F C Tenover

Summary

Affiliation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Multicenter evaluation of the Etest and disk diffusion methods for differentiating daptomycin-susceptible from non-daptomycin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus isolates
    Laura A Jevitt
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, G 08, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd, NE, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 44:3098-104. 2006
  2. pmc Characterisation of a Staphylococcus aureus strain with progressive loss of susceptibility to vancomycin and daptomycin during therapy
    Fred C Tenover
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd NE, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 33:564-8. 2009
  3. pmc Accuracy of six antimicrobial susceptibility methods for testing linezolid against staphylococci and enterococci
    Fred C Tenover
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 45:2917-22. 2007
  4. ncbi request reprint Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria
    Fred C Tenover
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Am J Infect Control 34:S3-10; discussion S64-73. 2006
  5. ncbi request reprint Development and spread of bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents: an overview
    F C Tenover
    Nosocomial Pathogens Laboratory Branch, Hospital Infections Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 33:S108-15. 2001
  6. ncbi request reprint Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria
    Fred C Tenover
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Am J Med 119:S3-10; discussion S62-70. 2006
  7. ncbi request reprint Implications of vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
    F C Tenover
    Hospital Infections Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    J Hosp Infect 43:S3-7. 1999
  8. pmc Detection and reporting of organisms producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases: survey of laboratories in Connecticut
    F C Tenover
    Hospital Infections Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 37:4065-70. 1999
  9. pmc Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat assay analysis of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains
    Fred C Tenover
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion G 08, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd NE, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 45:2215-9. 2007
  10. pmc Carbapenem resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae not detected by automated susceptibility testing
    Fred C Tenover
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 12:1209-13. 2006

Detail Information

Publications112 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Multicenter evaluation of the Etest and disk diffusion methods for differentiating daptomycin-susceptible from non-daptomycin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus isolates
    Laura A Jevitt
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, G 08, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd, NE, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 44:3098-104. 2006
    ..In 2005, daptomycin disks were voluntarily removed from the market by Cubist Pharmaceuticals. The disk diffusion breakpoints were subsequently removed from the CLSI M100 standard in 2006...
  2. pmc Characterisation of a Staphylococcus aureus strain with progressive loss of susceptibility to vancomycin and daptomycin during therapy
    Fred C Tenover
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd NE, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 33:564-8. 2009
    ..Concurrent development of resistance to vancomycin and daptomycin, whilst rare, must be considered in a patient who is unresponsive to daptomycin following vancomycin therapy...
  3. pmc Accuracy of six antimicrobial susceptibility methods for testing linezolid against staphylococci and enterococci
    Fred C Tenover
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 45:2917-22. 2007
    ..These data, from a challenge panel of isolates, illustrate that the recent emergence of linezolid-nonsusceptible staphylococci and enterococci is providing a challenge for many susceptibility testing systems...
  4. ncbi request reprint Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria
    Fred C Tenover
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Am J Infect Control 34:S3-10; discussion S64-73. 2006
    ....
  5. ncbi request reprint Development and spread of bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents: an overview
    F C Tenover
    Nosocomial Pathogens Laboratory Branch, Hospital Infections Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 33:S108-15. 2001
    ..Judicious use is imperative if we are to preserve our arsenal of antimicrobial agents into the next decade...
  6. ncbi request reprint Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria
    Fred C Tenover
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Am J Med 119:S3-10; discussion S62-70. 2006
    ....
  7. ncbi request reprint Implications of vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
    F C Tenover
    Hospital Infections Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    J Hosp Infect 43:S3-7. 1999
    ..Finally, the isolation of such strains in three geographically distinct regions suggests that this phenomenon will continue to occur worldwide...
  8. pmc Detection and reporting of organisms producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases: survey of laboratories in Connecticut
    F C Tenover
    Hospital Infections Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 37:4065-70. 1999
    ..This survey suggests that many laboratories have difficulty detecting resistance in ESBL and AmpC-producing organisms and may be unaware of the NCCLS guidelines on modifying susceptibility testing reports for ESBL-producing strains...
  9. pmc Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat assay analysis of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains
    Fred C Tenover
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion G 08, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd NE, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 45:2215-9. 2007
    ..The ability of MLVA to differentiate among strains that are indistinguishable by PFGE may be of epidemiologic value and warrants further study...
