L Clifford McDonald

Summary

Affiliation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint An epidemic, toxin gene-variant strain of Clostridium difficile
    L Clifford McDonald
    Epidemiology and Laboratory Branch, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA
    N Engl J Med 353:2433-41. 2005
  2. ncbi request reprint Trends in antimicrobial resistance in health care-associated pathogens and effect on treatment
    L Clifford McDonald
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 42:S65-71. 2006
  3. ncbi request reprint Confronting Clostridium difficile in inpatient health care facilities
    L Clifford McDonald
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 45:1274-6. 2007
  4. ncbi request reprint Recommendations for surveillance of Clostridium difficile-associated disease
    L Clifford McDonald
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 28:140-5. 2007
  5. doi request reprint Using electronic health information to risk-stratify rates of Clostridium difficile infection in US hospitals
    Marya D Zilberberg
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, University of Massachusetts and EviMed Research Group, Amherst, Massachusetts 30333, USA
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 32:649-55. 2011
  6. pmc Clostridium difficile infection in patients discharged from US short-stay hospitals, 1996-2003
    L Clifford McDonald
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 12:409-15. 2006
  7. ncbi request reprint A hospital outbreak of diarrhea due to an emerging epidemic strain of Clostridium difficile
    Sophia V Kazakova
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Arch Intern Med 166:2518-24. 2006
  8. pmc Risk factors for and estimated incidence of community-associated Clostridium difficile infection, North Carolina, USA
    Preeta K Kutty
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 16:197-204. 2010
  9. pmc Clostridium difficile strains from community-associated infections
    Brandi M Limbago
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd NE, MS C 16, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 47:3004-7. 2009
  10. pmc Comparison of seven techniques for typing international epidemic strains of Clostridium difficile: restriction endonuclease analysis, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, PCR-ribotyping, multilocus sequence typing, multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat an
    George Killgore
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 46:431-7. 2008

Detail Information

Publications72

  1. ncbi request reprint An epidemic, toxin gene-variant strain of Clostridium difficile
    L Clifford McDonald
    Epidemiology and Laboratory Branch, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA
    N Engl J Med 353:2433-41. 2005
    ..difficile with increased virulence, resistance, or both...
  2. ncbi request reprint Trends in antimicrobial resistance in health care-associated pathogens and effect on treatment
    L Clifford McDonald
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 42:S65-71. 2006
    ..difficile strain with increased resistance to the fluoroquinolones. The presence of these and other resistant organisms in health care facilities limits the number of effective antimicrobials available for treatment...
  3. ncbi request reprint Confronting Clostridium difficile in inpatient health care facilities
    L Clifford McDonald
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 45:1274-6. 2007
  4. ncbi request reprint Recommendations for surveillance of Clostridium difficile-associated disease
    L Clifford McDonald
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 28:140-5. 2007
    ..However, the understanding of the magnitude of and reasons for this change is currently hampered by the lack of standardized surveillance methods...
  5. doi request reprint Using electronic health information to risk-stratify rates of Clostridium difficile infection in US hospitals
    Marya D Zilberberg
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, University of Massachusetts and EviMed Research Group, Amherst, Massachusetts 30333, USA
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 32:649-55. 2011
    ..We applied definitions for hospital-onset (HO) and community-onset (CO) CDI to electronic data from 85 hospitals between January 2007 and June 2008 to identify factors associated with higher HO CDI rates...
  6. pmc Clostridium difficile infection in patients discharged from US short-stay hospitals, 1996-2003
    L Clifford McDonald
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 12:409-15. 2006
    ..Clinicians should be aware of the increasing risk for CDAD and make efforts to control transmission of C. difficile and prevent disease...
  7. ncbi request reprint A hospital outbreak of diarrhea due to an emerging epidemic strain of Clostridium difficile
    Sophia V Kazakova
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Arch Intern Med 166:2518-24. 2006
    ..We investigated this outbreak to determine risk factors and transmission settings...
