R A Hajjeh

Summary

Affiliation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Call to action on world pneumonia day
    Rana Hajjeh
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 18:1898-9. 2012
  2. pmc Accelerating introduction of new vaccines: barriers to introduction and lessons learned from the recent Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine experience
    Rana Hajjeh
    Division of Bacterial Diseases, NCIRD, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, MS C 25, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 366:2827-32. 2011
  3. doi request reprint Supporting new vaccine introduction decisions: lessons learned from the Hib Initiative experience
    R A Hajjeh
    Division of Bacterial Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE, MS C 25, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Vaccine 28:7123-9. 2010
  4. ncbi request reprint Recent trends in the epidemiology of invasive mycoses
    Thomas A Clark
    Mycotic Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 15:569-74. 2002
  5. ncbi request reprint Counterpoint: invasive aspergillosis and the environment--rethinking our approach to prevention
    R A Hajjeh
    Mycotic Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 33:1549-52. 2001
  6. ncbi request reprint Cryptococcosis: population-based multistate active surveillance and risk factors in human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons. Cryptococcal Active Surveillance Group
    R A Hajjeh
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Mycotic Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Infect Dis 179:449-54. 1999
  7. ncbi request reprint Candidemia in pediatric outpatients receiving home total parenteral nutrition
    M V Cano
    Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Med Mycol 43:219-25. 2005
  8. ncbi request reprint Outbreak of histoplasmosis among cavers attending the National Speleological Society Annual Convention, Texas, 1994
    D A Ashford
    Meningitis and Special Pathogens Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 60:899-903. 1999
  9. ncbi request reprint Multicenter case-control study of risk factors for histoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons
    R A Hajjeh
    Mycotic Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 32:1215-20. 2001
  10. ncbi request reprint Risk factors for severe pulmonary and disseminated coccidioidomycosis: Kern County, California, 1995-1996
    N E Rosenstein
    Meningitis and Special Pathogens Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, NCID, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 32:708-15. 2001

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications45

  1. pmc Call to action on world pneumonia day
    Rana Hajjeh
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 18:1898-9. 2012
    ..Pneumonia kills few children in industrialized countries, although it remains among the top 10 causes of deaths in the United States, for example, because of deaths in older adults (4)...
  2. pmc Accelerating introduction of new vaccines: barriers to introduction and lessons learned from the recent Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine experience
    Rana Hajjeh
    Division of Bacterial Diseases, NCIRD, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, MS C 25, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 366:2827-32. 2011
    ....
  3. doi request reprint Supporting new vaccine introduction decisions: lessons learned from the Hib Initiative experience
    R A Hajjeh
    Division of Bacterial Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE, MS C 25, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Vaccine 28:7123-9. 2010
    ..This paper reviews the strategy adopted by the Hib Initiative and the lessons learned in the process, which provide a useful model to accelerate uptake of other new vaccines...
  4. ncbi request reprint Recent trends in the epidemiology of invasive mycoses
    Thomas A Clark
    Mycotic Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 15:569-74. 2002
    ..In addition, advances in therapeutic technologies and in particular the development of novel immunosuppressive therapies have prolonged the period of risk for many individuals...
  5. ncbi request reprint Counterpoint: invasive aspergillosis and the environment--rethinking our approach to prevention
    R A Hajjeh
    Mycotic Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 33:1549-52. 2001
    ..Nevertheless, now that high-risk patients are spending more time outside of the hospital, the cost benefits of antifungal prophylaxis and other preventive measures require careful evaluation...
  6. ncbi request reprint Cryptococcosis: population-based multistate active surveillance and risk factors in human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons. Cryptococcal Active Surveillance Group
    R A Hajjeh
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Mycotic Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Infect Dis 179:449-54. 1999
    ..Further studies are needed to better describe persons with AIDS currently developing cryptococcosis in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy...
  7. ncbi request reprint Candidemia in pediatric outpatients receiving home total parenteral nutrition
    M V Cano
    Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Med Mycol 43:219-25. 2005
    ..Our findings underscore the challenges of maintaining stringent infection control practices in the home health care setting and suggest the need for more intensive follow-up and coordination of home TPN therapy among pediatric patients...
  8. ncbi request reprint Outbreak of histoplasmosis among cavers attending the National Speleological Society Annual Convention, Texas, 1994
    D A Ashford
    Meningitis and Special Pathogens Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 60:899-903. 1999
    ....
