Joseph Piesman

Summary

Affiliation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Use of quantitative PCR to measure density of Borrelia burgdorferi in the midgut and salivary glands of feeding tick vectors
    J Piesman
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U S Public Health Service, Fort Collins, Colorado 80522, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 39:4145-8. 2001
  2. ncbi request reprint Protection against lyme disease spirochete transmission provided by prompt removal of nymphal Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)
    Joseph Piesman
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention, Ft Collins, CO 80522, USA
    J Med Entomol 39:509-12. 2002
  3. ncbi request reprint Strategies for reducing the risk of Lyme borreliosis in North America
    Joseph Piesman
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, PO Box 2087, Ft Collins, CO 80522, USA
    Int J Med Microbiol 296:17-22. 2006
  4. ncbi request reprint Lyme borreliosis in Europe and North America
    J Piesman
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, P O Box 2087, Fort Collins, CO 80522, USA
    Parasitology 129:S191-220. 2004
  5. ncbi request reprint Dynamic changes in Lyme disease spirochetes during transmission by nymphal ticks
    Joseph Piesman
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, DVBID, PO Box 2087, Ft Collins, CO 80522, USA
    Exp Appl Acarol 28:141-5. 2002
  6. ncbi request reprint Dynamic changes in Borrelia burgdorferi populations in Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) during transmission: studies at the mRNA level
    Joseph Piesman
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Ft Collins, Colorado 80522, USA
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 3:125-32. 2003
  7. pmc Elimination of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in rodent reservoirs and Ixodes scapularis ticks using a doxycycline hyclate-laden bait
    Marc C Dolan
    Division of Vector Borne Diseases, Bacterial Disease Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado 80521, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 85:1114-20. 2011
  8. ncbi request reprint Transmission efficiency of Francisella tularensis by adult american dog ticks (Acari: Ixodidae)
    Sara M Reese
    Bacterial Diseases Branch, Division of Vector Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 3150 Rampart Road, Fort Collins, CO, USA
    J Med Entomol 48:884-90. 2011
  9. pmc Comparison of disseminated and nondisseminated strains of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto in mice naturally infected by tick bite
    Marc C Dolan
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, P O Box 2087, Rampart Rd, Foothills Campus, Fort Collins, CO 80522, USA
    Infect Immun 72:5262-6. 2004
  10. ncbi request reprint Inability of outer-surface protein C (OspC)-primed mice to elicit a protective anamnestic immune response to a tick-transmitted challenge of Borrelia burgdorferi
    Robert D Gilmore
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases DVBID, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Public Health Service, US Department of Health and Human Services, Fort Collins, CO, USA
    J Med Microbiol 52:551-6. 2003

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications46

  1. pmc Use of quantitative PCR to measure density of Borrelia burgdorferi in the midgut and salivary glands of feeding tick vectors
    J Piesman
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U S Public Health Service, Fort Collins, Colorado 80522, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 39:4145-8. 2001
    ..The period of the most rapid increase in the number of spirochetes in the salivary glands occurred from 48 to 60 h postattachment; this time period coincides with the maximal increase in transmission risk during nymphal tick feeding...
  2. ncbi request reprint Protection against lyme disease spirochete transmission provided by prompt removal of nymphal Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)
    Joseph Piesman
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention, Ft Collins, CO 80522, USA
    J Med Entomol 39:509-12. 2002
    ..Finally, commercial tick removal devices varied widely in their efficacy for the removal of attached nymphal I. scapudaris...
  3. ncbi request reprint Strategies for reducing the risk of Lyme borreliosis in North America
    Joseph Piesman
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, PO Box 2087, Ft Collins, CO 80522, USA
    Int J Med Microbiol 296:17-22. 2006
    ....
  4. ncbi request reprint Lyme borreliosis in Europe and North America
    J Piesman
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, P O Box 2087, Fort Collins, CO 80522, USA
    Parasitology 129:S191-220. 2004
    ..By comparing the accumulated experience of investigators in North America and Europe, where the disease is most frequently reported, we hope to advance the cause of developing novel approaches to combat Lyme borreliosis...