  10. pmc Carbapenem resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae not detected by automated susceptibility testing
    Fred C Tenover
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 12:1209-13. 2006
    ..The recognition of carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae continues to challenge automated susceptibility systems...
  11. pmc Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from nasal cultures collected from individuals in the United States in 2001 to 2004
    Fred C Tenover
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion G 08, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd, NE, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 46:2837-41. 2008
    ..In contrast, the proportions of MRSA isolates that were susceptible to chloramphenicol, clindamycin, and erythromycin were lower in 2003 and 2004 than in 2001 and 2002, although none of these differences was statistically significant...
  12. pmc Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolate from a patient in Pennsylvania
    Fred C Tenover
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:275-80. 2004
    ..The vanA sequence was identical to the vanA sequence present in Tn1546. A DNA probe for vanA hybridized to the 120-kb plasmid. This is the second VRSA isolate reported in the United States...
  13. ncbi request reprint Rapid detection and identification of bacterial pathogens using novel molecular technologies: infection control and beyond
    Fred C Tenover
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 44:418-23. 2007
    ..tuberculosis directly from positive mycobacterial broth cultures in <1 day. These data can assist physicians in both therapeutic and infection control decisions...
  14. pmc Characterization of a strain of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus widely disseminated in the United States
    Fred C Tenover
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 44:108-18. 2006
    ..Comparative genomics between USA300-0114 and three other S. aureus lineages (USA100, USA400, and USA500) defined a set of USA300-0114-specific genes, which may facilitate the strain's pathogenesis within diverse environments...
  15. ncbi request reprint The rationale for revising the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute vancomycin minimal inhibitory concentration interpretive criteria for Staphylococcus aureus
    Fred C Tenover
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 44:1208-15. 2007
    ..aureus. This decision reflected a growing amount of microbiological and clinical data indicating that isolates of S. aureus are less likely to respond to vancomycin therapy when the vancomycin MICs are > or = 4 microg/mL...
  16. pmc Characterization of staphylococci with reduced susceptibilities to vancomycin and other glycopeptides
    F C Tenover
    Hospital Infections Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 36:1020-7. 1998
    ..Furthermore, it appears that commercial vancomycin agar screening plates can be used to detect these isolates...
  17. pmc Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
    Fred C Tenover
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 10:2052-3. 2004
  18. ncbi request reprint Vancomycin-resistant staphylococci and enterococci: epidemiology and control
    Fred C Tenover
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 18:300-5. 2005
    ..This review updates information on the development and spread of vancomycin resistance in staphylococci and enterococci...
  19. pmc Evaluation of the NCCLS extended-spectrum beta-lactamase confirmation methods for Escherichia coli with isolates collected during Project ICARE
    Fred C Tenover
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 41:3142-6. 2003
    ..NCCLS has incorporated this change in the cefpodoxime screening breakpoint in its recent documents...
  20. ncbi request reprint Ability of laboratories to detect emerging antimicrobial resistance in nosocomial pathogens: a survey of project ICARE laboratories
    C D Steward
    Hospital Infections Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd, NE G08 Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 38:59-67. 2000
    ..This highlights the need for monitoring how well susceptibility test systems in clinical laboratories detect emerging resistance...
  21. pmc Characterization of the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase reference strain, Klebsiella pneumoniae K6 (ATCC 700603), which produces the novel enzyme SHV-18
    J K Rasheed
    Hospital Infections Program, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 44:2382-8. 2000
    ..In addition to the production of this novel ESBL, designated SHV-18, analysis of the outer membrane proteins of K6 revealed the loss of the OmpK35 and OmpK37 porins...
  22. pmc Novel carbapenem-hydrolyzing beta-lactamase, KPC-1, from a carbapenem-resistant strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae
    H Yigit
    Hospital Infections Program, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 45:1151-61. 2001
    ..pneumoniae strain 1534 is mainly due to production of a novel Bush group 2f, class A, carbapenem-hydrolyzing beta-lactamase, KPC-1, although alterations in porin expression may also play a role...
