Caryn Bern

Summary

Affiliation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Risk factors for kala-azar in Bangladesh
    Caryn Bern
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 11:655-62. 2005
  2. ncbi request reprint Evaluation and treatment of chagas disease in the United States: a systematic review
    Caryn Bern
    Parasitic Diseases Branch, Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector Borne and Enteric Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    JAMA 298:2171-81. 2007
  3. ncbi request reprint The epidemiology of intestinal microsporidiosis in patients with HIV/AIDS in Lima, Peru
    Caryn Bern
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    J Infect Dis 191:1658-64. 2005
  4. ncbi request reprint The epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis in Bangladesh: prospects for improved control
    Caryn Bern
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Indian J Med Res 123:275-88. 2006
  5. ncbi request reprint The epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis and asymptomatic leishmanial infection in a highly endemic Bangladeshi village
    Caryn Bern
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 76:909-14. 2007
  6. doi request reprint Chagas disease and the US blood supply
    Caryn Bern
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 21:476-82. 2008
  7. pmc Complexities of assessing the disease burden attributable to leishmaniasis
    Caryn Bern
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector Borne and Enteric Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2:e313. 2008
  8. doi request reprint An estimate of the burden of Chagas disease in the United States
    Caryn Bern
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector Borne and Enteric Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 49:e52-4. 2009
  9. pmc Of cattle, sand flies and men: a systematic review of risk factor analyses for South Asian visceral leishmaniasis and implications for elimination
    Caryn Bern
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4:e599. 2010
  10. pmc Longitudinal analysis of cryptosporidium species-specific immunoglobulin G antibody responses in Peruvian children
    Jeffrey W Priest
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 13:123-31. 2006

Detail Information

Publications51

  1. pmc Risk factors for kala-azar in Bangladesh
    Caryn Bern
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 11:655-62. 2005
    ..Our data confirm strong clustering and suggest that insecticide-treated nets could be effective in preventing kala-azar...
  2. ncbi request reprint Evaluation and treatment of chagas disease in the United States: a systematic review
    Caryn Bern
    Parasitic Diseases Branch, Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector Borne and Enteric Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    JAMA 298:2171-81. 2007
    ..Because of population migration from endemic areas and newly instituted blood bank screening, US clinicians are likely to see an increasing number of patients with suspected or confirmed chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection (Chagas disease)...
  3. ncbi request reprint The epidemiology of intestinal microsporidiosis in patients with HIV/AIDS in Lima, Peru
    Caryn Bern
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    J Infect Dis 191:1658-64. 2005
    ..0001), no ART (P<.0001), and cryptosporidiosis (P=.004) but not with microsporidiosis (P=.48). Our data suggest the possibility of zoonotic E. bieneusi transmission and an association with poor sanitary conditions...
  4. ncbi request reprint The epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis in Bangladesh: prospects for improved control
    Caryn Bern
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Indian J Med Res 123:275-88. 2006
    ....
  5. ncbi request reprint The epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis and asymptomatic leishmanial infection in a highly endemic Bangladeshi village
    Caryn Bern
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 76:909-14. 2007
    ..The CRP levels were higher in kala-azar patients compared with the other two groups. Low red meat intake and poor zinc and retinol status may characterize a group at higher risk of symptomatic disease...
  6. doi request reprint Chagas disease and the US blood supply
    Caryn Bern
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 21:476-82. 2008
    ..To describe new developments in blood-bank screening and management of patients with chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection in the United States...
  7. pmc Complexities of assessing the disease burden attributable to leishmaniasis
    Caryn Bern
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector Borne and Enteric Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2:e313. 2008
    ....
  8. doi request reprint An estimate of the burden of Chagas disease in the United States
    Caryn Bern
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector Borne and Enteric Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 49:e52-4. 2009
    ..T. cruzi causes a substantial disease burden in the United States...
  9. pmc Of cattle, sand flies and men: a systematic review of risk factor analyses for South Asian visceral leishmaniasis and implications for elimination
    Caryn Bern
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4:e599. 2010
    ..Studies performed over the past decade have identified fairly consistent epidemiological patterns of risk factors for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Indian subcontinent...
  10. pmc Longitudinal analysis of cryptosporidium species-specific immunoglobulin G antibody responses in Peruvian children
    Jeffrey W Priest
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 13:123-31. 2006
    ..parvum antigens. Antibody responses were not associated with infections with either Cyclospora sp. or Giardia sp. We believe the antibody assays will be important tools for monitoring the success of future public health interventions...
