C S Atwood

Summary

Affiliation: Case Western Reserve University
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Human neurons express type I GnRH receptor and respond to GnRH I by increasing luteinizing hormone expression
    Andrea C Wilson
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Veterans Administration Hospital, University of Wisconsin, 2500 Overlook Terrace, Madison, Wisconsin 53705, USA
    J Endocrinol 191:651-63. 2006
  2. ncbi request reprint Senile plaque composition and posttranslational modification of amyloid-beta peptide and associated proteins
    Craig S Atwood
    Institute of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, 2085 Adelbert Road, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
    Peptides 23:1343-50. 2002
  3. ncbi request reprint Amyloid-beta: a chameleon walking in two worlds: a review of the trophic and toxic properties of amyloid-beta
    Craig S Atwood
    Institute of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, 2085 Adelbert Road, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
    Brain Res Brain Res Rev 43:1-16. 2003
  4. ncbi request reprint Amyloid-beta: a vascular sealant that protects against hemorrhage?
    Craig S Atwood
    Institute of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 USA
    J Neurosci Res 70:356. 2002
  5. ncbi request reprint Amyloid-beta: redox-metal chelator and antioxidant
    C S Atwood
    Institute of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
    J Alzheimers Dis 4:203-14. 2002
  6. ncbi request reprint Mitochondrial abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease
    K Hirai
    Institute of Pathology, Department of Neurology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
    J Neurosci 21:3017-23. 2001
  7. ncbi request reprint Oxidative damage is the earliest event in Alzheimer disease
    A Nunomura
    Institute of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
    J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 60:759-67. 2001
  8. ncbi request reprint Differential activation of neuronal ERK, JNK/SAPK and p38 in Alzheimer disease: the 'two hit' hypothesis
    X Zhu
    Institute of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, 2085 Adelbert Road, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
    Mech Ageing Dev 123:39-46. 2001
  9. ncbi request reprint Evidence for the role of gonadotropin hormones in the development of Alzheimer disease
    G Casadesus
    Institute of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
    Cell Mol Life Sci 62:293-8. 2005
  10. ncbi request reprint Active glycation in neurofibrillary pathology of Alzheimer disease: N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl) lysine and hexitol-lysine
    R J Castellani
    Institute of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 31:175-80. 2001

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. ncbi request reprint Human neurons express type I GnRH receptor and respond to GnRH I by increasing luteinizing hormone expression
    Andrea C Wilson
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Veterans Administration Hospital, University of Wisconsin, 2500 Overlook Terrace, Madison, Wisconsin 53705, USA
    J Endocrinol 191:651-63. 2006
    ..Post-reproductive surges in GnRH I secretion may explain the accumulation of LH in pyramidal neurons of the aged human and rat...
  2. ncbi request reprint Senile plaque composition and posttranslational modification of amyloid-beta peptide and associated proteins
    Craig S Atwood
    Institute of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, 2085 Adelbert Road, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
    Peptides 23:1343-50. 2002
    ....
  3. ncbi request reprint Amyloid-beta: a chameleon walking in two worlds: a review of the trophic and toxic properties of amyloid-beta
    Craig S Atwood
    Institute of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, 2085 Adelbert Road, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
    Brain Res Brain Res Rev 43:1-16. 2003
    ..ccirf;), leading to enhanced, rather than reduced, neuronal oxidative stress...
  4. ncbi request reprint Amyloid-beta: a vascular sealant that protects against hemorrhage?
    Craig S Atwood
    Institute of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 USA
    J Neurosci Res 70:356. 2002
  5. ncbi request reprint Amyloid-beta: redox-metal chelator and antioxidant
    C S Atwood
    Institute of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
    J Alzheimers Dis 4:203-14. 2002
  6. ncbi request reprint Mitochondrial abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease
    K Hirai
    Institute of Pathology, Department of Neurology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
    J Neurosci 21:3017-23. 2001
    ..The relationship shown here between the site and extent of mitochondrial abnormalities and oxidative damage suggests an intimate and early association between these features in Alzheimer's disease...
  7. ncbi request reprint Oxidative damage is the earliest event in Alzheimer disease
    A Nunomura
    Institute of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
    J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 60:759-67. 2001
    ..These findings suggest that AD is associated with compensatory changes that reduce damage from reactive oxygen...