  23. pmc Characterization of clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae from 19 laboratories using the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards extended-spectrum beta-lactamase detection methods
    C D Steward
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 39:2864-72. 2001
    ..The remaining 11.5% of the isolates studied contained beta-lactamases that did not demonstrate a CA effect. An algorithm based on phenotypic analyses is suggested for evaluation of such isolates...
  24. pmc Detection and differentiation of vanC-1, vanC-2, and vanC-3 glycopeptide resistance genes in enterococci
    N C Clark
    Hospital Infections Program, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 36:2294-7. 1998
    ..Antimicrobial susceptibility tests and analysis of genomic DNA by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis were also performed, but the results indicated that they were not able to distinguish among strains possessing the three vanC genotypes...
  25. ncbi request reprint Determinants of vancomycin use in adult intensive care units in 41 United States hospitals
    S K Fridkin
    Hospital Infections Program, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 28:1119-25. 1999
    ..Efforts to reduce these rates through infection control activities should be included in hospitals' efforts to reduce vancomycin use...
  26. ncbi request reprint Surveillance of antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance in United States hospitals: project ICARE phase 2. Project Intensive Care Antimicrobial Resistance Epidemiology (ICARE) hospitals
    S K Fridkin
    Hospital Infections Program, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 29:245-52. 1999
    ..These comparative data on use and resistance among similar areas (i.e., ICU or other inpatient areas) can be used as a benchmark by participating hospitals to focus their efforts at addressing antimicrobial resistance...
  27. ncbi request reprint The effect of vancomycin and third-generation cephalosporins on prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in 126 U.S. adult intensive care units
    S K Fridkin
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, MS A 35, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Ann Intern Med 135:175-83. 2001
    ..Identifying modifiable institutional factors can advance quality-improvement efforts to minimize hospital-acquired infections with VRE...
  28. pmc Genetic analyses of mutations contributing to fluoroquinolone resistance in clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae
    L M Weigel
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 45:3517-23. 2001
    ..These data suggest that the heterogeneity of mutations will likely increase as pneumococci are exposed to novel fluoroquinolone structures, complicating the prediction of cross-resistance within this class of antimicrobial agents...
  29. pmc Increasing resistance to vancomycin and other glycopeptides in Staphylococcus aureus
    F C Tenover
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 7:327-32. 2001
    ..The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and other groups have issued recommendations regarding appropriate infection control procedures for patients infected with these strains...
  30. pmc Performance of eight methods, including two new rapid methods, for detection of oxacillin resistance in a challenge set of Staphylococcus aureus organisms
    J M Swenson
    Epidemiology and Laboratory Branch, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 39:3785-8. 2001
    ..The MRSA-Screen sensitivity improved to 100% if agglutination reactions were read at 15 min. Repeat testing improved the performance of some but not all of the systems...
  31. pmc Optimal inoculation methods and quality control for the NCCLS oxacillin agar screen test for detection of oxacillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus
    J M Swenson
    Nosocomial Pathogens Laboratory Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 39:3781-4. 2001
    ..However, lack of specificity with commercial lots may be difficult to detect using any of the current quality control organisms...
  32. ncbi request reprint Validation of Vitek version 7.01 software for testing staphylococci against vancomycin
    P M Raney
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 43:135-40. 2002
    ..01 software, when compared to earlier software versions, laboratories may notice an overall shift in MIC data toward higher vancomycin MICs, although for the most part, this does not affect the categorical interpretations of the results...
  33. ncbi request reprint Antimicrobial resistance prevalence rates in hospital antibiograms reflect prevalence rates among pathogens associated with hospital-acquired infections
    S K Fridkin
    Hospital Infections Program, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 33:324-30. 2001
    ..Hospital antibiograms may underestimate the relative frequency of methicillin resistance among Staphylococcus species when associated with hospital-acquired infections...
  34. pmc Vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus in a home health-care patient
    J C Hageman
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 7:1023-5. 2001
    ..The patient was treated successfully with antimicrobial therapy, biliary drainage, and reconstruction. Standard precautions in the home health setting appear successful in preventing transmission...
  35. pmc gyrA mutations associated with fluoroquinolone resistance in eight species of Enterobacteriaceae
    L M Weigel
    Hospital Infections Program, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 42:2661-7. 1998
    ..The type and position of amino acid alterations also differed among these six genera. High-level FQ-R frequently was associated with single gyrA mutations in all species of Enterobacteriaceae in this study except E. coli...