  9. ncbi request reprint Multicenter case-control study of risk factors for histoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons
    R A Hajjeh
    Mycotic Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 32:1215-20. 2001
    ....
  10. ncbi request reprint Risk factors for severe pulmonary and disseminated coccidioidomycosis: Kern County, California, 1995-1996
    N E Rosenstein
    Meningitis and Special Pathogens Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, NCID, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 32:708-15. 2001
    ..Persons at risk for severe CM may benefit from vaccination once an effective CM vaccine is available...
  11. ncbi request reprint Trends in mortality due to invasive mycotic diseases in the United States, 1980-1997
    M M McNeil
    Mycotic Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 33:641-7. 2001
    ..These data highlight the public health importance of mycotic diseases and emphasize the need for continuing surveillance...
  12. pmc Toxic shock syndrome in the United States: surveillance update, 1979 1996
    R A Hajjeh
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 5:807-10. 1999
    ..We reviewed surveillance data for the period 1979 to 1996, when 5,296 cases were reported, and discuss changes in the epidemiologic features of TSS...
  13. pmc Candida dubliniensis fungemia: the first four cases in North America
    M E Brandt
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 6:46-9. 2000
    ..All isolates were susceptible in vitro to commonly used antifungal drugs. This report demonstrates that C. dubliniensis can cause bloodstream infection; however, the incidence of disease is not known...
  14. pmc Trends in antifungal drug susceptibility of Cryptococcus neoformans isolates in the United States: 1992 to 1994 and 1996 to 1998
    M E Brandt
    Mycotic Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 45:3065-9. 2001
    ..We conclude that in vitro resistance to antifungal agents remains uncommon in C. neoformans and has not significantly changed with time during the past decade...
  15. ncbi request reprint Gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis in Arizona: clinical and epidemiological characteristics and review of the literature
    G M Lyon
    Mycotic Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 32:1448-55. 2001
    ..GIB is a newly emerging infection that causes substantial morbidity and diagnostic confusion. Further studies are needed to better define its risk factors and treatment...
  16. ncbi request reprint The epidemiology of histoplasmosis: a review
    M V Cano
    Mycotic Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases and Epidemic Intelligence Service, Division of Applied Public Health Training, Epidemiology Program Office, CDC, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Semin Respir Infect 16:109-18. 2001
    ..Development of better diagnostic tests for detection of disease in humans and of the organism in the environment will help in designing better prevention strategies...
  17. pmc Blastomycosis in Missouri: epidemiology and risk factors for endemic disease
    M V Cano
    Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Epidemiology Program Office, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Epidemiol Infect 131:907-14. 2003
    ..However, heightened awareness of the disease and a better understanding of the risk factors are important and may lead to earlier diagnosis and start of treatment, possibly improving outcome...
  18. ncbi request reprint Population-based surveillance and a case-control study of risk factors for endemic lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis in Peru
    G M Lyon
    Epidemic Intelligence Service, Epidemiology Program Office, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 36:34-9. 2003
    ..Decreased environmental exposure, such wearing protective clothing during construction activities for adults or limiting contact with cats and soil for children, and improvements in living spaces may decrease the incidence of LS...
  19. ncbi request reprint Secular trend of hospital-acquired candidemia among intensive care unit patients in the United States during 1989-1999
    W E Trick
    Health Outcomes Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Public Health Service, US Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 35:627-30. 2002
    ..During the study period, there was a significant decrease in the incidence of C. albicans BSI (P<.001) and a significant increase in the incidence of Candida glabrata BSI (P=.05)...
  20. ncbi request reprint Excess mortality, hospital stay, and cost due to candidemia: a case-control study using data from population-based candidemia surveillance
    Juliette Morgan
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 26:540-7. 2005
    ..Prior studies lack broad patient and hospital representation or cost-related information that accurately reflects current medical practices...
  21. pmc Candida parapsilosis characterization in an outbreak setting
    Duncan M Kuhn
    University Hospitals of Cleveland and Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 10:1074-81. 2004
    ..0005). Adherence and protein secretion did not correlate with strain pathogenicity. These results suggest that biofilm production plays a role in C. parapsilosis outbreaks...
