in clinical samples, including paraffin-embedded tissue sections
    H Moura
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 3724, USA
    Arch Pathol Lab Med 121:888-93. 1997
    ....
  21. ncbi request reprint Adenovirus masquerading as microsporidia
    G S Visvesvara
    National Center for Infectious Diseases, U S Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    J Parasitol 82:316-9. 1996
    ..We believe that adenovirus infections prevented the cultured cells from supporting the proliferation of E. bieneusi and ultimately destroyed the cell cultures...
  22. pmc Flow cytometric analysis of microsporidia belonging to the genus Encephalitozoon
    D M Moss
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 37:371-5. 1999
    ..Once a procedure is established for the isolation of Encephalitozoon spores from clinical specimens, identification of spores by flow cytometry may be useful not only for diagnosis but also for epidemiologic studies...
  23. ncbi request reprint Pathology of microsporidiosis: emerging parasitic infections in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
    D A Schwartz
    Department of Pathology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Arch Pathol Lab Med 120:173-88. 1996
    ..Additionally, the role of ultrastructural, immunologic, tissue culture, and molecular techniques for the diagnosis of microsporidian infections are discussed...
  24. ncbi request reprint Disseminated microsporidiosis (Encephalitozoon hellem) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Autopsy evidence for respiratory acquisition
    D A Schwartz
    Department of Pathology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA
    Arch Pathol Lab Med 116:660-8. 1992
    ..Detailed light and electron microscopic findings and the biological and diagnostic features of microsporidiosis are discussed...
  25. pmc Uniform staining of Cyclospora oocysts in fecal smears by a modified safranin technique with microwave heating
    G S Visvesvara
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Cancer for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341 3724, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 35:730-3. 1997
    ..This staining procedure, besides being superior to acid-fast staining, is fast, reliable, and easy to perform in most clinical laboratories...
  26. ncbi request reprint Microsporidiosis in HIV positive patients: current methods for diagnosis using biopsy, cytologic, ultrastructural, immunological, and tissue culture techniques
    D A Schwartz
    Department of Pathology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA
    Folia Parasitol (Praha) 41:101-9. 1994
    ....
  27. pmc Genotyping Encephalitozoon hellem isolates by analysis of the polar tube protein gene
    L Xiao
    Immunology Branch, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention PHS, U S Department of Health and Human Services, 4770 Buford Highway, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 39:2191-6. 2001
    ..A simple PCR test was developed to differentiate E. hellem genotypes based on the difference in the size of PTP PCR products, which should facilitate the genotyping of E. hellem in clinical samples...
  28. ncbi request reprint Infection by microsporidia disrupts the host cell cycle
    M Scanlon
    Department of Physiology, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30310, USA
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 47:525-31. 2000
    ..These results suggest that host cells infected with Encephalitozoon microsporidia are blocked at multiple points in the cell cycle...
  29. ncbi request reprint Epidemiology of infections with free-living amebas and laboratory diagnosis of microsporidiosis
    G S Visvesvara
    Centers for Disease Control, U S Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA 30333
    Mt Sinai J Med 60:283-8. 1993
    ..As the numbers of patients with HIV and AIDS increase, more cases of amebic encephalitis and microsporidiosis are likely...
  30. pmc National outbreak of Acanthamoeba keratitis associated with use of a contact lens solution, United States
    Jennifer R Verani
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 15:1236-42. 2009
    ..Premarket standardized testing of contact lens solutions for activity against Acanthamoeba spp. is warranted...
  31. pmc Purification of Enterocytozoon bieneusi spores from stool specimens by gradient and cell sorting techniques
    Zuzana Kucerova
    Department of Physiology, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 42:3256-61. 2004
    ..The sorted material appeared to be sufficiently pure and could be used for in vitro culture and for the development of a variety of diagnostic reagents as well as in studying the genome of E. bieneusi and host-parasite interactions...
  32. doi request reprint Prevalence of Acanthamoeba spp. and other free-living amoebae in household water, Ohio, USA--1990-1992
    Lauren J Stockman
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd NE Mailstop A 34, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Parasitol Res 108:621-7. 2011
    ..We believe FLA are commonplace inhabitants of household water in this sample as they are in the environment...
