N Komar

Summary

Affiliation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint West Nile virus: epidemiology and ecology in North America
    Nicholas Komar
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, Fort Collins, Colorado 80522, USA
    Adv Virus Res 61:185-234. 2003
  2. ncbi request reprint West Nile virus activity in Latin America and the Caribbean
    Nicholas Komar
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, PO Box 2087, Fort Collins, Colorado 80522, USA
    Rev Panam Salud Publica 19:112-7. 2006
  3. doi request reprint Avian hosts of West Nile virus in Puerto Rico
    Nicholas Komar
    Arboviral Diseases Branch ADB, Division of Vector Borne Diseases DVBD, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC, Fort Collins, Colorado 80521, USA
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 12:47-54. 2012
  4. pmc Use of a surrogate chimeric virus to detect West Nile virus-neutralizing antibodies in avian and equine sera
    Nicholas Komar
    CDC NCZVED DVBID ADB, 3150 Rampart Rd, Fort Collins, CO 80521, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 16:134-5. 2009
  5. ncbi request reprint Avian hosts for West Nile virus in St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana, 2002
    Nicholas Komar
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado 80522, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 73:1031-7. 2005
  6. ncbi request reprint West Nile virus surveillance using sentinel birds
    N Komar
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado 80522, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 951:58-73. 2001
  7. pmc Serologic evidence for West Nile virus infection in birds in the New York City vicinity during an outbreak in 1999
    N Komar
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, PO Box 2087, Fort Collins, CO 80522, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 7:621-5. 2001
  8. ncbi request reprint Serologic evidence for West Nile virus infection in birds in Staten Island, New York, after an outbreak in 2000
    N Komar
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO 80522, USA
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 1:191-6. 2001
  9. pmc Exposure of domestic mammals to West Nile virus during an outbreak of human encephalitis, New York City, 1999
    N Komar
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, P O Box 2087, Fort Collins, CO 80522, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 7:736-8. 2001
  10. ncbi request reprint Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern United States
    R S Lanciotti
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO 80522, USA
    Science 286:2333-7. 1999

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications64

  1. ncbi request reprint West Nile virus: epidemiology and ecology in North America
    Nicholas Komar
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, Fort Collins, Colorado 80522, USA
    Adv Virus Res 61:185-234. 2003
  2. ncbi request reprint West Nile virus activity in Latin America and the Caribbean
    Nicholas Komar
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, PO Box 2087, Fort Collins, Colorado 80522, USA
    Rev Panam Salud Publica 19:112-7. 2006
    ..West Nile virus (Flavivirus: Flaviviridae; WNV) has spread rapidly throughout the Caribbean Basin since its initial detection there in 2001. This report summarizes our current knowledge of WNV transmission in tropical America...
  3. doi request reprint Avian hosts of West Nile virus in Puerto Rico
    Nicholas Komar
    Arboviral Diseases Branch ADB, Division of Vector Borne Diseases DVBD, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC, Fort Collins, Colorado 80521, USA
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 12:47-54. 2012
    ..In urban habitats, the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) was frequently infected. Immature birds less than one year of age were more likely to have detectable WNV-reactive antibodies than older birds of the same species...
  4. pmc Use of a surrogate chimeric virus to detect West Nile virus-neutralizing antibodies in avian and equine sera
    Nicholas Komar
    CDC NCZVED DVBID ADB, 3150 Rampart Rd, Fort Collins, CO 80521, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 16:134-5. 2009
    ..Concordance was 96.3% among 188 avian and equine serum samples. Neutralizing antibody titers were frequently more than twofold lower with the chimera...
  5. ncbi request reprint Avian hosts for West Nile virus in St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana, 2002
    Nicholas Komar
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado 80522, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 73:1031-7. 2005
    ..The blue jay population was reduced by an estimated 47%. A variety of passerine bird species combined to play an important role as amplifying hosts in the WNV transmission cycle...
  6. ncbi request reprint West Nile virus surveillance using sentinel birds
    N Komar
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado 80522, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 951:58-73. 2001
    ..Sentinel bird monitoring sites should be selected in enzootic transmission foci. Several years of observation may be required for selection of effective sentinel monitoring sites...
  7. pmc Serologic evidence for West Nile virus infection in birds in the New York City vicinity during an outbreak in 1999
    N Komar
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, PO Box 2087, Fort Collins, CO 80522, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 7:621-5. 2001
    ..Our results support the concept that chickens and House Sparrows are good arbovirus sentinels. This study also implicates the House Sparrow as an important vertebrate reservoir host...