  11. ncbi request reprint A molecular biologic study of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in HIV-infected patients in Lima, Peru
    Irshad M Sulaiman
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 50:591-6. 2003
    ..Thus, there is a high genetic diversity of E. bieneusi in humans in Peru, and zoonotic transmission is possible if humans are in close contact with infected animals...
  12. ncbi request reprint Visceral leishmaniasis: consequences to women in a Bangladeshi community
    Indu B Ahluwalia
    Division of Adult and Community Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    J Womens Health (Larchmt) 13:360-4. 2004
    ..Future work needs to focus on understanding the implications of KA on women and to develop sustainable strategies for appropriate and timely access to treatment...
  13. pmc Cryptosporidium species and subtypes and clinical manifestations in children, Peru
    Vitaliano A Cama
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 14:1567-74. 2008
    ..genotypes or subtypes. These findings strongly suggest that Cryptosporidium spp. and subtypes are linked to different clinical manifestations in children...
  14. pmc Mixed Cryptosporidium infections and HIV
    Vitaliano Cama
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 12:1025-8. 2006
    ..felis infections; 6 patients were infected with 2 Cryptosporidium spp. and 1 patient with 3 species. Mixed infections may occur more frequently than previously believed and should be considered when assessing cryptosporidiosis...
  15. ncbi request reprint The economic impact of visceral leishmaniasis on households in Bangladesh
    D Anoopa Sharma
    Emory University Rollins School of Public Health, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Trop Med Int Health 11:757-64. 2006
    ..To explore current patterns of diagnosis and treatment, quantify household economic impact and identify household strategies to cover the costs of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) care in rural Bangladesh...
  16. ncbi request reprint Visceral leishmaniasis: consequences of a neglected disease in a Bangladeshi community
    Indu B Ahluwalia
    Division of Adult and Community Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 69:624-8. 2003
    ..To decrease the KA burden in endemic areas, community efforts should be supplemented with effective treatment programs to ensure access to appropriate and affordable diagnosis and case management...
  17. ncbi request reprint Loss of leishmanin skin test antigen sensitivity and potency in a longitudinal study of visceral leishmaniasis in Bangladesh
    Caryn Bern
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 75:744-8. 2006
    ..infantum study antigen sensitivity was 70% compared with L. amazonensis antigen. Our data underscore the need for better production, standardization, and documentation of sensitivity, potency, and stability of leishmanin antigens...
  18. pmc Changes in serum immunoglobulin G levels as a marker for Cryptosporidium sp. infection in Peruvian children
    Jeffrey W Priest
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 43:5298-300. 2005
    ..The incidence rate determined by the serologic assay was higher than the rate determined by stool microscopy (0.77 versus 0.41 infection/child-year of surveillance)...
  19. ncbi request reprint Differences in clinical manifestations among Cryptosporidium species and subtypes in HIV-infected persons
    Vitaliano A Cama
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector Borne and Enteric Diseases, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    J Infect Dis 196:684-91. 2007
    ..parvum was associated with chronic diarrhea and vomiting. These results demonstrate that different Cryptosporidium genotypes and subtype families are linked to different clinical manifestations...
  20. doi request reprint Congenital Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in Santa Cruz, Bolivia
    Caryn Bern
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 49:1667-74. 2009
    ..We conducted a study of congenital Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Our objective was to apply new tools to identify weak points in current screening algorithms, and find ways to improve them...
  21. ncbi request reprint Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in HIV-positive patients in Lima, Peru
    Vitaliano A Cama
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 50:531-3. 2003
    ..5%) were also found. These findings indicate that C. hominis is the predominant species in Peruvian HIV-positive persons, and that zoonotic Cryptosporidium spp. account for about 30% of cryptosporidiosis in these patients...
  22. pmc Chagas cardiomyopathy in the context of the chronic disease transition
    Alicia I Hidron
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4:e688. 2010
    ..Patients with Chagas disease have migrated to cities, where obesity, hypertension and other cardiac risk factors are common...
  23. pmc Cloning and characterization of the acidic ribosomal protein P2 of Cryptosporidium parvum, a new 17-kilodalton antigen
    Jeffrey W Priest
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway, NE, Mail Stop F 13, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 17:954-65. 2010
    ....
  24. pmc Targeted screening strategies to detect Trypanosoma cruzi infection in children
    Michael Z Levy
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 1:e103. 2007
    ..Vector control campaigns disrupt transmission of T. cruzi, but without timely diagnosis, children infected prior to vector control often miss the window of opportunity for effective chemotherapy...