  33. pmc Multiplex assay detection of immunoglobulin G antibodies that recognize Giardia intestinalis and Cryptosporidium parvum antigens
    Jeffrey W Priest
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 17:1695-707. 2010
    ..A MBA using multiple parasite antigens may prove useful in the epidemiologic analysis of future waterborne or food-borne outbreaks of diarrheal disease...
  34. ncbi request reprint Expression and serologic assessment of a recombinant polar tube protein from Encephalitozoon cuniculi (PTP3)
    Zuzana Kucerova
    Atlanta Research and Educational Foundation, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 53:S70-1. 2006
  35. pmc Multiplex real-time PCR assay for simultaneous detection of Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, and Naegleria fowleri
    Yvonne Qvarnstrom
    Parasitic Diseases Branch, Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4700 Buford Highway NE, Mail Stop F36, Atlanta, GA 30341 3724
    J Clin Microbiol 44:3589-95. 2006
    ..This assay could become useful for fast laboratory diagnostic assessment of amebic infections (caused by free-living amebas) in laboratories with adequate infrastructure to perform real-time PCR testing...
  36. ncbi request reprint Analysis of four human microsporidian isolates by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry
    Hercules Moura
    Atlanta Research and Education Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 50:156-63. 2003
    ..MALDI-TOF MS analysis of whole organisms is a rapid, sensitive, and specific option to characterize microsporidian isolates and has the potential for several applications in parasitology...
  37. ncbi request reprint Genetic variations in the internal transcribed spacer and mitochondrial small subunit rRNA gene of Naegleria spp
    Ling Zhou
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 50:522-6. 2003
    ..These data should be useful in the development of molecular tools for rapid species differentiation and genotyping of Naegleria spp...
  38. pmc Role of P glycoprotein in the course and treatment of Encephalitozoon microsporidiosis
    G J Leitch
    Department of Physiology, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30310, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 45:73-8. 2001
    ..These observations suggest that inhibiting host cell and perhaps parasite MDR pumps may increase the efficacy of antiparasitic agents in these and other microsporidia species...
  39. ncbi request reprint Histopathologic spectrum and immunohistochemical diagnosis of amebic meningoencephalitis
    Jeannette Guarner
    Infectious Disease Pathology Branch, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1405 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Mod Pathol 20:1230-7. 2007
    ..The term amebic meningoencephalitis describes better the histopathologic findings than the currently used classification of primary amebic meningoencephalitis and granulomatous amebic encephalitis...
  40. pmc Comparison of real-time PCR protocols for differential laboratory diagnosis of amebiasis
    Yvonne Qvarnstrom
    National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Public Health Service, U S Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 43:5491-7. 2005
    ..These results illustrate the usefulness of comparative evaluations of diagnostic assays...
  41. ncbi request reprint Acanthamoeba castellani encephalitis following partially mismatched related donor peripheral stem cell transplantation
    A Castellano-Sanchez
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    Transpl Infect Dis 5:191-4. 2003
    ..The patient had worsening respiratory failure and died three days after admission. At autopsy, specific immunofluorescent staining identified Acanthamoeba castellani in the brain and lungs...
  42. ncbi request reprint Declining CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts are associated with increased risk of enteric parasitosis and chronic diarrhea: results of a 3-year longitudinal study
    T R Navin
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Public Health Service, US Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, Georgia 30341 3724, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 20:154-9. 1999
    ..In this patient population, enteric protozoan parasites were commonly associated with illness, particularly as immunosuppression worsened, and were more likely to be associated with chronic rather than acute diarrhea...
  43. ncbi request reprint Relationship between the host cell mitochondria and the parasitophorous vacuole in cells infected with Encephalitozoon microsporidia
    Mary Scanlon
    Department of Physiology, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30310, USA
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 51:81-7. 2004
    ..It is unlikely that the antimicrosporidial action of albendazole involves physically uncoupling developing parasite stages from host cell organelle metabolic support...
  44. pmc Identification of antigenic targets for immunodetection of Balamuthia mandrillaris infection
    Zuzana Kucerova
    Foodborne Disease Prevention Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 18:1297-301. 2011
    ..mandrillaris isolates, although major proteins of approximately 25, 50, and 75 kDa were present in all extracts...