  36. ncbi request reprint Use of pyrosequencing to identify point mutations in domain V of 23S rRNA genes of linezolid-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis
    W Zhu
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, MS G08, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 26:161-5. 2007
    ..epidermidis that were associated with linezolid resistance. A C2534T mutation was identified in S. epidermidis that was not previously reported in a linezolid-resistant isolate...
  37. pmc Ability of laboratories to detect emerging antimicrobial resistance: proficiency testing and quality control results from the World Health Organization's external quality assurance system for antimicrobial susceptibility testing
    F C Tenover
    Hospital Infections Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 39:241-50. 2001
    ....
  38. pmc Comparison of agar dilution, disk diffusion, MicroScan, and Vitek antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods to broth microdilution for detection of fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae
    C D Steward
    Hospital Infections Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 37:544-7. 1999
    ..However, the high number of minor errors by all test systems remains a concern...
  39. pmc Evolution of extended-spectrum beta-lactam resistance (SHV-8) in a strain of Escherichia coli during multiple episodes of bacteremia
    J K Rasheed
    Nosocomial Pathogens Laboratory Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 41:647-53. 1997
    ..This collection of blood isolates from the same patient appears to represent the in vivo evolution of resistance under selective pressure of treatment with various cephalosporins...
  40. doi request reprint Importance of bacterial burden among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriers in a long-term care facility
    Nimalie D Stone
    Emory University School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 29:143-8. 2008
    ..To evaluate the prevalence and transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nasal colonization, as well as risk factors associated with MRSA carriage, among residents of a long-term care facility (LTCF)...
  41. ncbi request reprint Risk factors for colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in patients admitted to an urban hospital: emergence of community-associated MRSA nasal carriage
    Alicia I Hidron
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 41:159-66. 2005
    ..We determined the prevalence of and risk factors for MRSA colonization at the time of hospital admission among patients cared for at a public urban hospital...
  42. pmc Identification of plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamases in Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., and proteus species can potentially improve reporting of cephalosporin susceptibility testing results
    Fred C Tenover
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 47:294-9. 2009
    ..Thus, additional data are needed before formal recommendations can be made on changing the reporting of ASC test results...
  43. pmc Detection of a streptomycin/spectinomycin adenylyltransferase gene (aadA) in Enterococcus faecalis
    N C Clark
    Hospital Infections Program, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 43:157-60. 1999
    ..Vapnek, Plasmid 13:17-30, 1985). Previous reports of the presence of the aadA gene in enterococci appear to be erroneous and probably describe an aadE gene, since the isolates were reported to be susceptible to spectinomycin...
  44. pmc A 5' nuclease PCR (TaqMan) high-throughput assay for detection of the mecA gene in staphylococci
    G E Killgore
    Hospital Infections Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 38:2516-9. 2000
    ..Thus, final results were obtained 2 h after PCR was initiated, as opposed to a requirement of 2 days to examine 96 samples by agarose gel electrophoresis...
  45. pmc Vancomycin-resistant enterococci outside the health-care setting: prevalence, sources, and public health implications
    L C McDonald
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 3:311-7. 1997
    ..If transmission with VRE from unrecognized community sources can be identified and controlled, increased incidence of colonization and infection among hospitalized patients may be prevented...
  46. pmc DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV mutations associated with fluoroquinolone resistance in Proteus mirabilis
    L M Weigel
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Anti infectives Section G 08, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:2582-7. 2002
    ..Unlike any other bacterial species analyzed to date, mutation of gyrB appears to be a frequent event in the acquisition of fluoroquinolone resistance among clinical isolates of P. mirabilis...
  47. doi request reprint The burden of vancomycin-resistant enterococcal infections in US hospitals, 2003 to 2004
    Rebecca Reik
    Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 62:81-5. 2008
    ..These estimates highlight the importance of controlling VRE and the need to develop improved methods for tracking the burden of such infections...
