L L Needham

Summary

Affiliation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Assessing children's exposure to hazardous environmental chemicals: an overview of selected research challenges and complexities
    L L Needham
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health, Atlanta, Georgia 30341 3724, USA
    J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 10:611-29. 2000
  2. ncbi request reprint Guidelines for analysis of human milk for environmental chemicals
    Larry L Needham
    National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    J Toxicol Environ Health A 65:1893-908. 2002
  3. ncbi request reprint Uses of speciation techniques in biomonitoring for assessing human exposure to organic environmental chemicals
    Larry L Needham
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Anal Bioanal Chem 381:397-404. 2005
  4. pmc Assessing exposure to organophosphorus pesticides by biomonitoring in epidemiologic studies of birth outcomes
    Larry L Needham
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341 3724, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 113:494-8. 2005
  5. ncbi request reprint Uses and issues of biomonitoring
    Larry L Needham
    National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Mailstop F17, 4770 Buford Highway, Atlanta, GA 30341 3724, USA
    Int J Hyg Environ Health 210:229-38. 2007
  6. ncbi request reprint Concentrations of environmental chemicals associated with neurodevelopmental effects in U.S. population
    Larry L Needham
    Organic Analytical Toxicology Branch, Mailstop F17, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 3724, USA
    Neurotoxicology 26:531-45. 2005
  7. pmc Exposure assessment in the National Children's Study: introduction
    Larry L Needham
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 113:1076-82. 2005
  8. ncbi request reprint Characterizing children's exposures: beyond NHANES
    Larry L Needham
    Organic Analytical Toxicology Branch, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Mailstop F17, 4770 Buford Highway, Atlanta, GA 30341 3724, USA
    Neurotoxicology 26:547-53. 2005
  9. pmc Urinary concentrations of metabolites of pyrethroid insecticides in the general U.S. population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002
    Dana Boyd Barr
    National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 118:742-8. 2010
  10. ncbi request reprint Serum levels of several organochlorine pesticides in farmers correspond with dietary exposure and local use history
    J W Brock
    National Center for Environmental Health NCEH, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Toxicol Ind Health 14:275-89. 1998

Detail Information

Publications117 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi request reprint Assessing children's exposure to hazardous environmental chemicals: an overview of selected research challenges and complexities
    L L Needham
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health, Atlanta, Georgia 30341 3724, USA
    J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 10:611-29. 2000
    ..These research complexities are discussed in the context of developing more effective and efficient exposure assessment methods...
  2. ncbi request reprint Guidelines for analysis of human milk for environmental chemicals
    Larry L Needham
    National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    J Toxicol Environ Health A 65:1893-908. 2002
    ..Human milk is an ideal matrix for estimating exposure to certain environmental chemicals, and researchers must ensure that the techniques used to determine these compounds adhere to known and accepted analytical requirements...
  3. ncbi request reprint Uses of speciation techniques in biomonitoring for assessing human exposure to organic environmental chemicals
    Larry L Needham
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Anal Bioanal Chem 381:397-404. 2005
    ..Much of this information and many of these techniques are transferable to the measurement of inorganic elements in environmental and biological samples...
  4. pmc Assessing exposure to organophosphorus pesticides by biomonitoring in epidemiologic studies of birth outcomes
    Larry L Needham
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341 3724, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 113:494-8. 2005
    ..These approaches and how they may contribute to different relations between exposure and birth outcomes are examined...
  5. ncbi request reprint Uses and issues of biomonitoring
    Larry L Needham
    National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Mailstop F17, 4770 Buford Highway, Atlanta, GA 30341 3724, USA
    Int J Hyg Environ Health 210:229-38. 2007
    ....
  6. ncbi request reprint Concentrations of environmental chemicals associated with neurodevelopmental effects in U.S. population
    Larry L Needham
    Organic Analytical Toxicology Branch, Mailstop F17, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 3724, USA
    Neurotoxicology 26:531-45. 2005
    ..S. population. These data will continue to be collected in 2-year cycles and thus allow changes in human levels to be followed...
  7. pmc Exposure assessment in the National Children's Study: introduction
    Larry L Needham
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 113:1076-82. 2005
    ..Criteria for the analytical method of choice are discussed with particular emphasis on the need for long-term quality control and quality assurance measures...