  8. pmc Risk factors for and estimated incidence of community-associated Clostridium difficile infection, North Carolina, USA
    Preeta K Kutty
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 16:197-204. 2010
    ..1, 95% CI 2.9-28.9), to have gastroesophageal reflux disease (aOR 11.2, 95% CI 1.9-64.2), and to have cardiac failure (aOR 3.8, 95% CI 1.1-13.7). Risk factors for CA-CDI overlap with those for healthcare-associated infection...
  9. pmc Clostridium difficile strains from community-associated infections
    Brandi M Limbago
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd NE, MS C 16, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 47:3004-7. 2009
    ..Nine toxinotypes (TOX) and 31 PFGE patterns were identified. TOX 0 (48, 52%), TOX III (18, 20%), and TOX V (9, 10%) were the most common; three isolates were nontoxigenic...
  10. pmc Comparison of seven techniques for typing international epidemic strains of Clostridium difficile: restriction endonuclease analysis, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, PCR-ribotyping, multilocus sequence typing, multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat an
    George Killgore
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 46:431-7. 2008
    ..All techniques appear to be capable of detecting outbreak strains, but only REA and MLVA showed sufficient discrimination to distinguish strains from different outbreaks...
  11. doi request reprint The burden of vancomycin-resistant enterococcal infections in US hospitals, 2003 to 2004
    Rebecca Reik
    Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 62:81-5. 2008
    ..These estimates highlight the importance of controlling VRE and the need to develop improved methods for tracking the burden of such infections...
  12. pmc Toxinotype V Clostridium difficile in humans and food animals
    Michael A Jhung
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 14:1039-45. 2008
    ..Further study is needed to understand the epidemiology of CDAD caused by toxinotype V C. difficile, including the potential of foodborne transmission to humans...
  13. ncbi request reprint The challenges posed by reemerging Clostridium difficile infection
    David B Blossom
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 45:222-7. 2007
    ..Overcoming these challenges and limitations will require a concerted effort from a variety of sources, including an ongoing partnership between infectious disease clinicians and public health professionals...
  14. ncbi request reprint Management of persistent bacteremia caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a survey of infectious diseases consultants
    Jeffrey C Hageman
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30033, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 43:e42-5. 2006
    ....
  15. pmc Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates associated with Inc18-like vanA plasmids in Michigan
    Wenming Zhu
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd, MS G08, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:452-7. 2008
    ..An Inc18-like vanA plasmid was identified in the VRSA isolate from case patient 7. These findings suggest a role of Inc18-like plasmids as vanA donors...
  16. doi request reprint Assessment of Clostridium difficile-associated disease surveillance definitions, North Carolina, 2005
    Preeta K Kutty
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 29:197-202. 2008
    ....
  17. doi request reprint Complete restriction of fluoroquinolone use to control an outbreak of Clostridium difficile infection at a community hospital
    Alexander J Kallen
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 30:264-72. 2009
    ....
  18. pmc SARS in healthcare facilities, Toronto and Taiwan
    L Clifford McDonald
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 10:777-81. 2004
    ..Although these conclusions are based only on a retrospective analysis of events, applying the experiences of Toronto and Taiwan to SARS preparedness planning efforts will likely minimize future transmission within healthcare facilities...
  19. pmc Current status of Clostridium difficile infection epidemiology
    Fernanda C Lessa
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 55:S65-70. 2012
    ..In the face of these changes in the epidemiology and microbiology of CDI, surveillance systems are necessary to monitor trends and inform public health actions...
  20. pmc Severe community-acquired pneumonia due to Staphylococcus aureus, 2003-04 influenza season
    Jeffrey C Hageman
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 12:894-9. 2006
    ..In communities with a high prevalence of MRSA, empiric therapy of severe CAP during periods of high influenza activity should include consideration for MRSA...