  48. ncbi request reprint Confronting bacterial resistance in healthcare settings: a crucial role for microbiologists
    John E McGowan
    Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health of Emory University, 1518 Clifton Road, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 2:251-8. 2004
  49. ncbi request reprint Vancomycin-resistant enterococci colonization in patients at seven hemodialysis centers
    J I Tokars
    Hospital Infections Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Kidney Int 60:1511-6. 2001
    ..We studied the prevalence of and risk factors for VRE at seven outpatient hemodialysis centers (three in Baltimore, MD, USA, and four in Richmond, VA, USA)...
  50. pmc Isolation of Enterobacter intermedium from the gallbladder of a patient with cholecystitis
    C M O'Hara
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 36:3055-6. 1998
    ..The organism is susceptible to the aminoglycosides and imipenem but resistant to the cephalosporins and ciprofloxacin...
  51. pmc Assignment of CDC weak oxidizer group 2 (WO-2) to the genus Pandoraea and characterization of three new Pandoraea genomospecies
    M I Daneshvar
    Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, PHS, U S DHHS, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 39:1819-26. 2001
    ..This study also shows that Pandoraea isolates may be encountered in blood cultures from patients without cystic fibrosis...
  52. pmc Testing for induction of clindamycin resistance in erythromycin-resistant isolates of Staphylococcus aureus
    Christine D Steward
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, NE, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 43:1716-21. 2005
    ..Thus, at present, disk diffusion is the preferred method for testing S. aureus isolates for inducible CLI resistance...
  53. ncbi request reprint Management of anthrax meningitis
    James J Sejvar
    Meningitis and Special Pathogens Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Lancet Infect Dis 5:287-95. 2005
    ..Such other agents include penicillin, ampicillin, meropenem, vancomycin, and rifampicin...
  54. doi request reprint Changes in the prevalence of nasal colonization with Staphylococcus aureus in the United States, 2001-2004
    Rachel J Gorwitz
    National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Infect Dis 197:1226-34. 2008
    ..Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of infection, particularly in persons colonized by this organism. Virulent strains of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) have emerged in the general community...
  55. pmc Comparison of typing results obtained for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates with the DiversiLab system and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis
    Fred C Tenover
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 47:2452-7. 2009
    ....
  56. ncbi request reprint Management of persistent bacteremia caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a survey of infectious diseases consultants
    Jeffrey C Hageman
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30033, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 43:e42-5. 2006
    ....
  57. pmc Results of disk diffusion testing with cefoxitin correlate with presence of mecA in Staphylococcus spp
    Jana M Swenson
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Mailstop G08, 1600 Clifton Rd, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 43:3818-23. 2005
    ..These data were used to refine the description of the test in CLSI document M100-S15. The cefoxitin DD test is preferred over the oxacillin DD test for predicting mecA-mediated oxacillin resistance in S. aureus and CoNS...
  58. pmc Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and healthcare risk factors
    R Monina Klevens
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 12:1991-3. 2006
    ..Of patients with HRFs, 18%-28% had a "community-associated" strain, primarily USA300; of patients without HRFs, 26% had a "healthcare-associated" strain, typically USA100...
  59. ncbi request reprint Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization in the United States, 2001-2002
    Matthew J Kuehnert
    National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    J Infect Dis 193:172-9. 2006
    ..Although methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infection has become increasingly reported, population-based S. aureus and MRSA colonization estimates are lacking...
  60. doi request reprint Trends in incidence of late-onset methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in neonatal intensive care units: data from the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System, 1995-2004
    Fernanda C Lessa
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 28:577-81. 2009
    ..We assessed the scope and magnitude of MRSA infections with disease onset after 3 days of age (late-onset MRSA infections) in NICUs...
  61. ncbi request reprint Changes in the epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in intensive care units in US hospitals, 1992-2003
    R Monina Klevens
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 42:389-91. 2006
    ..9% in 1992 to 64.4% in 2003 for hospitals in the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance system. During the same period, there was a decrease in resistance rates for several non- beta -lactam drugs among the MRSA isolates...
  62. pmc Accuracy of commercial and reference susceptibility testing methods for detecting vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus
    Jana M Swenson
    Clinical and Environmental Microbiology Branch, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 47:2013-7. 2009
    ..Only 12 (33.3%) strains for which the VA MICs were 4 microg/ml grew on VScr. The differentiation of isolates for which the VA MICs were 2 or 4 microg/ml was difficult for most systems and methods, including the reference methods...