  5. ncbi request reprint Dynamic changes in Lyme disease spirochetes during transmission by nymphal ticks
    Joseph Piesman
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, DVBID, PO Box 2087, Ft Collins, CO 80522, USA
    Exp Appl Acarol 28:141-5. 2002
    ..An understanding of this complex interplay will, hopefully, allow the development of new tools to block transmission of tick-borne agents...
  6. ncbi request reprint Dynamic changes in Borrelia burgdorferi populations in Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) during transmission: studies at the mRNA level
    Joseph Piesman
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Ft Collins, Colorado 80522, USA
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 3:125-32. 2003
    ..burgdorferi transcription activity during the act of transmission will lead to a better understanding of spirochete transmission dynamics, and hopefully facilitate the development of novel ways of interrupting the spread of Lyme disease...
  7. pmc Elimination of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in rodent reservoirs and Ixodes scapularis ticks using a doxycycline hyclate-laden bait
    Marc C Dolan
    Division of Vector Borne Diseases, Bacterial Disease Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado 80521, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 85:1114-20. 2011
    ..Results from this study indicate that doxycycline-impregnated bait is an effective means of reducing infection rates for B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum in both rodent reservoirs and questing I. scapularis ticks...
  8. ncbi request reprint Transmission efficiency of Francisella tularensis by adult american dog ticks (Acari: Ixodidae)
    Sara M Reese
    Bacterial Diseases Branch, Division of Vector Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 3150 Rampart Road, Fort Collins, CO, USA
    J Med Entomol 48:884-90. 2011
    ..These findings support the concept that D. variabilis adults may play a significant role in epizootic transmission of F. tularensis, and as a bridging vector to humans...
  9. pmc Comparison of disseminated and nondisseminated strains of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto in mice naturally infected by tick bite
    Marc C Dolan
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, P O Box 2087, Rampart Rd, Foothills Campus, Fort Collins, CO 80522, USA
    Infect Immun 72:5262-6. 2004
    ....
  10. ncbi request reprint Inability of outer-surface protein C (OspC)-primed mice to elicit a protective anamnestic immune response to a tick-transmitted challenge of Borrelia burgdorferi
    Robert D Gilmore
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases DVBID, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Public Health Service, US Department of Health and Human Services, Fort Collins, CO, USA
    J Med Microbiol 52:551-6. 2003
    ..Eleven of 12 OspC-primed mice subsequently became infected by B. burgdorferi, demonstrating that a protective anamnestic response was not generated in these mice following the introduction of infectious OspC-expressing spirochaetes...
  11. ncbi request reprint A doxycycline hyclate rodent bait formulation for prophylaxis and treatment of tick-transmitted Borrelia burgdorferi
    Marc C Dolan
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, Fort Collins, Colorado 80521, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 78:803-5. 2008
    ..9% to 100% of infected nymphs feeding on mice fed 250 and 500 mg/Kg antibiotic bait formulations, respectively. These data provide evidence for exploring alternative techniques to prevent transmission of Lyme disease spirochetes...
  12. pmc Functional analysis of the Borrelia burgdorferi bba64 gene product in murine infection via tick infestation
    Toni G Patton
    Microbiology and Pathogenesis Activity, Division of Vector Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA
    PLoS ONE 6:e19536. 2011
    ..Collectively, the results of this study indicate that BBA64 functions at the salivary gland-to-host delivery interface of vector transmission and is not involved in resistance to MyD88-mediated innate immunity...
  13. pmc Transmission dynamics of Francisella tularensis subspecies and clades by nymphal Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae)
    Sara M Reese
    Division of Vector Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 83:645-52. 2010
    ..Our results provide evidence of a high fitness cost and low transmission rates during the immature stages, suggesting that D. variabilis may play a limited role in enzootic maintenance of F. tularensis...
  14. ncbi request reprint Rapid detection methods and prevalence estimation for Borrelia lonestari glpQ in Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) pools of unequal size
    Rendi Murphree Bacon
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado 80522, USA
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 5:146-56. 2005
    ..82% (3.11, 7.16). The merits of each are discussed. Sequencing of the entire B. lonestari glpQ and partial 16S rRNA genes revealed two genetic variants circulating in this population of A. americanum from Missouri...