  8. ncbi request reprint Characterizing children's exposures: beyond NHANES
    Larry L Needham
    Organic Analytical Toxicology Branch, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Mailstop F17, 4770 Buford Highway, Atlanta, GA 30341 3724, USA
    Neurotoxicology 26:547-53. 2005
    ..We recommend additional studies to supplement the NHANES biomonitoring data...
  9. pmc Urinary concentrations of metabolites of pyrethroid insecticides in the general U.S. population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002
    Dana Boyd Barr
    National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 118:742-8. 2010
    ..Pyrethroid insecticides are the most commonly used residential insecticides in the United States...
  10. ncbi request reprint Serum levels of several organochlorine pesticides in farmers correspond with dietary exposure and local use history
    J W Brock
    National Center for Environmental Health NCEH, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Toxicol Ind Health 14:275-89. 1998
    ..Previous reported use of chlordane on the North Carolina farms corresponded with measurable dietary levels of chlordance and higher serum trans-nonachlor levels than the levels in Iowa farm families...
  11. ncbi request reprint Assessment of human exposure to di-isodecyl phthalate using oxidative metabolites as biomarkers
    M J Silva
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Biomarkers 12:133-44. 2007
    ..These data also suggest that unless oxidative metabolites are measured, the prevalence of exposure to DiDP will probably be underestimated...
  12. ncbi request reprint Contaminants in L-tryptophan associated with eosinophilia myalgia syndrome
    R H Hill
    Division of Environmental Health Laboratory Sciences, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333
    Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 25:134-42. 1993
    ..K., and that six of these contaminants were associated with EMS. The structures of three contaminants are known, but the identities of the other three contaminants are currently unknown.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)..
  13. ncbi request reprint Strategies for biological monitoring of exposure for contemporary-use pesticides
    D B Barr
    Division of Environmental Health Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Toxicol Ind Health 15:168-79. 1999
    ..We also present a general strategy, considerations, and recommendations for developing biological monitoring techniques for measuring the internal dose of contemporary-use pesticides...
  14. ncbi request reprint Quantification of atrazine, phenylurea, and sulfonylurea herbicide metabolites in urine by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
    Johnny V Nguyen
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway NE, M S F 17, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    J Anal Toxicol 31:181-6. 2007
    ..Extraction recoveries ranged from 88% to 104% (n = 5). Limits of detection for the entire method ranged from 0.125 to 1 ng/mL, and the average relative standard deviation of repeat measurements was about 13% (n = 30)...
  15. ncbi request reprint Measurement of eight urinary metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate as biomarkers for human exposure assessment
    M J Silva
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Biomarkers 11:1-13. 2006
    ..6% (MEHP) and 31.8% (MECPP) in the adults. Whether the observed differences reflect differences in route/duration of the exposure, age and/or health status of the individuals is presently unknown...
  16. doi request reprint Automated on-line column-switching HPLC-MS/MS method for measuring environmental phenols and parabens in serum
    Xiaoyun Ye
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway, Mailstop F53, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Talanta 76:865-71. 2008
    ..However, important additional factors, including validated sample collecting, handling, and storing protocols, as well as toxicokinetic data, are required if these measures are used for exposure assessment...
  17. pmc Urinary levels of seven phthalate metabolites in the U.S. population from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2000
    Manori J Silva
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway NE, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 112:331-8. 2004
    ....
  18. doi request reprint Measurement of ethyl methanesulfonate in human plasma and breast milk samples using high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry
    M Angela Montesano
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health, Division of Laboratory Sciences, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    J Pharm Biomed Anal 52:260-4. 2010
    ..The limits of detection were in the range of 0.5-0.9 ng/ml for both matrices...
  19. ncbi request reprint A rapid, cost-effective method for analyzing organophosphorus pesticide metabolites in human urine for counter-terrorism response
    Gayanga Weerasekera
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    J Anal Toxicol 32:106-15. 2008
    ..Because this method is lower in cost, it may be a more viable option for equipping multiple laboratories with chemical-terrorism response capabilities...
  20. ncbi request reprint Utilization of umbilical cords to assess in utero exposure to persistent pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls
    V W Burse
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 10:776-88. 2000
    ..13%. The utility of using the umbilical cord as a matrix to assess in utero exposure to persistent environmental pollutants, compared with the use of umbilical cord blood or mother's blood, is worthy of debate...