  21. ncbi request reprint Changes in the epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in intensive care units in US hospitals, 1992-2003
    R Monina Klevens
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 42:389-91. 2006
    ..9% in 1992 to 64.4% in 2003 for hospitals in the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance system. During the same period, there was a decrease in resistance rates for several non- beta -lactam drugs among the MRSA isolates...
  22. ncbi request reprint Increasing blood culture use at US hospital emergency department visits, 2001 to 2004
    Linda F McCaig
    Ambulatory Care Statistics Branch, Division of Health Care Statistics, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, MD 20782, USA
    Ann Emerg Med 50:42-8, 48.e1-2. 2007
    ..We describe emergency department (ED) visits in which patients had blood cultured and examine changes in blood culture use...
  23. ncbi request reprint Clostridium difficile-associated disease: new challenges from an established pathogen
    Rebecca H Sunenshine
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, USA
    Cleve Clin J Med 73:187-97. 2006
    ....
  24. doi request reprint The roles of Clostridium difficile and norovirus among gastroenteritis-associated deaths in the United States, 1999-2007
    Aron J Hall
    Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd NE, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 55:216-23. 2012
    ..We aimed to describe trends in gastroenteritis deaths across all ages in the United States and specifically estimate the contributions of Clostridium difficile and norovirus...
  25. pmc Bench-to-bedside review: Clostridium difficile colitis
    Carolyn V Gould
    Prevention and Response Branch, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Crit Care 12:203. 2008
    ....
  26. ncbi request reprint The changing spectrum of clostridium difficile associated disease: implications for dentistry
    David B Blossom
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, U S Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanga, GA 30333, USA
    J Am Dent Assoc 139:42-7. 2008
    ..Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium that causes a wide range of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. It is best known for its association with uncomplicated antimicrobial-agent-associated diarrhea...
  27. ncbi request reprint Vancomycin intermediate and resistant Staphylococcus aureus. What the nephrologist needs to know
    L Clifford McDonald
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Nephrol News Issues 18:63-4, 66-7, 71-2 passim. 2004
    ....
  28. ncbi request reprint Vancomycin-resistant staphylococci and enterococci: epidemiology and control
    Fred C Tenover
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 18:300-5. 2005
    ..This review updates information on the development and spread of vancomycin resistance in staphylococci and enterococci...
  29. ncbi request reprint A multistate outbreak of Serratia marcescens bloodstream infection associated with contaminated intravenous magnesium sulfate from a compounding pharmacy
    Rebecca H Sunenshine
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Arizona Dept of Health Services, 150 N 18th Ave, Ste 150, Phoenix, AZ 85007, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 45:527-33. 2007
    ..An investigation was initiated to determine whether there was a common underlying cause...
  30. ncbi request reprint The status of antimicrobial resistance in Taiwan among Gram-positive pathogens: the Taiwan Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance (TSAR) programme, 2000
    L Clifford McDonald
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 23:362-70. 2004
    ..In contrast, less than 2% enterococci were vancomycin-resistant. No linezolid resistance was found in either staphylococci or enterococci...
  31. doi request reprint Healthcare personnel perceptions of hand hygiene monitoring technology
    Katherine Ellingson
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 32:1091-6. 2011
    ..To assess healthcare personnel (HCP) perceptions regarding implementation of sensor-based electronic systems for automated hand hygiene adherence monitoring...
  32. doi request reprint Automated surveillance of Clostridium difficile infections using BioSense
    Stephen R Benoit
    Division of Emergency Preparedness and Response, National Center for Public Health Informatics, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 32:26-33. 2011
    ....
  33. doi request reprint Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea: an emerging threat to pregnant women
    Nadine G Rouphael
    Division of Bacterial Diseases, Epidemic Intelligence Service Field Assignments Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 198:635.e1-6. 2008
    ..To estimate if Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD) is increasing in peripartum women...
  34. doi request reprint Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the United States, 2002-2006
    Dawn M Sievert
    Michigan Department of Community Health, Lansing, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 46:668-74. 2008
    ....