  45. doi request reprint Molecular confirmation of Sappinia pedata as a causative agent of amoebic encephalitis
    Yvonne Qvarnstrom
    Division of Parasitic Disease, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector Borne, and Enteric Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    J Infect Dis 199:1139-42. 2009
    ..The results illustrate the potential for other free-living amoebae, which are not normally associated with human disease, to cause occasional infections...
  46. pmc Survival of Acanthamoeba cysts after desiccation for more than 20 years
    Rama Sriram
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341 3724, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 46:4045-8. 2008
    ..It has two stages in its life cycle: a trophic stage and a resistant cyst stage. We describe here the ability of Acanthamoeba cysts to survive desiccation for more than 20 years...
  47. ncbi request reprint Disseminated microsporidiosis caused by Encephalitozoon cuniculi III (dog type) in an Italian AIDS patient: a retrospective study
    Antonella Tosoni
    Pathology Unit, L Sacco Hospital and Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Milan, Italy
    Mod Pathol 15:577-83. 2002
    ..cuniculi, Genotype III. We believe that this is the first report of a human case of disseminated microsporidial infection involving the ovary...
  48. pmc Retrospective species identification of microsporidian spores in diarrheic fecal samples from human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS patients by multiplexed fluorescence in situ hybridization
    Thaddeus K Graczyk
    Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Division of Environmental Health Engineering, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 45:1255-60. 2007
    ..The method can be used for epidemiological investigations and applied in clinical settings...
  49. ncbi request reprint Infections caused by pathogenic free-living amebas (Balamuthia mandrillaris and Acanthamoeba sp.) in horses
    Hailu Kinde
    California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System CAHFS, San Bernardino Branch, 105 West Central Avenue, San Bernardino, CA 92408, USA
    J Vet Diagn Invest 19:317-22. 2007
    ..and/or Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas sp. The clinicopathologic findings and demonstration of the amebic organisms using immunohistochemical techniques, culture, polymerase chain reactions, and electron microscopy are presented...
  50. ncbi request reprint Demonstration of Balamuthia and Acanthamoeba mitochondrial DNA in sectioned archival brain and other tissues by the polymerase chain reaction
    Shigeo Yagi
    California Department of Public Health, Viral and Rickettsial Disease Laboratory, 850 Marina Bay Parkway, Richmond, CA, 94804, USA
    Parasitol Res 102:211-7. 2008
    ..Degradation of amoeba DNA because of formalin fixation was probably a factor in limiting valid results...
  51. ncbi request reprint Three-year-old girl with fever and coma
    Anna Bakardjiev
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Children s Hospital Oakland, Oakland, CA, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 21:75, 85-6. 2002
  52. ncbi request reprint Genotypic identification of non-keratitis infections caused by the opportunistically pathogenic ameba genus Acanthamoeba
    Paul A Fuerst
    Department of Evolution, Ecology, and Organismal Biology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 50:512-3. 2003
  53. pmc Fatal myositis due to the microsporidian Brachiola algerae, a mosquito pathogen
    Christina M Coyle
    Department of Medicine, Jacobi Medical Center, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    N Engl J Med 351:42-7. 2004
  54. ncbi request reprint An autopsy case of amebic meningoencephalitis. The first Japanese case caused by Balamuthia mandrillaris
    Teruo Shirabe
    Division of Neuropathology, Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Japan
    Neuropathology 22:213-7. 2002
    ..Essentially, the case was one of an elderly person with suspected immunodeficiency with fulminant necrotic meningoencephalitis and scanty granulomatous lesions of 14 days course...
  55. pmc Environmental isolation of Balamuthia mandrillaris associated with a case of amebic encephalitis
    Frederick L Schuster
    California Department of Health Services, Viral and Rickettsial Disease Laboratory, Richmond, CA 94804, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 41:3175-80. 2003
    ..The environmental isolate is similar in its antimicrobial sensitivities and identical in its 16S ribosomal DNA sequences to the Balamuthia isolate from the deceased patient...
