Helen E Gruber

Summary

Affiliation: Carolinas Medical Center
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Cellular immunohistochemical localization of the matricellular protein myocilin in the intervertebral disc
    H E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, P O Box 32861, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    Biotech Histochem 81:119-24. 2006
  2. doi request reprint Growth and differentiation factor-5 (GDF-5) in the human intervertebral annulus cells and its modulation by IL-1ß and TNF-α in vitro
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, PO Box 32861, Charlotte, NC, USA Electronic address
    Exp Mol Pathol 96:225-9. 2014
  3. doi request reprint Production and expression of RANTES (CCL5) by human disc cells and modulation by IL-1-β and TNF-α in 3D culture
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, PO Box 32861, Charlotte, NC, USA Electronic address
    Exp Mol Pathol 96:133-8. 2014
  4. doi request reprint Increased IL-17 expression in degenerated human discs and increased production in cultured annulus cells exposed to IL-1ß and TNF-α
    H E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, P O Box 32861, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    Biotech Histochem 88:302-10. 2013
  5. doi request reprint Mitochondrial bioenergetics, mass, and morphology are altered in cells of the degenerating human annulus
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Orthopaedic Research Biology, Cannon Research, Room 304, Carolinas Medical Center, P O Box 32861, Charlotte, North Carolina 28232, USA
    J Orthop Res 31:1270-5. 2013
  6. doi request reprint Genomewide molecular and biologic characterization of biomembrane formation adjacent to a methacrylate spacer in the rat femoral segmental defect model
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    J Orthop Trauma 27:290-7. 2013
  7. doi request reprint Interleukin 1-beta upregulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor, neurotrophin 3 and neuropilin 2 gene expression and NGF production in annulus cells
    H E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, P O Box 32861, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    Biotech Histochem 87:506-11. 2012
  8. pmc Genome-wide analysis of pain-, nerve- and neurotrophin -related gene expression in the degenerating human annulus
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    Mol Pain 8:63. 2012
  9. doi request reprint Deleterious effects of discography radiocontrast solution on human annulus cell in vitro: changes in cell viability, proliferation, and apoptosis in exposed cells
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Orthopaedic Research Biology, Cannon Research, Room 304, Carolinas Medical Center, PO Box 32861, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    Spine J 12:329-35. 2012
  10. doi request reprint Osteogenic and chondrogenic potential of biomembrane cells from the PMMA-segmental defect rat model
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, North Carolina 28232, USA
    J Orthop Res 30:1198-212. 2012

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications101 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi request reprint Cellular immunohistochemical localization of the matricellular protein myocilin in the intervertebral disc
    H E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, P O Box 32861, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    Biotech Histochem 81:119-24. 2006
    ..Myocilin may have such functions within the disc cell population in a manner similar to tenascin, SPARC and thrombospondin, which are other matricellular proteins recently shown to be present in the disc...
  2. doi request reprint Growth and differentiation factor-5 (GDF-5) in the human intervertebral annulus cells and its modulation by IL-1ß and TNF-α in vitro
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, PO Box 32861, Charlotte, NC, USA Electronic address
    Exp Mol Pathol 96:225-9. 2014
    ..38-fold change, p=0.015). In vitro findings suggest that the degenerating disc milieu, with high proinflammatory cytokine levels, may limit expression of GDF-5, resulting in limited regenerative capacity of the intact disc. ..
  3. doi request reprint Production and expression of RANTES (CCL5) by human disc cells and modulation by IL-1-β and TNF-α in 3D culture
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, PO Box 32861, Charlotte, NC, USA Electronic address
    Exp Mol Pathol 96:133-8. 2014
    ....
  4. doi request reprint Increased IL-17 expression in degenerated human discs and increased production in cultured annulus cells exposed to IL-1ß and TNF-α
    H E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, P O Box 32861, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    Biotech Histochem 88:302-10. 2013
    ..Significantly greater expression of IL-17 in more degenerated discs adds to our understanding of the changes in disc cell function with advancing stages of disc degeneration...
  5. doi request reprint Mitochondrial bioenergetics, mass, and morphology are altered in cells of the degenerating human annulus
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Orthopaedic Research Biology, Cannon Research, Room 304, Carolinas Medical Center, P O Box 32861, Charlotte, North Carolina 28232, USA
    J Orthop Res 31:1270-5. 2013
    ..Findings have relevance to advancements in cell-based therapies to treat disc degeneration...