  8. ncbi request reprint Serologic evidence for West Nile virus infection in birds in Staten Island, New York, after an outbreak in 2000
    N Komar
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO 80522, USA
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 1:191-6. 2001
    ....
  9. pmc Exposure of domestic mammals to West Nile virus during an outbreak of human encephalitis, New York City, 1999
    N Komar
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, P O Box 2087, Fort Collins, CO 80522, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 7:736-8. 2001
    ..Domestic mammals should be evaluated as sentinels for local WN virus activity and predictors of the infection in humans...
  10. ncbi request reprint Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern United States
    R S Lanciotti
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO 80522, USA
    Science 286:2333-7. 1999
    ..This North American WN virus was most closely related to a WN virus isolated from a dead goose in Israel in 1998...
  11. ncbi request reprint West Nile virus in the United States: guidelines for detection, prevention, and control
    D J Gubler
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U S Public Health Service, Department of Health and Human Services, Fort Collins, Colorado 80522, USA
    Viral Immunol 13:469-75. 2000
    ....
  12. pmc Comparative West Nile virus detection in organs of naturally infected American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos)
    N A Panella
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO 80522, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 7:754-5. 2001
    ..The brain was the most sensitive test organ; it was the only positive organ for three of the positive crows. The sensitivity of crow organs as targets for WN virus detection makes crow death useful for WN virus surveillance...
  13. ncbi request reprint West Nile virus detection in nonvascular feathers from avian carcasses
    Nicole M Nemeth
    Division of Vector Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO, USA
    J Vet Diagn Invest 21:616-22. 2009
    ....
  14. ncbi request reprint Natural and experimental West Nile virus infection in five raptor species
    Nicole Nemeth
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado 80522, USA
    J Wildl Dis 42:1-13. 2006
    ..We recommend that raptor handlers consider raptors as a potential source of WNV contamination due to oral and cloacal shedding...
  15. ncbi request reprint Serologic evidence of west nile virus infection in free-ranging mammals, Slidell, Louisiana, 2002
    Gabrielle Dietrich
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado 80522, USA
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 5:288-92. 2005
    ....
  16. doi request reprint Persistent West Nile virus infection in the house sparrow (Passer domesticus)
    Nicole Nemeth
    National Wildlife Research Center, 4101 LaPorte Avenue, Fort Collins, CO 80521, USA
    Arch Virol 154:783-9. 2009
    ..Chronicity of WNV infection in some tissues, but not blood, supports the predation mechanism of WNV overwintering, but not recrudescence. RNA persistence impacts interpretation and etiologic determination of avian mortality...
  17. ncbi request reprint Host-range restriction of chimeric yellow fever-West Nile vaccine in fish crows (Corvus ossifragus)
    Stanley A Langevin
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado 80522, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 69:78-80. 2003
    ..However, if used in mammals, this recombinant viral vaccine is unlikely to inadvertently enter a natural transmission cycle with birds as amplifying hosts...
  18. pmc Alligators as West Nile virus amplifiers
    Kaci Klenk
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 10:2150-5. 2004
    ..Noninoculated tankmates also became infected. The viremia profiles and multiple routes of infection suggest alligators may play an important role in WNV transmission in areas with high population densities of juvenile alligators...
  19. pmc Differential virulence of West Nile strains for American crows
    Aaron C Brault
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 10:2161-8. 2004
    ..These results suggest that genetic alterations in NY99 WNV are responsible for the crow-virulent phenotype and that increased replication of this strain in crows could spread WNV in North America...
  20. pmc Experimental infection of chickens as candidate sentinels for West Nile virus
    S A Langevin
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, P O Box 2087, Fort Collins, CO 80522, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 7:726-9. 2001
    ..These are all considered positive attributes of a sentinel species for WN virus surveillance programs...
  21. ncbi request reprint Response to and efficacy of vaccination against eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in emus
    L A Tengelsen
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, Fort Collins, CO 80521, USA
    J Am Vet Med Assoc 218:1469-73. 2001
    ..Infected emus shed EEE virus in secretions and excretions, making them a direct hazard to pen-mates and attending humans. Commercially available polyvalent equine vaccines protect emus against EEE virus infection...
  22. ncbi request reprint Culex flavivirus isolates from mosquitoes in Guatemala
    M E Morales-Betoulle
    Centro de Estudios en Salud, CDC CAP, Universidad del Valle de Guatemala, 11 calle 15 79 zona 15, Vista Hermosa III, Guatemala, Guatemala
    J Med Entomol 45:1187-90. 2008
    ..This is the first report of an insect flavivirus from Central America...