  63. ncbi request reprint Investigation of inducible clindamycin and telithromycin resistance in isolates of beta-hemolytic streptococci
    Patti M Raney
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers of Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 55:213-8. 2006
    ....
  64. pmc Class 1 integrons in resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp., US hospitals
    Aarati N Rao
    Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 12:1011-4. 2006
    ..Thus, determining integron epidemiology will improve understanding of how antibacterial resistance determinants spread in the United States...
  65. ncbi request reprint A clone of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among professional football players
    Sophia V Kazakova
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    N Engl J Med 352:468-75. 2005
    ..We investigated an outbreak of abscesses due to MRSA among members of a professional football team and examined the transmission and microbiologic characteristics of the outbreak strain...
  66. pmc Comparison of Tn1546-like elements in vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from Michigan and Pennsylvania
    Nancye C Clark
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd NE, Mailstop G 08 Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:470-2. 2005
    ..These differences in the Tn1546-like elements indicate that the first two VRSA isolates were the result of independent genetic events...
  67. ncbi request reprint In vitro activities of Daptomycin, Linezolid, and Quinupristin-Dalfopristin against a challenge panel of Staphylococci and Enterococci, including vancomycin-intermediate staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium
    Laura A Jevitt
    Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Microb Drug Resist 9:389-93. 2003
    ..Population analysis of three S. aureus isolates for which the daptomycin MICs were 8 microg/ml showed a pattern of homogeneous resistance...
  68. ncbi request reprint Outbreak of Clostridium difficile infection in a long-term care facility: association with gatifloxacin use
    Robert Gaynes
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 38:640-5. 2004
    ..0001). We concluded that an outbreak of CDAD in an LTCF was associated with a formulary change from levofloxacin to gatifloxacin. The rate of CDAD in the LTCF decreased after a change back to levofloxacin...
  69. ncbi request reprint Genetic analysis of a high-level vancomycin-resistant isolate of Staphylococcus aureus
    Linda M Weigel
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Science 302:1569-71. 2003
    ..Genetic analyses suggest that the long-anticipated transfer of vancomycin resistance to a methicillin-resistant S. aureus occurred in vivo by interspecies transfer of Tn1546 from a co-isolate of Enterococcus faecalis...
  70. pmc Investigation of bioterrorism-related anthrax, United States, 2001: epidemiologic findings
    Daniel B Jernigan
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:1019-28. 2002
    ..Continued vigilance for cases is needed among health-care providers and members of the public health and law enforcement communities...
  71. ncbi request reprint Epidemiological and microbiological characterization of infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin, United States, 1997-2001
    Scott K Fridkin
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 36:429-39. 2003
    ..Independent risk factors for being a case patient included antecedent vancomycin use and prior oxacillin-resistant S. aureus infection 2 or 3 months before the current infection...
  72. pmc Monitoring antimicrobial use and resistance: comparison with a national benchmark on reducing vancomycin use and vancomycin-resistant enterococci
    Scott K Fridkin
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:702-7. 2002
    ..5% compared with mean increase of 5.7%, p<0.001). In this study, practice changes focused towards specific ICUs were associated with decreases in ICU vancomycin use and VRE prevalence...
  73. ncbi request reprint Macrolide-resistant pneumococcal endocarditis and epidural abscess that develop during erythromycin therapy
    Jay C Butler
    Arctic Investigations Program, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Anchorage, Alaska 99508, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 36:e19-25. 2003
    ..Clinicians should be alert to the possibility of the emergence of resistance during macrolide therapy for community-acquired pneumonia, particularly if suppurative complications of pneumococcal infection are suspected...
  74. pmc TEM-71, a novel plasmid-encoded, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase produced by a clinical isolate of Klebsiella pneumoniae
    J Kamile Rasheed
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:2000-3. 2002
    ..0 and a substrate profile showing preferential hydrolysis of cefotaxime over ceftazidime. It differed from TEM-1 by two substitutions, Gly238Ser and Glu240Lys, and was under the control of the strong P4 promoter...