  35. doi request reprint Outbreak of Enterococcus gallinarum infections after total knee arthroplasty
    Michael P Cooper
    Ohio Department of Health, 8th Floor, Columbus, OH 43215, USA
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 29:361-3. 2008
    ....
  36. pmc Peripartum transmission of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae
    L Clifford McDonald
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 41:2258-60. 2003
    ..pneumoniae is rare, this case highlights the concern that increasing efforts to prevent group B streptococcus neonatal disease may lead to an increase in neonatal infections due to resistant organisms...
  37. ncbi request reprint Multistate outbreak of Burkholderia cenocepacia colonization and infection associated with the use of intrinsically contaminated alcohol-free mouthwash
    Preeta K Kutty
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd NE, MS A47, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Chest 132:1825-31. 2007
    ..In 2005, we investigated a multistate outbreak of Burkholderia cenocepacia associated with an intrinsically contaminated alcohol-free mouthwash (AFM)...
  38. ncbi request reprint Toxic shock associated with Clostridium sordellii and Clostridium perfringens after medical and spontaneous abortion
    Adam L Cohen
    Prevention and Response Branch, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 110:1027-33. 2007
    ..To better understand the risk of fatal toxic shock caused by Clostridium sordellii in women who had a recent medical abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol...
  39. doi request reprint Clostridium difficile infection among children with cancer
    Eric Tai
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 30:610-2. 2011
    ..Children with cancer accounted for 21% of all pediatric CDI cases. Increased adherence to infection control recommendations is needed to address CDI in children with cancer...
  40. doi request reprint Cluster of necrotizing enterocolitis in a neonatal intensive care unit: New Mexico, 2007
    Aaron M Wendelboe
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Am J Infect Control 38:144-8. 2010
    ..We investigated the etiology of a cluster of NEC in a level 3 neonatal intensive care unit and monitored for new cases following the implementation of enhanced infection control measures...
  41. ncbi request reprint A national survey of severe influenza-associated complications among children and adults, 2003-2004
    Laura Jean Podewils
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 40:1693-6. 2005
    ..The survey identified severe complications, including secondary infection with Staphylococcus aureus and deaths among children and adults, as well as perceived shortages in rapid diagnostic tests and influenza vaccine...
  42. doi request reprint National estimates of central line-associated bloodstream infections in critical care patients
    Matthew E Wise
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 34:547-54. 2013
    ..Our objective was to describe changes in the annual number of CLABSIs in critical care patients in the United States...
  43. doi request reprint Evaluation of organizational culture among different levels of healthcare staff participating in the Institute for Healthcare Improvement's 100,000 Lives Campaign
    Ronda L Sinkowitz-Cochran
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 33:135-43. 2012
    ....
  44. doi request reprint Infection control in the multidrug-resistant era: tending the human microbiome
    Pritish K Tosh
    Epidemic Intelligence Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 54:707-13. 2012
    ....
  45. pmc Staphylococcus aureus-associated skin and soft tissue infections in ambulatory care
    Linda F McCaig
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, Maryland 20782, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 12:1715-23. 2006
    ..This increase may reflect the emergence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections...
  46. pmc Wrestling SARS from uncertainty
    Jairam R Lingappa
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 10:167-70. 2004
  47. ncbi request reprint Lack of SARS transmission among healthcare workers, United States
    Benjamin J Park
    Mycotic Diseases Branch, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 10:244-8. 2004
    ..Lack of transmission in the United States may be related to the relative absence of high-risk procedures or patients, factors that may place healthcare workers at higher risk for infection...
  48. doi request reprint Hospital capacity during an influenza pandemic-Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2009
    Elissa Meites
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 32:87-90. 2011
    ..Because of careful preparedness planning, including rapid expansion and redistribution of the numbers of available beds and staff, hospital surge capacity was not exceeded...