  23. pmc Epidemiology and transmission dynamics of West Nile virus disease
    Edward B Hayes
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado 80526, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 11:1167-73. 2005
    ..This review highlights new information regarding the epidemiology and dynamics of WNV transmission, providing a new platform for further research into preventing and controlling WNV disease...
  24. pmc Rapid West Nile virus antigen detection
    Nicholas A Panella
    Arbovirus Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado 80522, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 11:1633-5. 2005
    ..The VecTest detected WNV more frequently than the plaque assay and was comparable to a TaqMan reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction...
  25. ncbi request reprint Clinical evaluation and outcomes of naturally acquired West Nile virus infection in raptors
    Nicole M Nemeth
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, 3150 Rampart Road, Fort Collins, Colorado 80521, USA
    J Zoo Wildl Med 40:51-63. 2009
    ..WNV has potentially devastating effects on raptors; however, rehabilitation of WNV-infected raptors can lead to positive outcomes, even for those having had severe neurologic disease...
  26. ncbi request reprint West Nile virus quantification in feces of experimentally infected American and fish crows
    Aaron M Kipp
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO 80522, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 75:688-90. 2006
    ..4) PFU/g for 10 fish crows. The presence of infectious WNV in bird feces indicates a potential for direct transmission of WNV. Thus, handlers of sick or dead birds should take appropriate precautions to avoid exposure to fecal material...
  27. ncbi request reprint Avian mortality surveillance for West Nile virus in Colorado
    Nicole M Nemeth
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 76:431-7. 2007
    ..VecTest using oral swabs was most sensitive for American crow, black-billed magpie, house finch, house sparrow, and American kestrel. Wildlife rehabilitation centers should be recruited to enhance WNV surveillance...
  28. pmc Surveillance for West Nile virus in clinic-admitted raptors, Colorado
    Nicole Nemeth
    Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 1683, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 13:305-7. 2007
    ..WNV surveillance using live raptor admissions to rehabilitation clinics may offer a novel surveillance method and should be considered along with other techniques already in use...
  29. ncbi request reprint Seasonal blood-feeding behavior of Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae) in Weld County, Colorado, 2007
    Rebekah Kent
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, Arbovirus Diseases Branch, 3150 Rampart Rd, Fort Collins, CO 80521, USA
    J Med Entomol 46:380-90. 2009
    ....
  30. doi request reprint Naturally induced humoral immunity to West Nile virus infection in raptors
    Nicole M Nemeth
    Arbovirus Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO 80521, USA
    Ecohealth 5:298-304. 2008
    ..Antibodies in raptors surviving WNV may persist for multiple years and protect against potential adverse effects of subsequent exposures...
  31. pmc Experimental infection of horses with West Nile virus
    Michel L Bunning
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:380-6. 2002
    ..Horses infected with the NY99 strain of WNV develop low viremia levels of short duration; therefore, infected horses are unlikely to serve as important amplifying hosts for WNV in nature...
  32. ncbi request reprint Poor replication of West Nile virus (New York 1999 strain) in three reptilian and one amphibian species
    Kaci Klenk
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado 80522, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 69:260-2. 2003
    ..After inoculation with WN virus, some of the green iguanas, bullfrogs, and garter snakes showed low but detectable viral loads in the blood, oral or cloacal swabs, and/or organs...
  33. pmc Detection of anti-West Nile virus immunoglobulin M in chicken serum by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
    Alison J Johnson
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Public Health Service, U S Department of Health and Human Services, Fort Collins, Colorado 80522, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 41:2002-7. 2003
    ..A preliminary test was done to assess the feasibility of a combined SLE and WN IgM-capture ELISA, and results were promising...
  34. pmc Experimental infection of North American birds with the New York 1999 strain of West Nile virus
    Nicholas Komar
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado 80522, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 9:311-22. 2003
    ..Persistent WNV infections were found in tissues of 16 surviving birds. Our observations shed light on transmission ecology of WNV and will benefit surveillance and control programs...
  35. ncbi request reprint Detection of West Nile virus-infected mosquitoes and seropositive juvenile birds in the vicinity of virus-positive dead birds
    Roger S Nasci
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado 80522, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 67:492-6. 2002
    ..In addition, the RT-PCR procedure for detecting WN viral RNA in mosquito pools detected more positive pools than did the Vero cell plaque assay...
  36. pmc Serologic evidence of West Nile virus infection in horses, Coahuila State, Mexico
    Bradley J Blitvich
    Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 9:853-6. 2003
    ..5%) horses. We report the first West Nile virus activity in northern Mexico...