  6. doi request reprint Genomewide molecular and biologic characterization of biomembrane formation adjacent to a methacrylate spacer in the rat femoral segmental defect model
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    J Orthop Trauma 27:290-7. 2013
    ..The objective of this research was to assess the biomembrane formed in a novel rodent femoral segmental defect model at 4, 8, and 16 weeks with histologic and molecular studies...
  7. doi request reprint Interleukin 1-beta upregulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor, neurotrophin 3 and neuropilin 2 gene expression and NGF production in annulus cells
    H E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, P O Box 32861, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    Biotech Histochem 87:506-11. 2012
    ..Our results have direct translational relevance, because they address the primary clinical issue of low back pain and open the possibility of novel analgesic therapies using specific small-molecular antagonists to neurotrophins...
  8. pmc Genome-wide analysis of pain-, nerve- and neurotrophin -related gene expression in the degenerating human annulus
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    Mol Pain 8:63. 2012
    ..Control, non-herniated clinical, and herniated clinical specimens of human annulus tissue were studied following Institutional Review Board approval...
  9. doi request reprint Deleterious effects of discography radiocontrast solution on human annulus cell in vitro: changes in cell viability, proliferation, and apoptosis in exposed cells
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Orthopaedic Research Biology, Cannon Research, Room 304, Carolinas Medical Center, PO Box 32861, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    Spine J 12:329-35. 2012
    ....
  10. doi request reprint Osteogenic and chondrogenic potential of biomembrane cells from the PMMA-segmental defect rat model
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, North Carolina 28232, USA
    J Orthop Res 30:1198-212. 2012
    ....
  11. doi request reprint Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells: serial passaging, doubling time and cell senescence
    H E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, North Carolina, USA
    Biotech Histochem 87:303-11. 2012
    ..The mean percent senescence increased significantly with cell passaging, rising from 0% at passage 1 to 3.4% at passage 13. These novel data suggest that caution should be exercised when using AD-MSC with long passage times...
  12. doi request reprint Matrix metalloproteinase-26, a novel MMP, is constitutively expressed in the human intervertebral disc in vivo and in vitro
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, PO Box 32861, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    Exp Mol Pathol 92:59-63. 2012
    ..healthier discs. Findings document the first identification of MMP-26 in the disc at the molecular and protein levels. Results point to the potentially important role of MMP-26 in matrix modulation during disc health and degeneration...
  13. pmc Breast-cancer-associated metastasis is significantly increased in a model of autoimmune arthritis
    Lopamudra Das Roy
    Department of Immunology, Mayo Clinic School of Medicine, 13400 E, Shea Blvd, Scottsdale, Arizona 85259, USA
    Breast Cancer Res 11:R56. 2009
    ....
  14. pmc Computer aided vertebral visualization and analysis: a methodology using the sand rat, a small animal model of disc degeneration
    Christy Wilson
    University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd Charlotte, NC 28223, USA
    BMC Musculoskelet Disord 4:4. 2003
    ..Techniques presented here have the potential to produce quantitative algorithms that create more accurate and informative measurements in a time efficient manner...
  15. pmc Collagen induced arthritis increases secondary metastasis in MMTV-PyV MT mouse model of mammary cancer
    Lopamudra Das Roy
    University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Dept, of Biology, 9201 University City Blvd, NC 29223, USA
    BMC Cancer 11:365. 2011
    ..Despite this knowledge being available, there has been minimal research linking breast cancer, arthritis, and metastasis associated with breast cancer. Notably both diseases are extremely prevalent in older post-menopausal women...
  16. pmc Disruption of the thrombospondin-2 gene alters the lamellar morphology but does not permit vascularization of the adult mouse lumbar disc
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    Arthritis Res Ther 10:R96. 2008
    ..In the present study we have examined thrombospondin-2 (TSP-2), a matricellular protein with recognized anti-angiogenic activity in vivo and in vitro...
  17. pmc Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and its receptor in the human and the sand rat intervertebral disc
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    Arthritis Res Ther 10:R82. 2008
    ....
  18. pmc Three-dimensional culture of human meniscal cells: extracellular matrix and proteoglycan production
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC, USA
    BMC Biotechnol 8:54. 2008
    ....