  49. ncbi request reprint An outbreak of neonatal deaths in Brazil associated with contaminated intravenous fluids
    Denise O Garrett
    Hospital Infections Program, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    J Infect Dis 186:81-6. 2002
    ..These results highlight the importance of monitoring both pharmaceutical quality and postmarketing surveillance for adverse events...
  50. pmc Late recognition of SARS in nosocomial outbreak, Toronto
    Thomas Wong
    Public Health Agency of Canada, Room 3444, Building 6 AL 0603B, Tunney s Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario K1A OL2, Canada
    Emerg Infect Dis 11:322-5. 2005
    ..SARS is difficult to recognize in hospitalized patients with a variety of underlying conditions in the absence of epidemiologic links...
  51. ncbi request reprint Clostridium difficile: responding to a new threat from an old enemy
    L Clifford McDonald
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 26:672-5. 2005
  52. ncbi request reprint Molecular epidemiology of emerging reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones in Escherichia coli
    Feng Jui Chen
    J Med Microbiol 53:85-6. 2004
  53. ncbi request reprint Colonization of HIV-infected outpatients in Taiwan with methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus
    L Clifford McDonald
    National Health Research Institutes, Taipei, Taiwan
    Int J STD AIDS 14:473-7. 2003
    ..aureus, depending upon the drugs involved and resistance encountered. Fluoroquinolone use may have an important role in the spread of MRSA from inpatient to outpatient settings...
  54. ncbi request reprint Hospitalization for community-acquired pneumonia: the pneumonia severity index vs clinical judgment
    Forest W Arnold
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA
    Chest 124:121-4. 2003
    ..2) To determine the positive predictive value of the pneumonia severity index as the sole indicator for detecting inappropriate hospitalizations among patients with CAP...
  55. pmc Vancomycin-resistant enterococci from humans and retail chickens in Taiwan with unique VanB phenotype-vanA genotype incongruence
    Tsai Ling Lauderdale
    Division of Clinical Research, National Health Research Institutes, Taipei 11529, Taiwan, Republic of China
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:525-7. 2002
    ..Three identical mutations in the vanS gene were found in the VanB phenotype-vanA genotype VRE sequenced. This finding indicates possible transmission of glycopeptide resistance among different hosts...
  56. doi request reprint Impact of hydrogen peroxide vapor room decontamination on Clostridium difficile environmental contamination and transmission in a healthcare setting
    John M Boyce
    Hospital of St Raphael, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06511, USA
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 29:723-9. 2008
    ..To determine whether hydrogen peroxide vapor (HPV) decontamination can reduce environmental contamination with and nosocomial transmission of Clostridium difficile...
  57. ncbi request reprint Prevalence of Clostridium difficile environmental contamination and strain variability in multiple health care facilities
    Erik R Dubberke
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Am J Infect Control 35:315-8. 2007
    ..difficile environmental contamination at various health care facilities in a metropolitan area and determine if the North American pulsed field gel electrophoresis type 1 (NAP1) strain was present...
  58. pmc Attributable outcomes of endemic Clostridium difficile-associated disease in nonsurgical patients
    Erik R Dubberke
    Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 14:1031-8. 2008
    ..Even in a nonoutbreak setting, CDAD had a statistically significant negative impact on patient illness and death, and the impact of CDAD persisted beyond hospital discharge...
  59. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of Clostridium difficile-associated disease pressure as a risk factor for C difficile-associated disease
    Erik R Dubberke
    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Arch Intern Med 167:1092-7. 2007
    ..The purpose of this study was to evaluate CDAD pressure, a modified form of colonization pressure based on symptomatic CDAD cases, as a risk factor for CDAD...
  60. ncbi request reprint Moxifloxacin therapy as a risk factor for Clostridium difficile-associated disease during an outbreak: attempts to control a new epidemic strain
    Priscilla Biller
    Holy Spirit Hospital, Camp Hill, PA, USA
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 28:198-201. 2007
    ..Substituting use of one fluoroquinolone with use of another without also controlling the overall use of drugs from this class is unlikely to control outbreaks caused by the NAP1 strain of C. difficile...