  75. ncbi request reprint In vitro activity of a new cephalosporin, RWJ-54428, against streptococci, enterococci and staphylococci, including glycopeptide-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus
    Jana M Swenson
    Anti infectives Investigation Section, Epidemiology and Laboratory Branch, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Mailstop G08, 1600 Clifton Road N E, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Antimicrob Chemother 49:845-50. 2002
    ..faecium. The activity against four strains of glycopeptide-intermediate S. aureus was similar to that for other methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates (range 0.5-2.0 mg/L)...
  76. pmc Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing of oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from the United States: establishing a national database
    Linda K McDougal
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 41:5113-20. 2003
    ..Noticeably absent from the U.S. database were isolates with the previously described Brazilian and EMRSA15 PFGE patterns. These data suggest that there are a limited number of ORSA genotypes present in the United States...
  77. pmc Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Acinetobacter spp. by NCCLS broth microdilution and disk diffusion methods
    Jana M Swenson
    Division of Healthare Quality Promotion, Epidemiology and Laboratory Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 42:5102-8. 2004
    ..Clinical laboratories should be aware of these discrepancies. At present, there are no data to indicate which method provides more clinically relevant information...
  78. ncbi request reprint Vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus with phenotypic susceptibility to methicillin in a patient with recurrent bacteremia
    Timothy S Naimi
    Acute Disease Epidemiology Section and Division of Public Health Laboratories, Minnesota Department of Health, Minneapolis, MN, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 36:1609-12. 2003
    ..All isolates were mecA positive and were indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The evolving susceptibility patterns of this strain highlight the challenges of detecting and treating VISA infections...
  79. ncbi request reprint Infection with vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus containing the vanA resistance gene
    Soju Chang
    Epidemic Intelligence Service, Division of Applied Public Health Training, Epidemiology Program Office, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta 30333, USA
    N Engl J Med 348:1342-7. 2003
  80. pmc Optimization of computer software settings improves accuracy of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis macrorestriction fragment pattern analysis
    William M Duck
    Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 and Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 41:3035-42. 2003
    ....
  81. pmc Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Bacillus anthracis: comparison of results obtained by using the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards broth microdilution reference and Etest agar gradient diffusion methods
    M Jasmine Mohammed
    Epidemiology and Laboratory Branch, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion Meningitis and Special Pathogens Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 40:1902-7. 2002
    ..anthracis isolates...
  82. pmc Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of carbapenems: multicenter validity testing and accuracy levels of five antimicrobial test methods for detecting resistance in Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates
    Christine D Steward
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 41:351-8. 2003
    ....
  83. pmc Experimental prediction of the evolution of ceftazidime resistance in the CTX-M-2 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase
    Kerry J Welsh
    Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, 1518 Clifton Rd, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:1242-4. 2005
    ..All alleles had a Pro-to-Ser substitution at position 167...
  84. pmc The World Health Organization's External Quality Assurance System Proficiency Testing Program has improved the accuracy of antimicrobial susceptibility testing and reporting among participating laboratories using NCCLS methods
    Jasmine M Chaitram
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 41:2372-7. 2003
    ..The 31 and 19% increases in the numbers of laboratories using appropriate testing methods for pneumococci and staphylococci, respectively, in 2000 versus 1998 indicate that laboratory performance is improving...
  85. ncbi request reprint Antimicrobial proficiency testing of National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System hospital laboratories
    Jeffrey C Hageman
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 24:356-61. 2003
    ..To validate select antimicrobial susceptibility testing results and to identify test methods that tend to produce errors, we conducted proficiency testing among NNIS System hospital laboratories...
  86. pmc Comparison of disk diffusion, VITEK 2, and broth microdilution antimicrobial susceptibility test results for unusual species of Enterobacteriaceae
    Nimalie D Stone
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Emory University School of Medicine, 69 Jesse Hill, Jr, Dr S E, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 45:340-6. 2007
    ..In summary, disk diffusion provides a reliable alternative to BMD for testing of unusual Enterobacteriaceae, some of which cannot be tested, or produce incorrect results, by automated methods...
  87. ncbi request reprint Epidemic Shigella dysenteriae type 1 in Burundi: panresistance and implications for prevention
    A A Ries
    Foodborne and Diarrheal Diseases Branches, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
    J Infect Dis 169:1035-41. 1994
    ..dysenteriae type 1, clinical and epidemiologic features may predict such infection, and efforts to control this epidemic must focus on preventing transmission...