  19. doi request reprint Immunolocalization and biochemical evidence of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A in the intervertebral disc
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 33:E447-54. 2008
    ..Cultured human disc cells were also tested for production of PAPP-A...
  20. doi request reprint Analysis of cell death and vertebral end plate bone mineral density in the annulus of the aging sand rat
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, 3 rd Floor, PO Box 32861, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    Spine J 8:475-81. 2008
    ..This model is used here to evaluate disc degeneration, disc cell viability, and vertebral end plate bone mineral density (BMD) in lumbar sites...
  21. doi request reprint IGF-1 rescues human intervertebral annulus cells from in vitro stress-induced premature senescence
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, PO Box 32861, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    Growth Factors 26:220-5. 2008
    ..treated, 39.6% +/- 6.6 (9), p = 0.0009). These novel findings point to the value of continued research towards development of future biologic therapies designed to reduce cell senescence in degenerating human discs...
  22. doi request reprint Increased cell senescence is associated with decreased cell proliferation in vivo in the degenerating human annulus
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, PO Box 32861, Cannon Research, Room 304, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    Spine J 9:210-5. 2009
    ..Senescent cell are viable, metabolically active, persist, and accumulate over time, but cannot divide. Little is known about the relationship between renewal of the disc cell population via cell proliferation and disc cell senescence...
  23. doi request reprint 1,25(OH)2-vitamin D3 inhibits proliferation and decreases production of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, thrombopoietin, VEGF, and angiogenin by human annulus cells in vitro
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, North Carolina, USA
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 33:755-65. 2008
    ..24,25-D3 was also analyzed. Studies were approved by the authors' Human Subjects Institutional Review Board. Discs were obtained from surgical specimens and from control donors...
  24. ncbi request reprint Morphologic complexity of the pericellular matrix in the annulus of the human intervertebral disc
    H E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, North Carolina 28232, USA
    Biotech Histochem 82:217-25. 2007
    ..Results indicate the need for future studies to address why such specialized matrix regions form around certain disc cells and to determine the consequences of these unusual matrix regions on annular lamellar organization and function...
  25. ncbi request reprint Gene expression of types I, II, and VI collagen, aggrecan, and chondroitin-6-sulfotransferase in the human annulus: in situ hybridization findings
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Orthopaedic Research Biology, Cannon Research 304, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    Spine J 8:810-7. 2008
    ..For the annulus, such coordination probably involves cell-cell communication as well as growth factor and mechanoreceptor signaling to appropriately maintain the disc extracellular matrix (ECM) for the prevention of annular tears...
  26. ncbi request reprint Vertebral endplate and disc changes in the aging sand rat lumbar spine: cross-sectional analyses of a large male and female population
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 32:2529-36. 2007
    ..Lumbar vertebral segments from a large cross-sectional population of male and female sand rats were assessed for quantitative determination of lumbar endplate bone mineral density (BMD) and radiologic features...
  27. ncbi request reprint Crystal deposits in the human intervertebral disc: implications for disc degeneration
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Orthopedic Research Biology, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    Spine J 7:444-50. 2007
    ..In articular cartilage matrix, crystal deposits are associated with altered extracellular matrix (ECM) and cell phenotypic features, but crystal deposition in the human intervertebral disc has received much less attention...
  28. ncbi request reprint Cell polarity in the anulus of the human intervertebral disc: morphologic, immunocytochemical, and molecular evidence
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 32:1287-94. 2007
    ..Experimental studies were approved by the authors' Human Subjects Institutional Review Board. Discs were obtained from surgical specimens or control donors...
  29. ncbi request reprint Microarray analysis of laser capture microdissected-anulus cells from the human intervertebral disc
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 32:1181-7. 2007
    ..Five Thompson Grade I/II discs (Group 1), 7 Grade III discs (Group 2), and 3 Grade IV discs (Group IV) were studied here in a project approved by the authors' Human Subjects Institutional Review Board...
  30. doi request reprint A new small animal model for the study of spine fusion in the sand rat: pilot studies
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, North Carolina 28232, USA
    Lab Anim 43:272-7. 2009
    ..The sand rat is well-suited for use in spine fusion studies because of reliable/reproducible progression of disc degeneration and the favourable economics of small rodent studies...