  25. ncbi request reprint Geographic variation in the sensitivity of recombinant antigen-based rapid tests for chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection
    Jennifer R Verani
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 80:410-5. 2009
    ..The low sensitivity in Peru may be related to parasite strain differences. Chagas disease rapid tests should be field tested in each geographic site before widespread implementation for screening...
  26. pmc Purification of Enterocytozoon bieneusi spores from stool specimens by gradient and cell sorting techniques
    Zuzana Kucerova
    Department of Physiology, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 42:3256-61. 2004
    ..The sorted material appeared to be sufficiently pure and could be used for in vitro culture and for the development of a variety of diagnostic reagents as well as in studying the genome of E. bieneusi and host-parasite interactions...
  27. pmc Periurban Trypanosoma cruzi-infected Triatoma infestans, Arequipa, Peru
    Michael Zachary Levy
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341 3724, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 12:1345-52. 2006
    ..cruzi-infected triatomines were clustered. Keeping small animals in wire mesh cages could facilitate control of T. infestans in this densely populated urban environment...
  28. doi request reprint Population genetic analysis of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in humans
    Wei Li
    Division of Foodborne, Waterborne and Environmental Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Int J Parasitol 42:287-93. 2012
    ..The formation of the two sub-populations was confirmed by STRUCTURE and Wright's fixation index (FST) analyses. The data highlight the power of MLST in understanding the epidemiology of E. bieneusi...
  29. ncbi request reprint Virgin soil: the spread of visceral leishmaniasis into Uttar Pradesh, India
    Paul G Barnett
    Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 73:720-5. 2005
    ..We recommend carefully supervised spraying with DDT, surveillance to pinpoint other affected villages, and efforts to increase availability of diagnostic and treatment facilities...
  30. ncbi request reprint Prevalence of infection with waterborne pathogens: a seroepidemiologic study in children 6-36 months old in San Juan Sacatepequez, Guatemala
    Ellen B Steinberg
    Foodborne and Diarrheal Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 70:83-8. 2004
    ..Such an approach may provide a suitable, sensitive, and economical alternative to the cumbersome stool collection methods that have previously been used for evaluation of water and sanitation projects...
  31. ncbi request reprint Liposomal amphotericin B for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis
    Caryn Bern
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 43:917-24. 2006
    ..The public health community should work to broaden access to preferential liposomal amphotericin B pricing by public sector VL treatment programs...
  32. pmc Trypanosoma cruzi and Chagas' Disease in the United States
    Caryn Bern
    Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 24:655-81. 2011
    ....
  33. doi request reprint Acute and congenital Chagas disease
    Caryn Bern
    Parasitic Diseases Branch, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Adv Parasitol 75:19-47. 2011
    ..A sensitive, specific and practical screening test for newborns is needed to enable Chagas disease to be added to newborn screening programs...
  34. pmc Hemi-Nested PCR and RFLP Methodologies for Identifying Blood Meals of the Chagas Disease Vector, Triatoma infestans
    Dawn M Roellig
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 8:e74713. 2013
    ..infestans gut contents, enhancing the information provided by this assay. These tools are important contributions for ecological and epidemiological studies of vector-borne diseases. ..
  35. ncbi request reprint Intestinal helminth infections among reproductive age women in Vietnam: prevalence, co-infection and risk factors
    Phuong H Nguyen
    Global Health Department, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 37:865-74. 2006
    ..1). Our findings suggest that reproductive-age women, especially rural farmers, should be included among the high priority groups for helminth control programs through mass chemotherapy and improving sanitation...
  36. ncbi request reprint Multiplex analysis of circulating cytokines in the sera of patients with different clinical forms of visceral leishmaniasis
    Katie M Kurkjian
    National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Parasitic Diseases, Branch of Parasitic Diseases, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Cytometry A 69:353-8. 2006
    ..Measuring multiple cytokine levels in blood samples using a multiplexed microsphere assay (MMA) may be useful to further evaluate the Th1/Th2 paradigm in humans...
  37. pmc Epidemiology of and impact of insecticide spraying on chagas disease in communities in the bolivian chaco
    Aaron M Samuels
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7:e2358. 2013
    ..Chagas disease control campaigns relying upon residual insecticide spraying have been successful in many Southern American countries. However, in some areas, rapid reinfestation and recrudescence of transmission have occurred...
  38. pmc Epidemiologic differences between cyclosporiasis and cryptosporidiosis in Peruvian children
    Caryn Bern
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:581-5. 2002
    ..Cryptosporidiosis was more frequent in children from houses without a latrine or toilet. Cyclosporiasis was associated with ownership of domestic animals, especially birds, guinea pigs, and rabbits...