  61. pmc ICD-9 codes and surveillance for Clostridium difficile-associated disease
    Erik R Dubberke
    Washington University in St Louis School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 12:1576-9. 2006
    ..The correlation between toxin assay results and ICD-9 codes was good (K = 0.72, p<0.01). The sensitivity of the ICD-9 codes was 78% and the specificity was 99.7%...
  62. doi request reprint Clostridium difficile--associated disease in a setting of endemicity: identification of novel risk factors
    Erik R Dubberke
    Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 45:1543-9. 2007
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine risk factors for endemic CDAD, including CDAD pressure, a modified version of colonization pressure...
  63. doi request reprint Short- and long-term attributable costs of Clostridium difficile-associated disease in nonsurgical inpatients
    Erik R Dubberke
    Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 46:497-504. 2008
    ..There are few data on the short-term and long-term attributable costs of CDAD. The objective of this study was to determine the acute and 180-day attributable inpatient costs of CDAD...
  64. ncbi request reprint Life-threatening sepsis caused by Burkholderia cepacia from contaminated intravenous flush solutions prepared by a compounding pharmacy in another state
    Melissa R Held
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
    Pediatrics 118:e212-5. 2006
    ..Proper quality controls at a local and national level are important for ensuring safe delivery of compounded medications to patients in all settings, including those outside health care facilities...
  65. ncbi request reprint Cluster of cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome among Toronto healthcare workers after implementation of infection control precautions: a case series
    Marianna Ofner-Agostini
    Nosocomial and Occupational Infections Section, Blood Safety and Surveillance, Health Care Acquired Infections Division, Public Health Agency of Canada, Tunney s Pasture, PL 0601E2, Ottawa, Canada K1A 0L2
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 27:473-8. 2006
    ....
  66. ncbi request reprint An association between reduced susceptibility to daptomycin and reduced susceptibility to vancomycin in Staphylococcus aureus
    Jean B Patel
    Clin Infect Dis 42:1652-3. 2006
  67. ncbi request reprint Improving antimicrobial use in the hospital setting by providing usage feedback to prescribing physicians
    Forest W Arnold
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, 512 South Hancock Street, Louisville, KY 40292, USA
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 27:378-82. 2006
    ..To determine whether feedback on antimicrobial use improves physician compliance with local hospital guidelines on antimicrobial prescribing...
  68. ncbi request reprint Toxin production by an emerging strain of Clostridium difficile associated with outbreaks of severe disease in North America and Europe
    Michel Warny
    Acambis Inc, Cambridge, MA, USA
    Lancet 366:1079-84. 2005
    ..We characterised the dominant strain of this epidemic to determine whether it produces higher amounts of toxins A and B than those produced by non-epidemic strains...
  69. ncbi request reprint Hand hygiene in the new millennium: drawing the distinction between efficacy and effectiveness
    L Clifford McDonald
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 24:157-9. 2003
  70. pmc Possible SARS coronavirus transmission during cardiopulmonary resuscitation
    Michael D Christian
    Immunodeficiency Clinic, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
    Emerg Infect Dis 10:287-93. 2004
    ....
  71. ncbi request reprint Improving antimicrobial use: longitudinal assessment of an antimicrobial team including a clinical pharmacist
    Forest W Arnold
    University of Louisville, Dept of Medicine, Division of Infections Diseases, 512 S Hancock St, Carmichael Bldg, Rm 208E, Louisville, KY 40292, USA
    J Manag Care Pharm 10:152-8. 2004
    ....
  72. pmc Colonization of human immunodeficiency virus-infected outpatients in Taiwan with Candida species
    Chien Ching Hung
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
    J Clin Microbiol 43:1600-3. 2005
    ....