  31. doi request reprint Culture of human anulus fibrosus cells on polyamide nanofibers: extracellular matrix production
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 34:4-9. 2009
    ..Studies were approved by the authors' Human Subjects Institutional Review Board. Human anulus cells were tested for growth and extracellular matrix (ECM) production in vitro...
  32. pmc Asporin, a susceptibility gene in osteoarthritis, is expressed at higher levels in the more degenerate human intervertebral disc
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    Arthritis Res Ther 11:R47. 2009
    ..There have been no studies, however, of this gene's normal immunohistochemical localization within the human intervertebral disc, or of expression levels in Caucasian individuals with disc degeneration...
  33. doi request reprint Mitochondrial gene expression in the human annulus: in vivo data from annulus cells and selectively harvested senescent annulus cells
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Orthopaedic Research Biology, Cannon Building, Carolinas Medical Center, P O Box 32861, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    Spine J 11:782-91. 2011
    ..We hypothesize that mitochondrial dysfunction is present in the degenerating and senescent annulus cells. The objective of the present study was to analyze gene expression profiles related to mitochondrial function in vivo...
  34. doi request reprint Variations in aggrecan localization and gene expression patterns characterize increasing stages of human intervertebral disk degeneration
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, PO Box 32861, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    Exp Mol Pathol 91:534-9. 2011
    ..Such information may have application as we work towards biologic therapies to improve the aging/degenerating disk matrix...
  35. ncbi request reprint The relationship between pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and human intervertebral disc degeneration
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    Histol Histopathol 25:1431-6. 2010
    ..Data reported here point to the importance of additional work to elucidate the role of PAPP-A in intervertebral disc aging and degeneration...
  36. doi request reprint Annulus cells from more degenerated human discs show modified gene expression in 3D culture compared with expression in cells from healthier discs
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, PO Box 32861, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    Spine J 10:721-7. 2010
    ..The objective of the present study was to determine if cells from more degenerated discs expressed different genes, or differed in their expression patterns, compared with patterns of cells from healthier discs...
  37. doi request reprint Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells: direction to a phenotype sharing similarities with the disc, gene expression profiling, and coculture with human annulus cells
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, North Carolina 28232, USA
    Tissue Eng Part A 16:2843-60. 2010
    ..04). Data indicated that human AD-MSC can successfully be manipulated in 3D culture to express gene products important in the disc, and that coculture of annulus cells with AD-MSC enhances total GAG production...
  38. doi request reprint Periostin is expressed by cells of the human and sand rat intervertebral discs
    H E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, PO Box 32861, Charlotte, North Carolina 28232, USA
    Biotech Histochem 86:199-206. 2011
    ....
  39. doi request reprint Micromass culture of human anulus cells: morphology and extracellular matrix production
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Orthopaedic Research Biology, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC 32861, USA
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 35:1033-8. 2010
    ..Micromass culture was assessed as a cell culture microenvironment for anulus cells from the human intervertebral disc...
  40. pmc Senescent vs. non-senescent cells in the human annulus in vivo: cell harvest with laser capture microdissection and gene expression studies with microarray analysis
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC, USA
    BMC Biotechnol 10:5. 2010
    ..Molecular analysis of senescent cells in tissue offers a special challenge since there are no cell surface markers for senescence which would let one use fluorescence-activated cell sorting as a method for separating out senescent cells...
  41. doi request reprint Practical histological methods for use with cultured cells
    H E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, North Carolina 28232, USA
    Biotech Histochem 84:283-6. 2009
    ..Traditional double embedding techniques, such as the use of agar, are also cited...
  42. pmc Matrix metalloproteinase 28, a novel matrix metalloproteinase, is constitutively expressed in human intervertebral disc tissue and is present in matrix of more degenerated discs
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, 1000 Blythe Boulevard, PO Box 32861, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    Arthritis Res Ther 11:R184. 2009
    ..Recent work has shown that mechanical compression can act to modulate expression of MMP28. The expression of MMP28 is unexplored in the intervertebral disc...
  43. doi request reprint Prostaglandin E1 and misoprostol increase epidermal growth factor production in 3D-cultured human annulus cells
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, PO Box 32861, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    Spine J 9:760-6. 2009
    ..Little is known about EGF and its regulation in human annulus cells. Previous work has identified EGF and its receptor in control outer annulus disc tissue, but not in herniated tissue...