  15. ncbi request reprint Transfer of Borrelia burgdorferi s.s. infection via blood transfusion in a murine model
    Elizabeth S Gabitzsch
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, Bacterial Zoonoses Branch, Foothills Campus, Fort Collins, Colorado 80522, USA
    J Parasitol 92:869-70. 2006
    ..0%) outbred mice became infected with B. burgdorferi after transfusion. Our results indicate that it is possible to acquire B. burgdoferi infection via transfused blood in a mouse model of Lyme borreliosis...
  16. ncbi request reprint Molecular identification of Salp15, a key salivary gland protein in the transmission of lyme disease spirochetes, from Ixodes persulcatus and Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae)
    Andrias Hojgaard
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, NCZVED, CCID, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 3150 Rampart Rd, Ft Collins, CO 80521, USA
    J Med Entomol 46:1458-63. 2009
    ..There are at least three clades in the tree of Salp15 and its homologues, probably representing a multigene family...
  17. ncbi request reprint Transmission dynamics of Borrelia burgdorferi s.s. during the key third day of feeding by nymphal Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)
    Andrias Hojgaard
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, NCZVED, CCID, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 3150 Rampart Rd, Ft Collins, CO 80521 USA
    J Med Entomol 45:732-6. 2008
    ..The cumulative probability that 50% of infected ticks transmitted B. burgdorferi s.s. occurred at 68 h of tick attachment and our overall estimate that a human tick bite would result in transmission of B. burgdorferi s.s. was 2.4%...
  18. ncbi request reprint What do we need to know about disease ecology to prevent Lyme disease in the northeastern United States?
    Rebecca J Eisen
    Division of Vector Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 3150 Rampart Road, Fort Collins, CO 80522, USA
    J Med Entomol 49:11-22. 2012
    ....
  19. ncbi request reprint Ability of two natural products, nootkatone and carvacrol, to suppress Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) in a Lyme disease endemic area of New Jersey
    Marc C Dolan
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector Borne and Enteric Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO 80521, USA
    J Econ Entomol 102:2316-24. 2009
    ....
  20. ncbi request reprint Bacteriolytic activity of selected vertebrate sera for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and Borrelia bissettii
    Amy J Ullmann
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado 80522, USA
    J Parasitol 89:1256-7. 2003
    ..Interestingly, both B. bissettii and B. afzelii have been found to be closely associated with rodents. Complement sensitivity demonstrated in these experiments may suggest and possibly predict specific reservoir-host associations...
  21. doi request reprint High SNP density in the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis, the principal vector of Lyme disease spirochetes
    Janice Van Zee
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Vector Borne Diseases, Fort Collins, CO, USA
    Ticks Tick Borne Dis 4:63-71. 2013
    ....
  22. ncbi request reprint Short report: time course of hematogenous dissemination of Francisella tularensis A1, A2, and Type B in laboratory mice
    Rebecca J Eisen
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado 80522, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 80:259-62. 2009
    ..Our study provides the basis for a mouse model needed as the starting point to address these questions...
  23. ncbi request reprint A borreliacidal factor in Amblyomma americanum saliva is associated with phospholipase A2 activity
    Nordin Zeidner
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO 80524, USA
    Exp Parasitol 121:370-5. 2009
    ..americanum saliva to kill B. burgdorferi. These studies indicate the borreliacidal activity found in A. americanum saliva is likely due to phospholipase A2 enzymatic activity...
  24. ncbi request reprint Response of nymphal Ixodes scapularis, the primary tick vector of Lyme disease spirochetes in North America, to barriers derived from wood products or related home and garden items
    Joseph Piesman
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Bacterial Diseases Branch, Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, P O Box 2087, Ft Collins, CO 80522, USA
    J Vector Ecol 31:412-7. 2006
    ..Creating barriers at the woods-lawn interface may someday play a role in integrated campaigns to prevent Lyme disease but will not serve as a stand-alone measure to block transmission of Lyme disease spirochetes...