  56. ncbi request reprint Isolation of a thermotolerant Paravahlkampfia sp. from lizard intestine: biology and molecular identification
    Frederick L Schuster
    California Department of Health Services, Viral and Rickettsial Disease Laboratory, 850 Marina Bay Parkway, Richmond, California 94804, USA
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 50:373-8. 2003
    ..Thus, P. ustiana joins other soil amoebae that have been isolated from mammals, amphibia, fish, and reptiles, which have the potential of becoming opportunistic pathogens...
  57. pmc Identification and distribution of Acanthamoeba species genotypes associated with nonkeratitis infections
    Gregory C Booton
    Department of Evolution, Ecology, Organismal Biology, The Ohio State University, 318 W 12th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 43:1689-93. 2005
    ..However, the genotypes that were isolated from brains have not been observed in environmental isolates of Acanthamoeba, and their natural ecological niche is unknown...
  58. ncbi request reprint Neuropathological and ultrastructural features of amebic encephalitis caused by Sappinia diploidea
    Benjamin B Gelman
    Texas Center for NeuroAIDS Research, Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Rt 0785, Galveston, TX 77555 0785, USA
    J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 62:990-8. 2003
    ..6) Trophozoites often were present in viable brain parenchyma on the periphery of the mass without inflammatory response. 7) The prognosis after surgical excision and medical treatment was favorable in this instance...
  59. ncbi request reprint Seasonal meningoencephalitis in Holstein cattle caused by Naegleria fowleri
    Barbara M Daft
    University of California, Davis, School of Veterinary Medicine, California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, San Bernardino Branch, CA 92408, USA
    J Vet Diagn Invest 17:605-9. 2005
    ..Naegleria meningoencephalitis should be included among differential diagnoses of central nervous system disease in cattle during the summer season in areas with high ambient temperatures...
  60. ncbi request reprint In-vitro activity of miltefosine and voriconazole on clinical isolates of free-living amebas: Balamuthia mandrillaris, Acanthamoeba spp., and Naegleria fowleri
    Frederick L Schuster
    California Department of Health Services, Viral and Rickettsial Disease Laboratory, Richmond, California 94804, USA
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 53:121-6. 2006
    ..Miltefosine and voriconazole are potentially useful drugs for treatment of free-living amebic infections, though sensitivities differ between genera, species, and strains...
  61. ncbi request reprint Amebae and ciliated protozoa as causal agents of waterborne zoonotic disease
    Frederick L Schuster
    California Department of Health Services, Viral and Rickettsial Disease Laboratory, 850 Marina Bay Parkway, Richmond, CA 94804, USA
    Vet Parasitol 126:91-120. 2004
    ..The epidemiology of the diseases is examined, as are diagnostic procedures, anti-microbial interventions, and the influence of globalization, climate change, and technological advances on their spread...
  62. pmc Fatal Naegleria fowleri meningoencephalitis, Italy
    Paola E Cogo
    Pediatric Intensive Care, Department of Pediatrics, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
    Emerg Infect Dis 10:1835-7. 2004
    ..Naegleria fowleri was characterized as genotype I on the basis of polymerase chain reaction test results...
  63. pmc Acanthamoeba encephalitis in patient with systemic lupus, India
    Charudatt G Shirwadkar
    P D Hinduja National hospital and Research centre, Mumbai, India
    Emerg Infect Dis 12:984-6. 2006
    ..Diagnosis was made by identification of amebas in brain sections by immunofluorescence analysis and confirmed by demonstrating Acanthamoeba mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene DNA in brain tissue sections...
  64. pmc Detection of Balamuthia mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene DNA in clinical specimens by PCR
    Shigeo Yagi
    California Department of Health Services, Viral and Rickettsial Disease Laboratory, 850 Marina Bay Parkway, Richmond, CA 94804, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 43:3192-7. 2005
    ..2 ameba per reaction mixture. A single Balamuthia ameba contains multiple mitochondrial targets; thus, 0.2 ameba represents multiple targets for amplification and is not equivalent to 0.2 of an ameba as a target...
  65. pmc Balamuthia amebic encephalitis risk, Hispanic Americans
    Frederick L Schuster
    Emerg Infect Dis 10:1510-2. 2004
  66. ncbi request reprint Free-living amoebae as opportunistic and non-opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals
    Frederick L Schuster
    Viral and Rickettsial Disease Laboratory, California Department Health Services, 850 Marina Bay Parkway, Richmond, CA 94804, USA
    Int J Parasitol 34:1001-27. 2004
    ....