  44. doi request reprint Digital histologic images: practical pointers for successful electronic submission to biomedical journals
    H E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    Biotech Histochem 84:295-8. 2009
    ..Ethical issues related to digital imaging and other current topics also are discussed with reference to available online resources...
  45. doi request reprint Ultrastructure of inclusion bodies in annulus cells in the degenerating human intervertebral disc
    H E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Orthopaedic Research Biology, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    Biotech Histochem 84:85-94. 2009
    ....
  46. pmc Constitutive expression of cathepsin K in the human intervertebral disc: new insight into disc extracellular matrix remodeling via cathepsin K and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, PO Box 32861, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    Arthritis Res Ther 13:R140. 2011
    ..Since extracellular matrix remodeling is a critical component of disc structure and biomechanical function, we hypothesized that cathepsin K and RANKL may be present in the human intervertebral disc...
  47. ncbi request reprint Leptin expression by annulus cells in the human intervertebral disc
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    Spine J 7:437-43. 2007
    ..It participates in bone remodeling and acts as a growth factor stimulating proliferation. Expression of leptin and the presence of leptin receptors have not been explored in disc tissue...
  48. ncbi request reprint Senescence in cells of the aging and degenerating intervertebral disc: immunolocalization of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase in human and sand rat discs
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 32:321-7. 2007
    ..Discs were also studied from the lumbar spine of the sand rat. Experimental studies were approved by the authors' Human Subjects Institutional Review Board and animal use committee...
  49. ncbi request reprint Bone mineral density of lumbar vertebral end plates in the aging male sand rat spine
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte 28232, USA
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 28:1766-72. 2003
    ..Lumbar vertebral segments from young and old male sand rats were assessed for quantitative determination of lumbar end plate bone mineral density...
  50. ncbi request reprint Colony formation and matrix production by human anulus cells: modulation in three-dimensional culture
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 29:E267-74. 2004
    ..Experimental studies were approved by the authors' Human Subjects Institutional Review Board...
  51. ncbi request reprint Cellular, but not matrix, immunolocalization of SPARC in the human intervertebral disc: decreasing localization with aging and disc degeneration
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 29:2223-8. 2004
    ..Experimental studies were approved by the authors' Human Subjects Institutional Review Board. Discs were obtained from surgical specimens and from control donors...
  52. ncbi request reprint The SOX9 transcription factor in the human disc: decreased immunolocalization with age and disc degeneration
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 30:625-30. 2005
    ..The Human Subjects Institutional Review Board approved experimental studies. Discs were obtained from surgical specimens and from control donors...
  53. ncbi request reprint Targeted deletion of the SPARC gene accelerates disc degeneration in the aging mouse
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, PO Box 32861, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    J Histochem Cytochem 53:1131-8. 2005
    ..Consistent with the connective tissue deficits observed in other tissues of SPARC-null mice, our findings support a fundamental role for SPARC in the production, assembly, or maintenance of the disc extracellular matrix...
  54. ncbi request reprint Clinical and demographic prognostic indicators for human disc cell proliferation in vitro: pilot study
    H E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, North Carolina 28232, USA
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 26:2323-7. 2001
    ..Statistical multiple regression analyses were applied to develop mathematic models relating proliferation to age, gender, Thompson score (denoting stage of disc degeneration), and status (control donor [postmortem]; surgical patient)...
  55. ncbi request reprint Three-dimensional culture of human disc cells within agarose or a collagen sponge: assessment of proteoglycan production
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Cannon Building, 3rd Floor, P O Box 32861, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    Biomaterials 27:371-6. 2006
    ..94+/-2.20 (19) microg/ml S-GAG (mean+/-S.D. (n)) vs. 0.94+/-0.77 (22), respectively, p=0.0003), this is off-set by the significantly lower proliferation rate associated with culture of disc cells in agarose...
  56. ncbi request reprint Immunolocalization of MMP-19 in the human intervertebral disc: implications for disc aging and degeneration
    H E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, PO Box 32861, Charlotte, North Carolina 28232, USA
    Biotech Histochem 80:157-62. 2005
    ..Because MMP-19 has been shown to regulate IGF-mediated proliferation in other tissues, its decline in the aging/degenerating disc may contribute to the age-related decrease in disc cell numbers...