  39. pmc Triosephosphate isomerase gene characterization and potential zoonotic transmission of Giardia duodenalis
    Irshad M Sulaiman
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341 3717, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 9:1444-52. 2003
    ..These data confirm that G. duodenalis from certain animals can potentially infect humans and should be useful in the detection, differentiation, and taxonomy of Giardia spp...
  40. doi request reprint Hospitalization and mortality among primarily nonbreastfed children during a large outbreak of diarrhea and malnutrition in Botswana, 2006
    Tracy L Creek
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Global AIDS Program, 1600 Clifton Rd NE, Mailstop E 04, Atlanta, GA 30033, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 53:14-9. 2010
    ..Botswana has high HIV prevalence among pregnant women (33.4% in 2005), and an estimated 35% of all infants under the age of 6 months are not breastfed...
  41. ncbi request reprint Identification of the cryptosporidium pig genotype in a human patient
    Lihua Xiao
    J Infect Dis 185:1846-8. 2002
  42. pmc Seroepidemiology of strongyloidiasis in the Peruvian Amazon
    Pablo P Yori
    Asociacion Benefica PRISMA, Lima, Peru
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 74:97-102. 2006
    ..04 for each one-year increase, 95% CI = 1.02-1.06) were associated with an increased risk of a positive S. stercoralis ELISA result. The ELISA had a negative predictive value of 98% and is an excellent screening test for strongyloidiasis...
  43. pmc Cyclospora in Guatemala: further considerations
    Caryn Bern
    J Clin Microbiol 40:731-2. 2002
  44. ncbi request reprint Leishmaniasis and poverty
    Jorge Alvar
    Communicable Diseases, Neglected Tropical Diseases Control, World Health Organization, 20 Ave Appia, CH 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland
    Trends Parasitol 22:552-7. 2006
    ..Public investment in treatment and control would decrease the leishmaniasis disease burden and help to alleviate poverty...
  45. ncbi request reprint Kala-azar outbreak in Libo Kemkem, Ethiopia: epidemiologic and parasitologic assessment
    Jorge Alvar
    Department for the Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases CDS NTD IDM, Leishmaniasis Control Program, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, CH 1211 Geneva, Switzerland
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 77:275-82. 2007
    ..Molecular typing in splenic aspirates showed L. infantum (six) and L. donovani (one). Local transmission resulted from multiple introductions, is now well established, and will be difficult to eradicate...
  46. ncbi request reprint Fecal contamination of drinking water within peri-urban households, Lima, Peru
    William E Oswald
    Asociación Benéfica Proyectos en Informática, Salud, Medicina, y Agricultura A B PRISMA, Lima, Peru
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 77:699-704. 2007
    ..Hygiene education, better point-of-use treatment and storage options, and in-house water connections are urgently needed...
  47. doi request reprint Chagas disease transmission in periurban communities of Arequipa, Peru
    Natalie M Bowman
    Asociación Benéfica Proyectos en Informática, Salud, Medicina y Agricultura, Lima, Peru
    Clin Infect Dis 46:1822-8. 2008
    ..Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi infection, is an urban problem in Arequipa, Peru, and the epidemiology of Chagas disease is likely to be quite different in this area, compared with in rural zones...
  48. pmc Lack of an adverse effect of Giardia intestinalis infection on the health of Peruvian children
    Maria Graciela Hollm-Delgado
    Departement de Medecine sociale et preventive, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Am J Epidemiol 168:647-55. 2008
    ..981). Giardia was not associated with an increased risk of diarrhea at any age interval. Study results question the importance of Giardia as a childhood pathogen in developing countries where giardiasis is hyperendemic...
  49. ncbi request reprint Risk factors for anemia in Vietnam
    Phuong H Nguyen
    Nutrition and Health Sciences Program, Graduate School of Art and Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta GA, 30322, USA
    Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 37:1213-23. 2006
    ..Other risk factors in women included having > 3 children and having a child < 24 months old. In men, no variables were found significantly associated with anemia...
  50. pmc Impregnated netting slows infestation by Triatoma infestans
    Michael Z Levy
    Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 2220, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 79:528-34. 2008
    ..6 to 40.5. Impregnated netting can slow the spread of T. infestans and is a potentially valuable tool in the control of Chagas disease...
  51. pmc The global burden of diarrhoeal disease, as estimated from studies published between 1992 and 2000
    Margaret Kosek
    Division of Geographic and International Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA
    Bull World Health Organ 81:197-204. 2003
    ..There has not been a concurrent decrease in morbidity rates attributable to diarrhoea. As population growth is focused in the poorest areas, the total morbidity component of the disease burden is greater than previously...