  25. ncbi request reprint Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding Lyme disease prevention among Connecticut residents, 1999-2004
    L Hannah Gould
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector Borne and Enteric Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado 80521, USA
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 8:769-76. 2008
    ..These results provide guidance for the development of effective Lyme disease prevention programs by identifying measures most likely to be adopted by residents of Lyme disease endemic communities...
  26. ncbi request reprint Borrelia burgdorferi-specific monoclonal antibodies derived from mice primed with Lyme disease spirochete-infected Ixodes scapularis ticks
    M Lamine Mbow
    Department of Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
    Hybrid Hybridomics 21:179-82. 2002
    ..The data presented here suggest that the production of MAbs from animals infected by tick-bite is a potentially useful tool for the identification of novel proteins synthesized by B. burgdorferi during mammalian infection...
  27. ncbi request reprint DNA evidence of Borrelia lonestari in Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) in southeast Missouri
    Rendi Murphree Bacon
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Ft Collins, CO 80521, USA
    J Med Entomol 40:590-2. 2003
    ..lonestari after A. americanum tick bite, a possible cause of erythema migrans-like rash illness in this region. Derivation of the complete coding sequence for B. lonestari flaB is also reported...
  28. ncbi request reprint Indicators for elevated risk of human exposure to host-seeking adults of the Rocky Mountain wood tick (Dermacentor andersoni) in Colorado
    Lars Eisen
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
    J Vector Ecol 33:117-28. 2008
    ..andersoni and its associated pathogens...
  29. pmc Efficacy of an experimental azithromycin cream for prophylaxis of tick-transmitted lyme disease spirochete infection in a murine model
    Joseph Piesman
    Division of Vector Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 58:348-51. 2014
    ..Mice that were protected from tick-transmitted infection did not seroconvert and did not infect larval ticks on xenodiagnosis. Azithromycin cream formulations appear to hold promise for Lyme disease prophylaxis. ..
  30. ncbi request reprint How can we prevent Lyme disease?
    Edward B Hayes
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colo 80522, USA
    N Engl J Med 348:2424-30. 2003
  31. ncbi request reprint Prevention of tick-borne diseases
    Joseph Piesman
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO 80522, USA
    Annu Rev Entomol 53:323-43. 2008
    ..Both new approaches to tick and pathogen control and novel ways of translating research findings into practical control measures are needed to prevent tick-borne diseases in the twenty-first century...
  32. ncbi request reprint Repellent activity of fractioned compounds from Chamaecyparis nootkatensis essential oil against nymphal Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)
    Gabrielle Dietrich
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO 80524, USA
    J Med Entomol 43:957-61. 2006
    ..Although not statistically significantly more active than deet, the ability of these natural products to repel ticks at relatively low concentrations may represent a potential alternative to synthetic commercial repellents...
  33. ncbi request reprint Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti, with two different multiplex PCR assays
    Andrias Hojgaard
    Division of Vector Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO, USA Electronic address
    Ticks Tick Borne Dis 5:349-51. 2014
    ..miyamotoi can also be identified. The multiplex assays are fast and cost-effective methods for screening and detecting pathogens in ticks, when compared to single-target PCR. ..
  34. doi request reprint Protective value of prophylactic antibiotic treatment of tick bite for Lyme disease prevention: an animal model
    Joseph Piesman
    Bacterial Diseases Branch, Division of Vector Borne Diseases, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 3150 Rampart Road, Fort Collins, CO 80521, USA
    Ticks Tick Borne Dis 3:193-6. 2012
    ..There is only a very narrow window for prophylactic treatment to be effective post tick removal...
  35. ncbi request reprint A preliminary linkage map of the tick, Ixodes scapularis
    Amy J Ullmann
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Rampart Road, Foothills Campus, Fort Collins, CO 80522, USA
    Exp Appl Acarol 28:107-26. 2002
    ..8 cM. Assuming a genome size of approximately 10(9) bp, the relationship of physical to genetic distance is approximately 300 kb/cM in the I. scapularis genome...