  37. pmc Detection of West Nile virus in oral and cloacal swabs collected from bird carcasses
    Nicholas Komar
    Arbovirus Diseases Branch, Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado 80522, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:741-2. 2002
    ..WNV was detected in all three specimen types from 20 dead crows and jays with an average of >10(5) WNV PFU in each. These findings suggest that testing cloacal or oral swabs might be a low-resource approach to detect WNV in dead birds...
  38. ncbi request reprint West Nile virus epizootiology in the southeastern United States, 2001
    Marvin S Godsey
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado 80522, USA
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 5:82-9. 2005
    ..The primary transmission cycle of WNV in the southeastern United States apparently involves Culex mosquitoes and passerine birds. Chickens are frequently infected and may serve as effective sentinels in this region...
  39. ncbi request reprint Bunyavirus infections in North Carolina white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)
    J N Nagayama
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO 80522, USA
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 1:169-71. 2001
    ..Evidence was found for all six to be locally transmitted, although greatest seroprevalence was found for Potosi, Jamestown Canyon, and Cache Valley viruses...
  40. pmc Epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the detection of serum antibodies to west nile virus in multiple avian species
    Bradley J Blitvich
    Arthropod Borne and Infectious Diseases Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology Animal Reproduction and Biotechnology Laboratory, Equine Center, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 41:1041-7. 2003
    ..The blocking assays reported here provide a rapid, reliable, and inexpensive diagnostic and surveillance technique to monitor WNV activity in multiple avian species...
  41. ncbi request reprint DNA vaccination of the American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) provides partial protection against lethal challenge with West Nile virus
    Michel L Bunning
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1300 Rampart Road, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
    Avian Dis 51:573-7. 2007
    ..Peak viremia titers in the birds that survived were significantly lower as compared to titers in birds that died. Parenteral administration of a WNV DNA vaccine was associated with reduced mortality but did not provide sterile immunity...
  42. ncbi request reprint Comparison of engorged Culex quinquefasciatus collection and blood-feeding pattern among four mosquito collection methods in Puerto Barrios, Guatemala, 2007
    Rebekah J Kent
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Vector Borne Diseases, Arbovirus Diseases Branch, Fort Collins, CO 80521, USA
    J Am Mosq Control Assoc 26:332-6. 2010
    ....
  43. pmc West Nile virus antibodies in Colombian horses
    Salim Mattar
    Emerg Infect Dis 11:1497-8. 2005
  44. pmc West Nile virus in birds, Argentina
    Luis Adrián Diaz
    Emerg Infect Dis 14:689-91. 2008
  45. pmc West Nile virus, Venezuela
    Irene Bosch
    Emerg Infect Dis 13:651-3. 2007
  46. ncbi request reprint Serologic survey of domestic animals for zoonotic arbovirus infections in the Lacandón Forest region of Chiapas, Mexico
    Armando Ulloa
    Centro de Investigacion de Paludismo, Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 3:3-9. 2003
    ..There was no evidence for transmission of the other viruses (ROC, ILH, EEE, WEE) in the study area...
  47. ncbi request reprint Experimental inoculation of house sparrows (Passer domesticus) with buggy creek virus
    Kathryn P Huyvaert
    Department of Biological Science, University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma 74104, USA
    J Wildl Dis 44:331-40. 2008
    ....
  48. ncbi request reprint West Nile virus infection in farmed American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) in Florida
    Elliott R Jacobson
    College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610, USA
    J Wildl Dis 41:96-106. 2005
    ..5 cm3 each). Virus titers in plasma ranged from 10(3.6) to 10(6.5) PFU/ml, exceeding the threshold needed to infect Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes (10(5) PFU/ml). Thus, alligators may serve as a vertebrate amplifying host for WNV...
  49. ncbi request reprint Serologic evidence of West Nile virus infection in black bears (Ursus americanus) from New Jersey
    Ary Farajollahi
    Department of Entomology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08901 1190, USA
    J Wildl Dis 39:894-6. 2003
    ..One additional sample was positive for flavivirus-neutralizing antibodies but could not be differentiated for a specific virus type. This is the first report of WNV infection in black bears...
  50. ncbi request reprint Sentinel pigeon surveillance for West Nile virus by using lard-can traps at differing elevations and canopy cover classes
    Carrie S Deegan
    Green Street Scientific LLC, Forest Hills, NY 11375, USA
    J Med Entomol 42:1039-44. 2005
    ..Our results indicate that sentinel pigeons were most effective for monitoring enzootic transmission of WNV when placed in single-sentinel caging 7.6-9.1 m above ground level...