  22. pmc Epidemiologic and molecular characterization of an outbreak of Candida parapsilosis bloodstream infections in a community hospital
    Thomas A Clark
    Epidemic Intelligence Service, Epidemiology Program Office, Division of Applied Public Health Training, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 42:4468-72. 2004
    ..parapsilosis bloodstream infections in adults resulted from an interplay of host, environment, and pathogen factors. Recommendations for control measures focused on improving hand hygiene compliance...
  23. pmc Inhalational anthrax outbreak among postal workers, Washington, D.C., 2001
    Puneet K Dewan
    Centers for Desease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:1066-72. 2002
    ..Prophylaxis was necessary for all employees. To protect postal workers against bioterrorism, measures to reduce the risk of occupational exposure are necessary...
  24. ncbi request reprint A large histoplasmosis outbreak among high school students in Indiana, 2001
    Shadi Chamany
    Epidemic Intelligence Service, Division of Applied Public Health Training, Epidemiology Program Office, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, MS C09, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 23:909-14. 2004
    ..A histoplasmosis outbreak occurred in an Indiana high school in November-December 2001...
  25. ncbi request reprint An epidemic of coccidioidomycosis in Arizona associated with climatic changes, 1998-2001
    Benjamin J Park
    Mycotic Diseases Branch, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    J Infect Dis 191:1981-7. 2005
    ..Reports of coccidioidomycosis cases in Arizona have increased substantially. We investigated factors associated with the increase...
  26. ncbi request reprint Determining risk factors for candidemia among newborn infants from population-based surveillance: Baltimore, Maryland, 1998-2000
    Sharmila S Shetty
    Mycotic Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 24:601-4. 2005
    ..Our objective was to determine risks factors for late onset candidemia, independent of birth weight, in newborn infants...
  27. pmc Evaluation of amphotericin B interpretive breakpoints for Candida bloodstream isolates by correlation with therapeutic outcome
    Benjamin J Park
    Mycotic Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd, N E, Mailstop C 09, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:1287-92. 2006
    ..06 to 2 microg/ml, respectively). Etest produced the widest distribution of MICs (0.094 to 2 microg/ml). However, none of the test formats studied generated results that significantly correlated with therapeutic success or failure...
  28. pmc Coccidioidomycosis among workers at an archeological site, northeastern Utah
    Lyle R Petersen
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Ft Collins, Colorado, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 10:637-42. 2004
    ..This outbreak documents a new endemic focus of coccidioidomycosis, which extends northward its known geographic distribution in Utah by approximately 200 miles...
  29. ncbi request reprint Histoplasmosis associated with exploring a bat-inhabited cave in Costa Rica, 1998-1999
    George M Lyon
    Mycotic Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 70:438-42. 2004
    ..Persons who explore caves, whether for recreation or science, should be aware of the risk bat-inhabited caves pose for developing histoplasmosis, especially if they are immunocompromised in any way...
  30. pmc Surveillance for unexplained deaths and critical illnesses due to possibly infectious causes, United States, 1995-1998
    Rana A Hajjeh
    Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:145-53. 2002
    ..The UNEX network model would improve U.S. diagnostic capacities and preparedness for emerging infections...
  31. pmc Comparison of visual and spectrophotometric methods of broth microdilution MIC end point determination and evaluation of a sterol quantitation method for in vitro susceptibility testing of fluconazole and itraconazole against trailing and nontrailing Cand
    Beth A Arthington-Skaggs
    Mycotic Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:2477-81. 2002
    ..Our results indicate that MIC results determined by either of these end point rules may be more predictive of in vivo outcome for isolates that give unclear visual end points at 48 h due to trailing growth...
  32. ncbi request reprint Fungal infections among returning travelers
    Anil A Panackal
    Epidemic Intelligence Service, Epidemiology Program Office, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 35:1088-95. 2002
    ..Health care providers need to consider these infections in their differential diagnosis among returning travelers with respiratory illness and should be familiar with the treatment and prevention of these diseases...
  33. pmc Opening a bacillus anthracis-containing envelope, Capitol Hill, Washington, D.C.: the public health response
    Vincent P Hsu
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:1039-43. 2002
    ..Early nasal swab testing is a useful epidemiologic tool to assess risk of exposure to aerosolized B. anthracis. Early, wide chemoprophylaxis may have averted an outbreak of anthrax in this population...