  21. ncbi request reprint Temporal stability of the conjugated species of bisphenol A, parabens, and other environmental phenols in human urine
    Xiaoyun Ye
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 17:567-72. 2007
    ....
  22. ncbi request reprint Assigning concentration values for dioxin and furan congeners in human serum when measurements are below limits of detection: an observational approach
    Larry L Needham
    National Center for Environmental Health, Division of Laboratory Sciences, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway, NE, MS F17, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Chemosphere 67:439-47. 2007
    ..Using the congener ratio approach for other PCDD/PCDF congeners requires assessing the correlation and the frequency of detection for both TCDD and PeCDD...
  23. ncbi request reprint Levels of 1-hydroxypyrene and other monohydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in children: a study based on U.S. reference range values
    Wenlin Huang
    National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Hwy NE, Mailstop F 47, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Toxicol Lett 163:10-9. 2006
    ..These results may indicate that young children are at a greater risk for PAH exposure, or that they absorb, distribute, metabolize, or eliminate PAH differently than adults...
  24. ncbi request reprint Measuring environmental phenols and chlorinated organic chemicals in breast milk using automated on-line column-switching-high performance liquid chromatography-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry
    Xiaoyun Ye
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway, Mailstop F17, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 831:110-5. 2006
    ..BPA, OPP, and BP-3 were detected in more than 60% of the samples tested. The free species of these compounds appear to be most prevalent in milk...
  25. ncbi request reprint Quantification of the urinary concentrations of parabens in humans by on-line solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry
    Xiaoyun Ye
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 844:53-9. 2006
    ..Using this method, we detected methyl, ethyl, and propyl parabens, mostly as conjugated species, in 22 urine samples collected from anonymous adults...
  26. ncbi request reprint Determination of dialkyl phosphate metabolites of organophosphorus pesticides in human urine by automated solid-phase extraction, derivatization, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
    G K Hemakanthi De Alwis
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway NE, Mailstop F 17, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    J Anal Toxicol 32:721-7. 2008
    ..We compared performance of DBP as an internal standard with that of isotope-labeled compounds and found that DBP gives reliable results for the analytical procedure. We also optimized reaction parameters of pentafluorobenzylation...
  27. doi request reprint Serum dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, and endometriosis: a case-control study in Atlanta
    Amanda S Niskar
    Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Chemosphere 74:944-9. 2009
    ..Serum concentrations (lipid-adjusted and non lipid-adjusted) of analyzed exposure measures were low and similar for cases and controls and did not explain endometriosis in the study population...
  28. doi request reprint Total TEQ reference range (PCDDs, PCDFs, cPCBs, mono-PCBs) for the US population 2001-2002
    Donald G Patterson
    Organic Analytical Toxicology Branch, Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway, NE, Mail Stop F 17, Atlanta, GA 30341, United States
    Chemosphere 73:S261-77. 2008
    ..In the pools, as age increases the percent contribution of the PCDD TEQ levels increases while the percent contribution of the PCDF TEQ levels decreases for all race/ethnicity and sex strata...
  29. pmc Levels of methyleugenol in a subset of adults in the general U.S. population as determined by high resolution mass spectrometry
    D B Barr
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 108:323-8. 2000
    ..S. adults to ME. Detailed pharmacokinetic studies are required to determine the relationship between ME intake and human serum ME concentrations...
  30. ncbi request reprint Urinary biomarkers of di-isononyl phthalate in rats
    Manori J Silva
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Toxicology 223:101-12. 2006
    ....
  31. doi request reprint Stability of the conjugated species of environmental phenols and parabens in human serum
    Xiaoyun Ye
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Environ Int 35:1160-3. 2009
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first study to report on the stability of conjugated species in serum, and as such requires replication...
  32. pmc Serum concentrations of selected persistent organic pollutants in a sample of pregnant females and changes in their concentrations during gestation
    Richard Y Wang
    National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 117:1244-9. 2009
    ....
  33. ncbi request reprint Perfluorochemicals in pooled serum samples from United States residents in 2001 and 2002
    Antonia M Calafat
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 40:2128-34. 2006
    ..These findings indicate different patterns of human exposure to PFCs among the population groups examined and stress the importance of conducting research to identify the environmental sources and pathways of human exposure to PFCs...