  8. ncbi request reprint Differential activation of neuronal ERK, JNK/SAPK and p38 in Alzheimer disease: the 'two hit' hypothesis
    X Zhu
    Institute of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, 2085 Adelbert Road, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
    Mech Ageing Dev 123:39-46. 2001
    ..Therefore, we propose that both 'hits', oxidative stress and mitotic alterations, are necessary for the progression of Alzheimer disease...
  9. ncbi request reprint Evidence for the role of gonadotropin hormones in the development of Alzheimer disease
    G Casadesus
    Institute of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
    Cell Mol Life Sci 62:293-8. 2005
    ..Given the evidence supporting a pathogenic role for LH in AD, a trial of leuprolide acetate, which suppresses LH release, has been initiated in patients...
  10. ncbi request reprint Active glycation in neurofibrillary pathology of Alzheimer disease: N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl) lysine and hexitol-lysine
    R J Castellani
    Institute of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 31:175-80. 2001
    ..Our findings support the notion that aldehyde-mediated modifications, together with oxyradical-mediated modifications, are critical pathogenic factors in AD...
  11. ncbi request reprint Mitotic and gender parallels in Alzheimer disease: therapeutic opportunities
    X Zhu
    Institute of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, 2085 Adelbert Road, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
    Curr Drug Targets 5:559-63. 2004
    ..As such, agents targeted toward luteinizing hormone or downstream sequelae may be of great therapeutic value in the treatment of Alzheimer disease...
  12. ncbi request reprint Neuroprotective properties of Bcl-w in Alzheimer disease
    Xiongwei Zhu
    Institute of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, 2085 Adelbert Road, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
    J Neurochem 89:1233-40. 2004
    ..Taken together, these series of results suggest that Bcl-w may play an important protective role in neurons in the diseased brain and that this aspect could be therapeutically harnessed to afford neuroprotection...
  13. ncbi request reprint What is aging? What is its role in Alzheimer's disease? What can we do about it?
    J Wesson Ashford
    Stanford VA Alzheimer Center, Palo Alto, CA 94304 1207, USA
    J Alzheimers Dis 7:247-53; discussion 255-62. 2005
  14. ncbi request reprint Amyloid-beta-induced toxicity of primary neurons is dependent upon differentiation-associated increases in tau and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 expression
    Tianbing Liu
    Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin Madison, Geriatrics, Research, Education and Clinical Center, Wm S Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, 53705, USA
    J Neurochem 88:554-63. 2004
    ..Our results predict that only cells containing appreciable levels of tau are susceptible to Abeta-induced toxicity and may explain why Abeta is more toxic to neurons compared with other cell types...
  15. ncbi request reprint Copper mediates dityrosine cross-linking of Alzheimer's amyloid-beta
    Craig S Atwood
    Institute of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
    Biochemistry 43:560-8. 2004
    ..Given the elevated concentration of Cu in senile plaques, our results suggest that Cu interactions with Abeta could be responsible for causing the covalent cross-linking of Abeta in these structures...
  16. ncbi request reprint Amyloid-beta: phylogenesis of a chameleon
    Anatol Kontush
    Brain Res Brain Res Rev 46:118-20. 2004
  17. ncbi request reprint Trace metal contamination initiates the apparent auto-aggregation, amyloidosis, and oligomerization of Alzheimer's Abeta peptides
    Xudong Huang
    Department of Psychiatry, and Laboratory for Oxidation Biology, MassGeneral Institute for Neurodegenerative Disease, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston 02114, USA
    J Biol Inorg Chem 9:954-60. 2004
    ..These data suggest that protein self-assembly and oligomerization are not spontaneous in this system as previously thought, and that there may be an obligatory role for metal ions in initiating Abeta amyloidosis and oligomerization...
  18. ncbi request reprint Estrogen bows to a new master: the role of gonadotropins in Alzheimer pathogenesis
    Kate M Webber
    Institute of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, 2085 Adelbert Rd, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1052:201-9. 2005
    ..On this basis, we suggest that the results of the WHI Memory Study are not only predictable but also avoidable by therapeutically targeting the gonadotropins instead of the sex steroids...
  19. ncbi request reprint Novel D-penicillamine carrying nanoparticles for metal chelation therapy in Alzheimer's and other CNS diseases
    Zhengrong Cui
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Center for Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, College of Pharmacy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 0082, USA
    Eur J Pharm Biopharm 59:263-72. 2005
    ..These results indicate that nanoparticles have potential to deliver D-penicillamine to the brain for the prevention of Abeta (1-42) accumulation, as well as to reduce metal ion accumulation in other CNS diseases...