  67. ncbi request reprint Opportunistic amoebae: challenges in prophylaxis and treatment
    Frederick L Schuster
    Viral and Rickettsial Disease Laboratory, California Department of Health Services, Richmond, CA 94804, USA
    Drug Resist Updat 7:41-51. 2004
    ....
  68. pmc Identification of Balamuthia mandrillaris by PCR assay using the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene as a target
    Gregory C Booton
    Department of Molecular Genetics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 1292, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 41:453-5. 2003
    ..These primers will be useful for retrospective analyses of fixed tissues and possible identification of Balamuthia in vivo...
  69. ncbi request reprint Successful treatment of Balamuthia amoebic encephalitis: presentation of 2 cases
    Thomas R Deetz
    Infectious Diseases, Santa Cruz Medical Clinic, Santa Cruz, CA, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 37:1304-12. 2003
    ..These 2 individuals are the only known survivors of this otherwise fatal type of amoebic encephalitis...
  70. pmc Diagnosis of first case of Balamuthia amoebic encephalitis in Portugal by immunofluorescence and PCR
    Marta Tavares
    Department of Pediatrics, Hospital de S Joao, Porto, Portugal
    J Clin Microbiol 44:2660-3. 2006
    ..Despite initiation of empirical antimicrobial therapy for balamuthiasis, the patient died 3 weeks after being admitted to the hospital. No source of infection was readily apparent...
  71. ncbi request reprint Genotyping of Balamuthia mandrillaris based on nuclear 18S and mitochondrial 16S rRNA genes
    Gregory C Booton
    Department of Molecular Genetics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 68:65-9. 2003
    ..mandrillaris. The mitochondrial sequences of B. mandrillaris are unique and should be useful for development of genus-specific diagnostic probes for use with clinical, environmental, and archived specimens...
  72. ncbi request reprint Detection of antibodies against free-living amoebae Balamuthia mandrillaris and Acanthamoeba species in a population of patients with encephalitis
    Frederick L Schuster
    Viral and Rickettsial Disease Laboratory, California Department of Health Services, Richmond, CA 94804, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 42:1260-5. 2006
    ..We have screened serum samples from hospitalized patients with encephalitis for antibodies against these 2 amoebae as a means of detecting a disease with few defining symptoms and a poor prognosis...
  73. ncbi request reprint Amebic encephalitis caused by Balamuthia mandrillaris: report of four cases
    Anna Bakardjiev
    Children s Hospital of Oakland, Oakland, CA, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 22:447-53. 2003
    ..Three of the four children developed hydrocephalus during their illness. Increased awareness and timely diagnosis of this disease entity might lead to earlier intervention with improved outcome...
  74. ncbi request reprint Multifocal Balamuthia mandrillaris infection in a dog in Australia
    Peter J Finnin
    Department of Veterinary Science, The University of Melbourne, Werribee, Victoria, Australia
    Parasitol Res 100:423-6. 2007
    ..This is the first report of B. mandrillaris (which is a free-living amoeba) causing fatal, multifocal granulomatous amoebiasis in a dog in Australia...
  75. pmc Fatal granulomatous Acanthamoeba encephalitis mimicking a stroke, diagnosed by correlation of results of sequential magnetic resonance imaging, biopsy, in vitro culture, immunofluorescence analysis, and molecular analysis
    Mehri S McKellar
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City 84132 2405, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 44:4265-9. 2006
    ..We report a unique case of granulomatous amebic encephalitis that was proven pathologically with progressive radiological findings on MRI...
  76. ncbi request reprint Balamuthia mandrillaris meningoencephalitis in an immunocompetent patient: an unusual clinical course and a favorable outcome
    Sungmi Jung
    Department of Pathology, State University of New York Upstate Medical School, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA
    Arch Pathol Lab Med 128:466-8. 2004
    ..We present this case with unusual clinical course to raise awareness of this infectious disease, which may have a more favorable outcome if diagnosed and treated in its early states...