  34. doi request reprint Organophosphorus and pyrethroid insecticide urinary metabolite concentrations in young children living in a southeastern United States city
    Luke P Naeher
    Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Sci Total Environ 408:1145-53. 2010
    ....
  35. ncbi request reprint Identification and quantification of diethylene glycol in pharmaceuticals implicated in poisoning epidemics: an historical laboratory perspective
    Dana B Barr
    National Center of Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    J Anal Toxicol 31:295-303. 2007
    ..This methodology includes the development of biomarkers of DEG exposure, which would be extremely useful in instances where pharmaceuticals are not clearly implicated...
  36. pmc Urinary concentrations of four parabens in the U.S. population: NHANES 2005-2006
    Antonia M Calafat
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 118:679-85. 2010
    ..Parabens are widely used as antimicrobial preservatives in cosmetics, -pharmaceuticals, and food and beverage processing...
  37. ncbi request reprint Human exposure assessment to environmental chemicals using biomonitoring
    Antonia M Calafat
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Int J Androl 29:166-71; discussion 181-5. 2006
    ..The use of biomonitoring in human risk assessment is not discussed...
  38. ncbi request reprint Concentrations of xenobiotic chemicals in the maternal-fetal unit
    Dana B Barr
    National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, United States
    Reprod Toxicol 23:260-6. 2007
    ..In some instances where known health outcomes have occurred from these exposures, we note these and any caveats associated with the exposures...
  39. ncbi request reprint Automated solid-phase extraction and quantitative analysis of 14 phthalate metabolites in human serum using isotope dilution-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
    Manori J Silva
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    J Anal Toxicol 29:819-24. 2005
    ..The method is accurate, precise, and sensitive, with limits of detection in the low nanogram-per-milliliter range...
  40. ncbi request reprint SPE/SPME-GC/MS approach for measuring musk compounds in serum and breast milk
    Zsuzsanna Kuklenyik
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 858:177-83. 2007
    ..The method, which requires only 1 mL serum or breast milk to achieve limits of detection of 0.03-0.3 ng/mL, is applicable in biomonitoring studies for human internal dose measurement of polycyclic musk compounds...
  41. doi request reprint Cross validation and ruggedness testing of analytical methods used for the quantification of urinary phthalate metabolites
    Manori J Silva
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, United States
    J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 873:180-6. 2008
    ....
  42. ncbi request reprint Cross validation of multiple methods for measuring pyrethroid and pyrethrum insecticide metabolites in human urine
    Dana B Barr
    National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway, Mailstop F17, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Anal Bioanal Chem 389:811-8. 2007
    ....
  43. pmc Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals in the U.S. population: data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004 and comparisons with NHANES 1999-2000
    Antonia M Calafat
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 115:1596-602. 2007
    ..Exposure of the general U.S. population to PFCs is widespread. Since 2002, the manufacturing practices for PFCs in the United States have changed considerably...
  44. ncbi request reprint Serum dioxin levels in residents of Calcasieu and Lafayette parishes, Louisiana with comparison to the US population
    Le E Yang Wong
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 18:252-61. 2008
    ..Since the combined parish dioxin levels were below a representative sampling of the US population, there is no increase in serum dioxin concentrations in both the parishes...
  45. doi request reprint Assessing developmental toxicant exposures via biomonitoring
    Larry L Needham
    Organic Analytical Toxicology Branch, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 3724, USA
    Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 102:100-8. 2008
    ..In this paper, we examine this linkage using several chemicals as examples and providing biomonitoring information for these chemicals in the US population as a whole but also at various life stages...
  46. ncbi request reprint Identification of human urinary metabolites of acetochlor in exposed herbicide applicators by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
    Dana B Barr
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 17:559-66. 2007
    ..At lower exposures (classified as ACM<10 microg/l), ACM and acetochlor concentrations were similar. Additionally, we tentatively identified another acetochlor metabolite that appeared to be important at low levels of exposure...
  47. pmc Urinary concentrations of triclosan in the U.S. population: 2003-2004
    Antonia M Calafat
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 116:303-7. 2008
    ..Triclosan is a synthetic chemical with broad antimicrobial activity that has been used extensively in consumer products, including personal care products, textiles, and plastic kitchenware...