  20. ncbi request reprint The gonadotropin connection in Alzheimer's disease
    Sivan Vadakkadath Meethal
    Section of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin Madison, Veterans Administration Hospital, Madison, 53705, USA
    Endocrine 26:317-26. 2005
    ..Clinical trials are underway for the treatment of AD using GnRH analogs and should provide further insights into the gonadotropin connection in AD...
  21. ncbi request reprint Luteinizing hormone modulates cognition and amyloid-beta deposition in Alzheimer APP transgenic mice
    Gemma Casadesus
    Institute of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, 2085 Adelbert Road, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1762:447-52. 2006
    ..Since both cognitive loss and amyloid-beta deposition are features of Alzheimer disease, leuprolide acetate treatment may prove to be a useful therapeutic strategy for this disease...
  22. pmc Antibodies to potato virus Y bind the amyloid beta peptide: immunohistochemical and NMR studies
    Robert P Friedland
    Department of Neurology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
    J Biol Chem 283:22550-6. 2008
    ..Immune responses generated from dietary exposure to proteins homologous to Abeta may induce antibodies that could influence the normal physiological processing of the protein and the development or progression of AD...
  23. ncbi request reprint Adventiously-bound redox active iron and copper are at the center of oxidative damage in Alzheimer disease
    George Perry
    Institute of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, 2085 Adelbert Road, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
    Biometals 16:77-81. 2003
    ....
  24. ncbi request reprint Reduction of inclusion body pathology in ApoE-deficient mice fed a combination of antioxidants
    Gerald Veurink
    Department of Surgery, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia
    Free Radic Biol Med 34:1070-7. 2003
    ....
  25. ncbi request reprint Iron: a pathological mediator of Alzheimer disease?
    Glenda M Bishop
    Institute of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
    Dev Neurosci 24:184-7. 2002
    ..Continued examination of the complex interactions that occur between iron and amyloid-beta may assist in the elucidation of the mechanisms that underlie the neurodegeneration that leads to dementia in AD...
  26. ncbi request reprint Ill-fated amyloid-beta vaccine
    Mark A Smith
    J Neurosci Res 69:285. 2002
  27. ncbi request reprint Is oxidative damage the fundamental pathogenic mechanism of Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases?
    George Perry
    Institute of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 33:1475-9. 2002
    ..Although much data remain to be collected, the broad spectrum of changes found in AD are only seen, albeit to a lesser extent, in normal aging with other neurodegenerative diseases showing distinct spectrums of change...
  28. ncbi request reprint Iron homeostasis is maintained in the brain, but not the liver, following mild hypoxia
    Glenda M Bishop
    Institute of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
    Redox Rep 12:257-66. 2007
    ..Together, these results indicate that there is a tighter regulation of iron metabolism in the brain than the liver, which limits the redistribution of Fe3+ following hypoxia...
  29. ncbi request reprint Amyloid-beta: a (life) preserver for the brain
    Mark E Obrenovich
    Institute of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, 2085 Adelbert Road, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
    Neurobiol Aging 23:1097-9. 2002
  30. ncbi request reprint The role of iron and copper in the aetiology of neurodegenerative disorders: therapeutic implications
    George Perry
    Institute of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
    CNS Drugs 16:339-52. 2002
    ..In this article, we examine not only the possible mechanism of disease but also how pharmaceuticals may intervene, from direct and indirect antioxidant therapy to strategies involving gene therapy...
  31. ncbi request reprint Cerebral hemorrhage and amyloid-beta
    Craig S Atwood
    Science 299:1014; author reply 1014. 2003
  32. ncbi request reprint The state versus amyloid-beta: the trial of the most wanted criminal in Alzheimer disease
    Catherine A Rottkamp
    Institute of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, 2085 Adelbert Road, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
    Peptides 23:1333-41. 2002
    ..Below, we present a brief synopsis of the trial for you, the jury, to decide the verdict. Amyloid-beta: guilty or not-guilty?..
  33. ncbi request reprint Amyloid-beta, tau alterations and mitochondrial dysfunction in Alzheimer disease: the chickens or the eggs?
    Mark A Smith
    Institute of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, 2085 Adelbert Road, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
    Neurochem Int 40:527-31. 2002
    ..However, this rationale may be misguided since new evidence from our laboratories and others suggest that the lesions not only occur as a by-product of the fundamental disease process but also that they may be protective...