  36. pmc Vector interactions and molecular adaptations of lyme disease and relapsing fever spirochetes associated with transmission by ticks
    Tom G Schwan
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana 59840, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:115-21. 2002
    ..We describe how B. burgdorferi and B. hermsii change their outer surface during their alternating infections in ticks and mammals, which in turn suggests biological functions for a few surface-exposed lipoproteins...
  37. pmc Association of Borrelia garinii and B. valaisiana with songbirds in Slovakia
    Klára Hanincová
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, St Mary s Campus, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
    Appl Environ Microbiol 69:2825-30. 2003
    ..garinii and B. valaisiana but not of B. afzelii. This and previous studies confirm that B. burgdorferi sensu lato is host associated and that this bacterial species complex contains different ecotypes...
  38. pmc Genetic variation at the vlsE locus of Borrelia burgdorferi within ticks and mice over the course of a single transmission cycle
    Jun Ohnishi
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    J Bacteriol 185:4432-41. 2003
    ..Although vlsE genetic diversity is maintained through tick stages, the VlsE protein is unlikely to be of functional importance in the vector, because the protein was expressed by very few (<1%) bacteria in the vector...
  39. ncbi request reprint Vector competence of Ixodes pacificus and I. spinipalpis (Acari: Ixodidae), and reservoir competence of the dusky-footed woodrat (Neotoma fuscipes) and the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), for Borrelia bissettii
    Lars Eisen
    Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    J Med Entomol 40:311-20. 2003
    ..pacificus are efficient experimental vectors of B. bissettii. However, the reluctance of I. pacificus nymphs to feed on certain rodents may limit its importance as an enzootic vector of B. burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes...
  40. ncbi request reprint Survey of ticks collected in Mississippi for Rickettsia, Ehrlichia, and Borrelia species
    Jerome Goddard
    Mississippi Department of Health, Jackson, MS 39215 1700, USA
    J Vector Ecol 28:184-9. 2003
    ..The significance of this finding remains undetermined...
  41. ncbi request reprint New records of immature Ixodes scapularis from Mississippi
    Jerome Goddard
    Mississippi Department o Health, Jackson, MS 39215, USA
    J Vector Ecol 31:421-2. 2006
  42. ncbi request reprint Integrated use of 4-Poster passive topical treatment devices for deer, targeted acaricide applications, and Maxforce TMS bait boxes to rapidly suppress populations of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in a residential landscape
    Terry L Schulze
    Freehold Area Health Department, Municipal Plaza, Schanck Rd, Freehold, NJ 07728, USA
    J Med Entomol 44:830-9. 2007
    ..3, 90.6, and 87.3%, respectively. Prospects for widespread use of these technologies to protect the public's health are discussed...
  43. ncbi request reprint A hard tick relapsing fever group spirochete in a Brazilian Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus
    Luciana A Yparraguirre
    Laboratório de Genética Molecular de Eucariontes e Simbiontes, Departamento de Genetica, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 7:717-21. 2007
    ..theileri and B. lonestari. Thus, hard tick relapsing fever group spirochetes represent a clade of widespread bacteria and herein we describe the first molecular identification of a Borrelia sp. in South America...
  44. ncbi request reprint Ability of 4-poster passive topical treatment devices for deer to sustain low population levels of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) after integrated tick management in a residential landscape
    L Schulze
    Freehold Area Health Department, Municipal Plaza, Schanck Road, Freehold, NJ 07728, USA
    J Med Entomol 45:899-904. 2008
    ..scapularis...
  45. pmc Novel relapsing fever spirochete in bat tick
    James S Gill
    Emerg Infect Dis 14:522-3. 2008
  46. pmc MLST of housekeeping genes captures geographic population structure and suggests a European origin of Borrelia burgdorferi
    Gabriele Margos
    Departments of Biology and Biochemistry and Mathematical Sciences, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:8730-5. 2008
    ..burgdorferi correspond to genetically distinct populations. Importantly, the MLST data suggest that B. burgdorferi originated in Europe rather than in North America as proposed previously...