  48. ncbi request reprint Method for determination of acephate, methamidophos, omethoate, dimethoate, ethylenethiourea and propylenethiourea in human urine using high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry
    M Angela Montesano
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Hwy NE, Mailstop F 17, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 17:321-30. 2007
    ..For all compounds the extraction efficiency ranged between 52% and 63%, relative recoveries were about 100%, and the limits of detection were in the range of 0.001-0.282 ng/ml...
  49. ncbi request reprint Serum concentrations of 11 polyfluoroalkyl compounds in the u.s. population: data from the national health and nutrition examination survey (NHANES)
    Antonia M Calafat
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 41:2237-42. 2007
    ....
  50. ncbi request reprint Serum concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) in the United States population: 2003-2004
    Andreas Sjodin
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health, 4770 Buford Highway NE, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 42:1377-84. 2008
    ..01). Adults 60 years and older were twice as likely as adults 20-59 years old to have a serum BDE-47 concentration above the 95th percentile (p = 0.02). These data provide needed exposure assessment data for public health decisions...
  51. ncbi request reprint Calculation of serum "total lipid" concentrations for the adjustment of persistent organohalogen toxicant measurements in human samples
    John T Bernert
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway, NE Atlanta, Georgia 30341, United States
    Chemosphere 68:824-31. 2007
    ....
  52. doi request reprint Concentration of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in household dust from various countries
    Andreas Sjodin
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health, Division for Laboratory Sciences, 4770 Buford Hwy, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Chemosphere 73:S131-6. 2008
    ..We conclude that further studies are required to investigate human indoor exposure to PBDEs across countries and to determine the risk factors related to indoor design factors...
  53. ncbi request reprint Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the serum of US Air Force veterans in 2002
    Marian Pavuk
    SpecPro Inc, 12500 San Pedro Avenue, Suite 670, San Antonio, TX 78216, USA
    Chemosphere 68:62-8. 2007
    ..6 pg/g lipid and 22.8 pg/g lipid, respectively. This was mainly due to changes of TEFs for the group of mono-ortho PCBs, which decreased the mono-ortho PCBs TEQs by almost 90% in both Ranch Hands and Comparisons...
  54. ncbi request reprint Urinary oxidative metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in humans
    Manori J Silva
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Mailstop F17, 4770 Buford Hwy NE, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Toxicology 219:22-32. 2006
    ..Although quantitative information is not available, our findings suggest that, despite potential differences among species, the oxidative metabolism of DEHP in humans and rodents results in similar urinary metabolic products...
  55. ncbi request reprint Concentrations of selective metabolites of organophosphorus pesticides in the United States population
    Dana B Barr
    National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Environ Res 99:314-26. 2005
    ..Similarly, adolescents had significantly higher TCPY concentrations than adults. Although the concentrations between sexes and among composite racial/ethnic groups varied, no significant differences were observed...
  56. ncbi request reprint Comprehensive solid-phase extraction method for persistent organic pollutants. Validation and application to the analysis of persistent chlorinated pesticides
    Courtney D Sandau
    National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway NE, Mailstop F17, Atlanta, Georgia, 30341 3724, USA
    Anal Chem 75:71-7. 2003
    ..The method represents a preliminary step in establishing an automated, comprehensive multiresidue analysis method for POPs in human serum...
  57. pmc Retrospective time-trend study of polybrominated diphenyl ether and polybrominated and polychlorinated biphenyl levels in human serum from the United States
    Andreas Sjodin
    Organic Analytical Toxicology Branch, Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341 3717, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 112:654-8. 2004
    ..In contrast, PCB and PBB levels were negatively correlated with sample collection year, indicating that the levels of these compounds have been decreasing since their phaseout in the 1970s...
  58. pmc Mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate and mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate as biomarkers for human exposure assessment to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate
    Kayoko Kato
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway NE, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 112:327-30. 2004
    ....
  59. ncbi request reprint Simultaneous measurement of urinary bisphenol A and alkylphenols by automated solid-phase extractive derivatization gas chromatography/mass spectrometry
    Zsuzsanna Kuklenyik
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Anal Chem 75:6820-5. 2003
    ..The method, validated on spiked pooled urine samples and on urine samples from exposed persons, has limits of detection of approximately 0.1 ng in 1 mL of urine...