  34. ncbi request reprint Metal binding and oxidation of amyloid-beta within isolated senile plaque cores: Raman microscopic evidence
    Jian Dong
    Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
    Biochemistry 42:2768-73. 2003
    ..The results also reveal a direct chemical basis for oxidative damage caused by amyloid-beta protein in AD...
  35. pmc A luteinizing hormone receptor intronic variant is significantly associated with decreased risk of Alzheimer's disease in males carrying an apolipoprotein E epsilon4 allele
    Ryan J Haasl
    Section of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI 53705, USA
    BMC Med Genet 9:37. 2008
    ....
  36. ncbi request reprint Gonadotropins: a cohesive gender-based etiology of Alzheimer disease
    Kate M Webber
    Department of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 260:271-5. 2007
    ..In this review, we examine how the gonadotropins may play a central and determining role in modulating the susceptibility to, and progression of, Alzheimer disease...
  37. ncbi request reprint The cell cycle and hormonal fluxes in Alzheimer disease: a novel therapeutic target
    Kate M Webber
    Institute of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 USA
    Curr Pharm Des 12:691-7. 2006
    ..Therapeutic interventions targeted at gonadotropins, if they are indeed the driving mitogenic force, could both prevent disease in those patients currently asymptomatic or halt, and even reverse, disease in those currently afflicted...
  38. ncbi request reprint Menopause, estrogen, and gonadotropins in Alzheimer's disease
    Gemma Casadesus
    Department of Neurosciences, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
    Adv Clin Chem 45:139-53. 2008
    ..Moreover, targeting gonadotropins appears to have beneficial actions as a therapeutic regimen...
  39. ncbi request reprint Luteinizing hormone receptor mediates neuronal pregnenolone production via up-regulation of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression
    Tianbing Liu
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53705, USA
    J Neurochem 100:1329-39. 2007
    ....
  40. ncbi request reprint Increased expression of the remodeling- and tumorigenic-associated factor osteopontin in pyramidal neurons of the Alzheimer's disease brain
    John K Wung
    Institute of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
    Curr Alzheimer Res 4:67-72. 2007
    ....
  41. ncbi request reprint Predicting the failure of amyloid-beta vaccine
    Mark A Smith
    Lancet 359:1864-5. 2002
  42. pmc fMRI activation during episodic encoding and metacognitive appraisal across the lifespan: risk factors for Alzheimer's disease
    Mehul A Trivedi
    Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center, Wm S Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison, WI 53705, USA
    Neuropsychologia 46:1667-78. 2008
    ..These results suggest that FH and aging are exerting independent effects in both tasks while APOE affected the relationship with age in the hippocampus in one of the two tasks given...
  43. doi request reprint A multi-hit endocrine model of intrinsic adult-onset asthma
    Craig S Atwood
    Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin and Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, Veterans Administration Hospital, 2500 Overlook Terrace, Madison, WI 53705, USA
    Ageing Res Rev 7:114-25. 2008
    ..Future therapeutic strategies might therefore target the serotonergic, leptinergic and hypothalamic pathways in regulating cellular cAMP production and bronchoconstriction for the treatment of adult-onset asthma...
  44. doi request reprint Reproductive hormones regulate the selective permeability of the blood-brain barrier
    Andrea C Wilson
    Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin Madison and Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, Veterans Administration Hospital, 2500 Overlook Terrace, Madison, WI 53705 USA
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1782:401-7. 2008
    ..Furthermore, these findings implicate Cx43 in mediating changes in BBB permeability, and serum gonadotropins in the cerebropathophysiology of age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as stroke and Alzheimer's disease...
  45. ncbi request reprint Effects of simvastatin on cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers and cognition in middle-aged adults at risk for Alzheimer's disease
    Cynthia M Carlsson
    Department of Medicine, Section of Geriatrics and Gerontology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI 53705, USA
    J Alzheimers Dis 13:187-97. 2008
    ..It is unclear if statins modify Abeta metabolism or improve cognition in asymptomatic middle-aged adults at increased risk for AD...
  46. ncbi request reprint The estrogen myth: potential use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease
    Gemma Casadesus
    Department of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
    Drugs R D 7:187-93. 2006
    ....
  47. ncbi request reprint Antigonadotropins: a novel strategy to halt Alzheimer's disease progression
    Christopher W Gregory
    Voyager Pharmaceutical Corporation, Raleigh, NC 27615, USA
    Curr Pharm Des 12:685-90. 2006
    ....