  51. ncbi request reprint Serologic evidence of West Nile virus and St. Louis encephalitis virus infections in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from New Jersey, 2001
    Ary Farajollahi
    Department of Entomology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08901 8536, USA
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 4:379-83. 2004
    ..WNV-neutralizing antibodies were detected in six (0.9%) of the samples, and SLEV-neutralizing antibodies were found in 11 (1.6%) of the samples. We provide the first report of WNV infection in white-tailed deer...
  52. ncbi request reprint Variation in virulence of West Nile virus strains for house sparrows (Passer domesticus)
    Stanley A Langevin
    Center for Vector borne Diseases, Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis 95616, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 72:99-102. 2005
    ..This study suggests that natural mortality in house sparrows due to Old World strains of WNV may be occurring where the KEN strain occurs...
  53. pmc West Nile virus transmission in resident birds, Dominican Republic
    Oliver Komar
    Natural History Museum and Biodiversity Research Center, University of Kansas, 1345 Jayhawk Boulevard, Lawrence, KS 66045 7561, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 9:1299-302. 2003
  54. pmc Phylogenetic analysis of Buggy Creek virus: evidence for multiple clades in the Western Great Plains, United States of America
    Martin Pfeffer
    Bundeswehr Institute of Microbiology, Neuherbergstrasse 11, 80937 Munich, Germany
    Appl Environ Microbiol 72:6886-93. 2006
    ..Viral gene flow occurs when cliff swallows move (bugs) between colony sites, and the genetic structure of BCRV may reflect the limited dispersal abilities of its insect vector...
  55. ncbi request reprint West Nile virus survey of birds and mosquitoes in the Dominican Republic
    Oliver Komar
    University of Kansas Natural History Museum and Biodiversity Research Center, Lawrence, Kansas, USA
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 5:120-6. 2005
    ..These data suggest that an unidentified flavivirus, as well as WNV, is active in the Dominican Republic...
  56. ncbi request reprint Serologic survey of cats and dogs during an epidemic of West Nile virus infection in humans
    James C Kile
    CDC, Epidemic Intelligence Service, 1600 Clifton Rd SE, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Am Vet Med Assoc 226:1349-53. 2005
    ....
  57. pmc DNA vaccine for West Nile virus infection in fish crows (Corvus ossifragus)
    Michael J Turell
    Department of Vector Assessment, U S Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702 5011, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 9:1077-81. 2003
    ..Although oral administration of a single DNA vaccine dose failed to elicit an immune response or protect crows from WNV infection, IM administration of a single dose prevented death and was associated with reduced viremia...
  58. ncbi request reprint Passive West Nile virus antibody transfer from maternal Eastern screech-owls (Megascops asio) to progeny
    D C Hahn
    U S Geological Survey, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, 12100 Beech Forest Road, Laurel, MD 20708, USA
    Avian Dis 50:454-5. 2006
    ..Demonstrating that WNV antibodies are passively transferred transovarially is important for accurate interpretation of serologic data from young birds...
  59. ncbi request reprint West Nile virus infection in free-ranging squirrels in Illinois
    Kathleen M Heinz-Taheny
    Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802, USA
    J Vet Diagn Invest 16:186-90. 2004
    ..This is the first description of lesions associated with WNV infection in gray and fox squirrels...
  60. ncbi request reprint Bioecology and vectorial capacity of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Macao, China, in relation to dengue virus transmission
    A Paulo G Almeida
    Medical Entomology Unit, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Rua da Junqueira 96, 1349 008 Lisboa, Portugal
    J Med Entomol 42:419-28. 2005
    ..Estimates of vectorial capacity ranged from 144 to 880, depending on what parameter values were used. These estimates indicated a great receptivity for the introduction of dengue viruses, as the 2001 outbreak came to prove...
  61. pmc Avian influenza virus (H5N1) mortality surveillance
    Nicholas Komar
    Emerg Infect Dis 14:1176-8. 2008
  62. doi request reprint Host and vector movement affects genetic diversity and spatial structure of Buggy Creek virus (Togaviridae)
    Charles R Brown
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK 74104, USA
    Mol Ecol 17:2164-73. 2008
    ....
  63. ncbi request reprint Bird movement predicts Buggy Creek virus infection in insect vectors
    Charles R Brown
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK 74104, USA
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 7:304-14. 2007
    ....
  64. ncbi request reprint Ecological correlates of buggy creek virus infection in Oeciacus vicarius, southwestern Nebraska, 2004
    Amy T Moore
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Tulsa, OK 74104, USA
    J Med Entomol 44:42-9. 2007
    ....