  60. ncbi request reprint Urinary and serum concentrations of seven phytoestrogens in a human reference population subset
    Liza Valentin-Blasini
    National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 13:276-82. 2003
    ..Determination of phytoestrogen concentrations in large study populations will give a better insight into the actual dietary exposure to these biologically active compounds in the US population...
  61. ncbi request reprint Quantitation of dialkyl phosphate metabolites of organophosphate pesticides in human urine using GC-MS-MS with isotopic internal standards
    Roberto Bravo
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    J Anal Toxicol 26:245-52. 2002
    ..The use of stable isotope analogues as internal standards for each of these metabolites allows for the highest degree of accuracy and precision. Additionally, the low LODs allow the use of this method in general population studies...
  62. pmc Assessing human exposure to phthalates using monoesters and their oxidized metabolites as biomarkers
    Dana B Barr
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 111:1148-51. 2003
    ....
  63. ncbi request reprint Analytical methods for biological monitoring of exposure to pesticides: a review
    Dana B Barr
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway NE, Mailstop F17, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 778:5-29. 2002
    ..We also present a critical assessment of the existing methodology and explore areas in which more research is needed...
  64. ncbi request reprint A multi-analyte method for the quantification of contemporary pesticides in human serum and plasma using high-resolution mass spectrometry
    Dana B Barr
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Hwy NE, Mailstop F17, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 778:99-111. 2002
    ..We found detectable concentrations of carbaryl/naphthalene, propoxur, bendiocarb, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dicloran, captan and folpet or their metabolites in more than 20% of the plasma samples tested...
  65. ncbi request reprint Glucuronidation patterns of common urinary and serum monoester phthalate metabolites
    Manori J Silva
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Hwy NE, Mailstop F17, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Arch Toxicol 77:561-7. 2003
    ..Serum mBzP was largely below the method limit of detection. Interestingly, the serum mEP and mBP levels were less than 3% and 47%, respectively, of their urinary levels, whereas the level of mEHP was similar both in urine and serum...
  66. ncbi request reprint Urinary phytoestrogen concentrations in the U.S. population (1999-2000)
    Liza Valentin-Blasini
    National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 15:509-23. 2005
    ....
  67. ncbi request reprint Quantification of urinary conjugates of bisphenol A, 2,5-dichlorophenol, and 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone in humans by online solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
    Xiaoyun Ye
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Hwy, Mailstop F17, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Anal Bioanal Chem 383:638-44. 2005
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first study describing the distribution of urinary conjugates of BP-3 and 2,5-DCP in humans...
  68. ncbi request reprint Urinary and amniotic fluid levels of phthalate monoesters in rats after the oral administration of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate
    Antonia M Calafat
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Hwy, NE, Mailstop F17, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Toxicology 217:22-30. 2006
    ..Although no firm conclusions could be drawn from the urinary MBP data, the MEHP results suggest that maternal urinary MEHP levels may be useful surrogate markers for fetal exposure to DEHP...
  69. ncbi request reprint Detection of phthalate metabolites in human saliva
    Manori J Silva
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway NE, Mail Stop F 17, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Arch Toxicol 79:647-52. 2005
    ....
  70. ncbi request reprint Perfluorinated chemicals in selected residents of the American continent
    Antonia M Calafat
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Hwy, NE, Mailstop F17, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Chemosphere 63:490-6. 2006
    ..Genetic variability, diet, lifestyle, or a combination of all these may contribute to the different patterns of human exposure to PFCs in the United States and Peru...
  71. ncbi request reprint New high-resolution mass spectrometric approach for the measurement of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in human serum
    John R Barr
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway, NE, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 794:137-48. 2003
    ..We used this method to analyze approximately 350 serum samples over a period of several months. We found that our new method was as reliable in automated, overnight runs as our current method...
  72. pmc Assessing exposure to atrazine and its metabolites using biomonitoring
    Dana B Barr
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 115:1474-8. 2007
    ..When we assessed exposure to ATZ by measuring its urinary mercapturic acid metabolite, general population data indicated that < 5% of the population was exposed to ATZ-related chemicals (limit of detection < 0.8 ng/mL)...
  73. ncbi request reprint Serum polychlorinated biphenyl and organochlorine insecticide concentrations in a Faroese birth cohort
    Dana B Barr
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway, Mailstop F17, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Chemosphere 62:1167-82. 2006
    ....