  88. ncbi request reprint Does antimicrobial resistance cluster in individual hospitals?
    John E McGowan
    Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    J Infect Dis 186:1362-5. 2002
    ..pneumoniae was significantly correlated with the majority of other sentinel antimicrobial-resistant organisms. High prevalence of this organism may serve as a marker for more generalized resistance problems in hospital inpatient areas...
  89. pmc Carbapenem resistance in a clinical isolate of Enterobacter aerogenes is associated with decreased expression of OmpF and OmpC porin analogs
    Hesna Yigit
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:3817-22. 2002
    ..aerogenes 810 is primarily associated with the lack of expression of the analogs of the OmpC (42-kDa) and OmpF (39-kDa) outer membrane proteins, which also results in decreased susceptibility to meropenem and cefepime...
  90. doi request reprint In vitro activity of ceftobiprole against coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated in the USA
    Velusamy Srinivasan
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 31:294-6. 2008
  91. pmc Epidemic community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: recent clonal expansion and diversification
    Adam D Kennedy
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:1327-32. 2008
    ..aureus (known as phage-type 80/81 S. aureus) in the 1950s...
  92. pmc High rate of mobilization for blaCTX-Ms
    Miriam Barlow
    University of California, Merced, California 95344, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 14:423-8. 2008
    ..That divergence has mainly occurred in the presence of purifying selection, which indicates a slow rate of evolution for blaCTX-Ms in the pre-antimicrobial drug era...
  93. pmc Presence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates possessing blaKPC in the United States
    Andrea Endimiani
    Research Service, Louis Stokes Cleveland Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:2680-2. 2008
    ..One isolate carried the bla(KPC-3) and qnrB19 genes on the same conjugative plasmid, whereas another carried the bla(KPC-3) and qnrA1 genes on separate plasmids...
  94. ncbi request reprint Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a perfect but geographically limited storm?
    Fred C Tenover
    Clin Infect Dis 46:675-7. 2008
  95. pmc Dissemination of new methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clones in the community
    Keiko Okuma
    Department of Bacteriology, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan
    J Clin Microbiol 40:4289-94. 2002
    ..They multiplied much faster than health-care-associated MRSA and were resistant to fewer non-beta-lactam antibiotics. They seem to have been derived from more diverse S. aureus populations than health-care-associated MRSA strains...
  96. pmc Detection of staphylococci with reduced susceptibility to glycopeptides
    Mary Jane Ferraro
    J Clin Microbiol 40:1573. 2002
  97. pmc Overlapping population structures of nasal isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from healthy Dutch and American individuals
    Damian C Melles
    Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, room L 313, Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, s Gravendijkwal 230, 3015 CE Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    J Clin Microbiol 46:235-41. 2008
    ..In conclusion, the overall population structures of American and Dutch nasal carriage isolates of S. aureus are surprisingly similar, despite subtle geographic differences in the prevalence of certain S. aureus genotypes...
  98. pmc Epidemiologic distribution of the arginine catabolic mobile element among selected methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus isolates
    Richard V Goering
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, NE 68178, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 45:1981-4. 2007
    ..arcA was also detected in selected methicillin-susceptible USA300 and methicillin-resistant USA100 isolates. DNA sequence analysis confirmed the integration of ACME in orfX...
  99. ncbi request reprint Re-emergence of early pandemic Staphylococcus aureus as a community-acquired meticillin-resistant clone
    D Ashley Robinson
    Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Bath, UK
    Lancet 365:1256-8. 2005
    ....
  100. ncbi request reprint Emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus at a Memphis, Tennessee Children's Hospital
    Steven C Buckingham
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 23:619-24. 2004
    ..An epidemiologic investigation was performed because of a perceived increase in infections caused by community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among children in the greater Memphis area...
  101. pmc Selection of strains for quality assessment of the disk induction method for detection of inducible clindamycin resistance in Staphylococci: a CLSI collaborative study
    Adrian M Zelazny
    Microbiology Service, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Warren G Magnuson Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 43:2613-5. 2005
    ..Strain UT 25 (now designated ATCC BAA-976), which harbors the efflux pump encoded by msr(A), is recommended as the negative control organism...