  48. ncbi request reprint Gender differences in Alzheimer disease: the role of luteinizing hormone in disease pathogenesis
    Kate M Webber
    Institute of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
    Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 19:95-9. 2005
    ..Based on this, we suggest that therapeutic interventions targeted at gonadotropins may both prevent disease in those patients currently asymptomatic or may halt, and even reverse, disease in those currently afflicted...
  49. ncbi request reprint Dangers of the amyloid-beta vaccination
    Mark A Smith
    Acta Neuropathol 104:110. 2002
  50. ncbi request reprint Elevated luteinizing hormone expression colocalizes with neurons vulnerable to Alzheimer's disease pathology
    Richard L Bowen
    Voyager Pharmaceutical Corporation, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA
    J Neurosci Res 70:514-8. 2002
    ..Elevated serum and cortical neuron levels of LH, coupled with the decline in sex steroid production, could play important roles in the pathogenesis of AD...
  51. ncbi request reprint Estrogen replacement and risk of Alzheimer disease
    Mark A Smith
    JAMA 289:1100; author reply 1101-2. 2003
  52. ncbi request reprint Pennington scientific symposium on mechanisms and retardation of aging
    Craig S Atwood
    Section of Geriatrics and Gerontology, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI, USA
    Exp Gerontol 38:1217-26. 2003
  53. ncbi request reprint Luteinizing hormone, a reproductive regulator that modulates the processing of amyloid-beta precursor protein and amyloid-beta deposition
    Richard L Bowen
    Voyager Pharmaceutical Corporation, Raleigh, NC 27615, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:20539-45. 2004
    ..Suppression of the age-related increase in serum gonadotropins using anti-gonadotropin agents may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for AD...
  54. ncbi request reprint Gonadotropins and Alzheimer's disease: the link between estrogen replacement therapy and neuroprotection
    Kate M Webber
    Institute of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, 2085 Adelbert Road, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
    Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) 64:113-8. 2004
    ..Based on this, we suggest that therapeutic interventions targeted at gonadotropins could both prevent disease in those patients currently asymptomatic or halt, and even reverse, disease in those currently afflicted...
  55. ncbi request reprint Cerebrovascular requirement for sealant, anti-coagulant and remodeling molecules that allow for the maintenance of vascular integrity and blood supply
    Craig S Atwood
    School of Medicine, University of Wisconsin and William S Middleton Memorial Veterans Administration, GRECC 11G, 2500 Overlook Terrace, Madison, WI 53705, USA
    Brain Res Brain Res Rev 43:164-78. 2003
    ..e. immunological responses to Abeta vaccination do not discriminate between physiologically purposive deposits of Abeta (vascular deposits) and pathological deposits of Abeta (senile plaques)...
  56. ncbi request reprint The role of beta amyloid in Alzheimer's disease: still a cause of everything or the only one who got caught?
    Giuseppe Verdile
    Sir James McCusker Alzheimer s Disease Research Unit, School of Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, University of Western Australia, Hollywood Private Hospital, Monash Avenue, Nedlands, WA 6009, Australia
    Pharmacol Res 50:397-409. 2004
    ..This research has led to the development of therapeutic agents, currently in human clinical trials, which target A beta...
  57. ncbi request reprint Living and dying for sex. A theory of aging based on the modulation of cell cycle signaling by reproductive hormones
    Richard L Bowen
    Voyager Pharmaceutical Corporation, Raleigh, N C, USA
    Gerontology 50:265-90. 2004
    ....
  58. ncbi request reprint Beyond estrogen: targeting gonadotropin hormones in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease
    Gemma Casadesus
    Institute of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
    Curr Drug Targets CNS Neurol Disord 3:281-5. 2004
    ..Therefore, the effects of agents that abolish LH, such as leuprolide acetate, which are currently being evaluated in Phase II clinical trials for the treatment of AD, are eagerly anticipated...
  59. ncbi request reprint Dementia and testosterone levels in men
    Richard L Bowen
    JAMA 293:551; author reply 552. 2005
  60. ncbi request reprint Feedback on a feedback loop: the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis
    Craig S Atwood
    J Alzheimers Dis 7:1-2. 2005
  61. ncbi request reprint Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis with menopause and andropause promotes neurodegenerative senescence
    Craig S Atwood
    Section of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin Madison, 53705, USA
    J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 64:93-103. 2005
    ..Ideally, supplementation with HPG hormones should mimic closely the serum concentrations of all HPG hormones in reproductive men and cycling women to prevent dyotic signaling and attempted neuron division...
  62. ncbi request reprint Call for Elan to publish Alzheimer's trial details
    Glenda M Bishop
    Nature 416:677. 2002