  74. ncbi request reprint Quantification of 22 phthalate metabolites in human urine
    Manori J Silva
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, United States
    J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 860:106-12. 2007
    ....
  75. ncbi request reprint Metabolite profiles of di-n-butyl phthalate in humans and rats
    Manori J Silva
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 41:7576-80. 2007
    ..In addition to MBP, MCPP and MHBP may be adequate biomarkers of exposure to DBP in occupational settings orin potential high-exposure scenarios...
  76. doi request reprint Quantification of cyanuric acid residue in human urine using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
    Parinya Panuwet
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 878:2916-22. 2010
    ..8-10.5% across the calibration range. The relative recovery of cyanuric acid was 100-104%. Our method is suitable to detect urinary concentrations of cyanuric acid caused by either environmental exposures or emerging poisoning events...
  77. ncbi request reprint Reference range levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the US population by measurement of urinary monohydroxy metabolites
    James Grainger
    Division of Environment Health Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Environ Res 100:394-423. 2006
    ..Our study results enabled us to establish a reference range for the targeted PAHs in the general US population...
  78. pmc Exposure of the U.S. population to bisphenol A and 4-tertiary-octylphenol: 2003-2004
    Antonia M Calafat
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 116:39-44. 2008
    ..Bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-tertiary-octylphenol (tOP) are industrial chemicals used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins (BPA) and nonionic surfactants (tOP). These products are in widespread use in the United States...
  79. ncbi request reprint Improved quantitative detection of 11 urinary phthalate metabolites in humans using liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry
    Manori J Silva
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Hwy NE, Mailstop F17, Atlanta, GA 30341 3724, USA
    J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 789:393-404. 2003
    ....
  80. ncbi request reprint Investigation of the relation between self-reported food consumption and household chemical exposures with urinary levels of selected nonpersistent pesticides
    Stephanie M Kieszak
    Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 12:404-8. 2002
    ..We did find that people who reported recently using selected common chemicals had higher geometric mean urine pesticide/metabolite levels than did people who reported not recently using these chemicals...
  81. doi request reprint Concentration and profile of 22 urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites in the US population
    Zheng Li
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health, 4770 Buford Highway, F53 Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Environ Res 107:320-31. 2008
    ..The correlation coefficients between 1-PYR and other metabolites ranging from 0.17 to 0.63 support the use of 1-PYR as a useful surrogate representing PAH exposure...
  82. pmc Biologic monitoring of exposure to environmental chemicals throughout the life stages: requirements and issues for consideration for the National Children's Study
    Dana B Barr
    National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 113:1083-91. 2005
    ....
  83. ncbi request reprint Quantitation of organophosphorus nerve agent metabolites in human urine using isotope dilution gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
    W Jack Driskell
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    J Anal Toxicol 26:6-10. 2002
    ..The limits of detection were less than 4 microg/L for all the analytes except for the GA metabolite, which had a limit of detection of less than 20 microg/L...
  84. ncbi request reprint Automated solid-phase extraction approaches for large scale biomonitoring studies
    Zsuzsanna Kuklenyik
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    J Chromatogr Sci 47:12-8. 2009
    ....
  85. pmc What additional factors beyond state-of-the-art analytical methods are needed for optimal generation and interpretation of biomonitoring data?
    Antonia M Calafat
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 117:1481-5. 2009
    ..e., measurement of environmental chemicals, their metabolites, or specific reaction products in human biological specimens) to assess internal exposure (i.e., body burden) has gained importance in exposure assessment...
  86. doi request reprint Does the composition of urine change when collected from disposable diapers and other absorbent materials?
    Xiaoyun Ye
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Hwy, Mailstop F53, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 20:644-9. 2010
    ....
  87. ncbi request reprint Automated solid phase extraction and quantitative analysis of human milk for 13 phthalate metabolites
    Antonia M Calafat
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 805:49-56. 2004
    ..We detected several phthalate metabolites in pooled human breast milk samples, suggesting that phthalates can be incorporated into breast milk and transferred to the nursing child...
  88. pmc Effects of environmental agents on the attainment of puberty: considerations when assessing exposure to environmental chemicals in the National Children's Study
    Richard Y Wang
    National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 113:1100-7. 2005
    ..The NCS is uniquely poised to evaluate the effects of environmental chemicals on the age at puberty, and the above approach will allow the NCS to accomplish this task...