  34. ncbi request reprint Population-based surveillance for cryptococcosis in an antiretroviral-naive South African province with a high HIV seroprevalence
    Kerrigan M McCarthy
    Mycology Reference Unit, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, National Health Laboratory Service, Division of Virology and Communicable Diseases Surveillance, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2000, South Africa
    AIDS 20:2199-206. 2006
    ..To measure the burden of disease and describe the epidemiology of cryptococcosis in Gauteng Province, South Africa...
  35. pmc Incidence of bloodstream infections due to Candida species and in vitro susceptibilities of isolates collected from 1998 to 2000 in a population-based active surveillance program
    Rana A Hajjeh
    Mycotic Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 42:1519-27. 2004
    ..7% of isolates, and > or = 2 microg/ml for 0.4% of isolates. Our findings highlight changes in the epidemiology of Candida BSI in the 1990s and provide a basis upon which to conduct further studies of selected high-risk subpopulations...
  36. ncbi request reprint A large outbreak of histoplasmosis among American travelers associated with a hotel in Acapulco, Mexico, spring 2001
    Juliette Morgan
    Mycotic Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 69:663-9. 2003
    ..7-30.5; P < 0.001). This is the first histoplasmosis outbreak associated with a hotel undergoing construction. Hotels in endemic areas should consider construction precaution measures to prevent histoplasmosis among their guests...
  37. ncbi request reprint Outbreak of dengue fever in Palau, Western Pacific: risk factors for infection
    David A Ashford
    Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 69:135-40. 2003
    ..scutellaris group mosquitoes (Ae. Hensilli, Ae. albopictus, and a native species). This was the first outbreak of dengue 4 virus in the Western Pacific, and the first documented epidemic of dengue in Palau since 1988...
  38. ncbi request reprint Outbreak of invasive aspergillosis among renal transplant recipients
    Anil A Panackal
    Epidemic Intelligence Service, Epidemiology Program Office, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Transplantation 75:1050-3. 2003
    ..This study suggests that immunosuppressed RTRs can be at an increased risk for IA. Measures to prevent IA in these patients should be taken during hospital construction...
  39. ncbi request reprint Rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of human brucellosis in surveillance and clinical settings in Egypt
    Moustafa A Fadeel
    United States Naval Medical Research Unit 3, PSC 452, Box 5000 Attn Code 304A, FPO AE 09835 0007, USA
    Saudi Med J 27:975-81. 2006
    ..To optimize and standardize an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for rapid diagnosis of human brucellosis in clinical cases identified during a surveillance study for acute febrile illness (AFI)...
  40. ncbi request reprint Cryptococcus gattii infection: characteristics and epidemiology of cases identified in a South African province with high HIV seroprevalence, 2002-2004
    Juliette Morgan
    Mycotic Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 43:1077-80. 2006
    ..gattii infection with regard to clinical presentation, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome diagnosis, concomitant conditions, or prior opportunistic infections. C. gattii isolates had low MICs to the tested antifungal drugs...
  41. ncbi request reprint Brucellosis as a cause of acute febrile illness in Egypt
    Gregory J Jennings
    US Naval Medical Research Unit 3 NAMRU 3, Cairo, Egypt
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 101:707-13. 2007
    ..The high incidence of brucellosis in Fayoum highlights its public health importance, and the need to implement prevention strategies in humans and animals...
  42. ncbi request reprint Cryptococcosis in Gauteng: implications for monitoring of HIV treatment programmes
    Kerrigan M McCarthy
    S Afr Med J 98:452, 454. 2008
  43. pmc Automatic electronic laboratory-based reporting of notifiable infectious diseases at a large health system
    Anil A Panackal
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:685-91. 2002
    ..Automatic reporting was more rapid and as complete as conventional reporting. Using standardized coding and minimizing free text usage will increase the completeness of electronic laboratory-based reporting...
  44. pmc Stability of allelic frequencies and distributions of Candida albicans microsatellite loci from U.S. population-based surveillance isolates
    Timothy J Lott
    Mycotic Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 41:1316-21. 2003
    ..albicans isolated from the bloodstream may form a defined, genetically homogeneous population across geographical distance and time...
  45. ncbi request reprint The changing epidemiology of cryptococcosis: an update from population-based active surveillance in 2 large metropolitan areas, 1992-2000
    Sara A Mirza
    Mycotic Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 36:789-94. 2003
    ..More efforts are needed to expand the availability of HAART and routine HIV care services to these persons...