  89. ncbi request reprint National exposure measurements for decisions to protect public health from environmental exposures
    James L Pirkle
    Division of Laboratory Services, Center for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Int J Hyg Environ Health 208:1-5. 2005
    ..quot; These reports will include the current 116 chemicals and new chemicals added to monitor priority exposures of the population...
  90. ncbi request reprint Measurement of bisphenol A levels in human urine
    J W Brock
    National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 11:323-8. 2001
    ..99). The method limit of detection was 0.12 ng/ml. This method was validated by duplicate analyses using gas chromatography coupled to a high-resolution mass spectrometer...
  91. ncbi request reprint Analytical characterization of peptide contaminants of L-tryptophan
    E R Barnhart
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC, National Center for Environmental Health, Atlanta, Georgia 30341 3724, USA
    Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 30:142-8. 1996
    ..In order to determine whether a correlation exists between individual EMS cases and the concentration of peptides or bacitracin consumed, reliable methods must be developed for quantification of the total of isoforms...
  92. ncbi request reprint Detection of phthalate metabolites in human amniotic fluid
    M J Silva
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway NE, Mailstop F 17, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 72:1226-31. 2004
  93. ncbi request reprint Environmental chemicals: from the environment to food, to breast milk, to the infant
    R Y Wang
    National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev 10:597-609. 2007
    ..Thus, several factors affect the presence in human milk of environmental chemicals from dietary sources...
  94. ncbi request reprint Development and validation of sensitive method for determination of serum cotinine in smokers and nonsmokers by liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure ionization tandem mass spectrometry
    J T Bernert
    Division of Environmental Health Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Clin Chem 43:2281-91. 1997
    ..This method has been applied to the analysis of cotinine in serum samples collected as part of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III)...
  95. ncbi request reprint Phthalate monoesters levels in the urine of young children
    J W Brock
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health NCEH, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 68:309-14. 2002
  96. ncbi request reprint Pharmacokinetics of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in Seveso adults and veterans of operation Ranch Hand
    Joel E Michalek
    Air Force Research Laboratory, Brooks Air Force Base, San Antonio, Texas 78235 5250, USA
    J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 12:44-53. 2002
    ..27 years followed by a slower rate after 3 years is consistent with the expected pattern in a two-compartment open model, with a distribution phase of rapid elimination followed by a slower elimination phase...
  97. ncbi request reprint Maternal serum level of 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene and risk of cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and polythelia among male offspring
    Matthew P Longnecker
    Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 155:313-22. 2002
    ..9 (95% CI: 0.9, 4.0) for polythelia. For cryptorchidism and polythelia, the results were consistent with a modest-to-moderate association, but in no instance was the estimate very precise. The results were inconclusive...
  98. doi request reprint Automated on-line column-switching HPLC-MS/MS method with peak focusing for measuring parabens, triclosan, and other environmental phenols in human milk
    Xiaoyun Ye
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, United States
    Anal Chim Acta 622:150-6. 2008
    ..Nevertheless, to demonstrate the utility of these measures for exposure and risk assessment purposes, additional data about sampling and storage of the milk, and on the stability of the analytes in milk, are needed...
  99. pmc The association between biomarker-based exposure estimates for phthalates and demographic factors in a human reference population
    Jung Wan Koo
    Environmental Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 110:405-10. 2002
    ..Our findings suggest that there may be significant demographic variations in exposure and/or metabolism of phthalates and that health-risk assessments for phthalate exposure in humans should consider different potential risk groups...
  100. pmc Risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and prediagnostic serum organochlorines: beta-hexachlorocyclohexane, chlordane/heptachlor-related compounds, dieldrin, and hexachlorobenzene
    Kenneth P Cantor
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 7240, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 111:179-83. 2003
    ..These findings do not support the hypothesis that the organochlorine compounds included in this study are strongly linked to the development of NHL. The possibility of a weak association cannot be excluded by these data...
  101. pmc Using biologic markers in blood to assess exposure to multiple environmental chemicals for inner-city children 3-6 years of age
    Ken Sexton
    University of Texas School of Public Health, Brownsville, Texas 78520 4956, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 114:453-9. 2006
    ..Results demonstrate that cumulative exposures to multiple environmental carcinogens and neurotoxins can be comparatively high for children from a poor inner-city neighborhood...