  57. ncbi request reprint Demographic factors that influence human disc cell proliferation in vitro
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, 1000 Blyth Boulevard, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    Spine J 6:120-4. 2006
    ....
  58. ncbi request reprint Biologic strategies for the therapy of intervertebral disc degeneration
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, PO Box 32861, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    Expert Opin Biol Ther 3:1209-14. 2003
    ....
  59. ncbi request reprint Immunolocalization of thrombospondin in the human and sand rat intervertebral disc
    Helen E Gruber
    Orthopaedic Research Biology, Cannon Research Center, 3rd Floor, Carolinas Medical Center, PO Box 32861, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 31:2556-61. 2006
    ..Studies were approved by the authors' Human Subjects Institutional Review Board and Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee...
  60. pmc Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells from the sand rat: transforming growth factor beta and 3D co-culture with human disc cells stimulate proteoglycan and collagen type I rich extracellular matrix
    Hazel Tapp
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    Arthritis Res Ther 10:R89. 2008
    ....
  61. pmc Calcium deposition in osteoarthritic meniscus and meniscal cell culture
    Yubo Sun
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, PO Box 32861, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    Arthritis Res Ther 12:R56. 2010
    ..This study sought to examine calcium deposition in OA meniscus and to investigate OA meniscal cell-mediated calcium deposition. The hypothesis was that OA meniscal cells may play a role in pathological meniscal calcification...
  62. pmc Analysis of meniscal degeneration and meniscal gene expression
    Yubo Sun
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    BMC Musculoskelet Disord 11:19. 2010
    ..This study sought: 1) to determine the prevalence of meniscal degeneration in OA patients, and 2) to examine gene expression in OA meniscal cells compared to normal meniscal cells...
  63. ncbi request reprint Cell-based tissue engineering for the intervertebral disc: in vitro studies of human disc cell gene expression and matrix production within selected cell carriers
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, 1542 Garden Terrace, Charlotte, NC 28203, USA
    Spine J 4:44-55. 2004
    ..Little is known about how disc cells attach, proliferate and form extracellular matrix (ECM) within carrier materials. Such information is needed to help formulate criteria for successful cell-carrier interactions in tissue engineering...
  64. ncbi request reprint Vertebral endplate architecture and vascularization: application of micro-computerized tomography, a vascular tracer, and immunocytochemistry in analyses of disc degeneration in the aging sand rat
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 30:2593-600. 2005
    ....
  65. doi request reprint Utilization of the AO LockingRatNail in a novel rat femur critical defect model
    Harvey E Montijo
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    J Invest Surg 25:381-6. 2012
    ..This model is needed for future studies where materials in the critical defect could be modified with agents to fight infection (antibiotics) or promote osteogenesis...
  66. ncbi request reprint The sand rat model for disc degeneration: radiologic characterization of age-related changes: cross-sectional and prospective analyses
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, North Carolina 28232, USA
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 27:230-4. 2002
    ..This report is composed of two studies, one cross-sectional and one prospective cohort study, that analyze the radiologic features of disc degeneration in the sand rat (Psammomys obesus)...
  67. ncbi request reprint Autologous intervertebral disc cell implantation: a model using Psammomys obesus, the sand rat
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, North Carolina 28232, USA
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 27:1626-33. 2002
    ..Work presented here used a small animal model to illustrate the feasibility of autologous disc cell implantation...
  68. doi request reprint Cell-based tissue engineering augments tendon-to-bone healing in a rat supraspinatus model
    Bryan J Loeffler
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Orthopaedic Research Biology, Cannon Research, Room 304, Carolinas Medical Center, PO Box 32861, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    J Orthop Res 31:407-12. 2013
    ..Data further support the utility of tendon-bone interface cells in rotator cuff healing...
  69. pmc Histological examination of collagen and proteoglycan changes in osteoarthritic menisci
    Yubo Sun
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, PO Box 32861, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    Open Rheumatol J 6:24-32. 2012
    ..These findings are not only important for a better understanding of the disease process but also important for the development of novel structure-modifying drugs for OA therapy...
  70. ncbi request reprint Physeal fractures, part II: fate of interposed periosteum in a physeal fracture
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, and the dagger Miller Orthopaedic Clinic, Charlotte, North Carolina 28203, USA
    J Pediatr Orthop 22:710-6. 2002
    ..Histologic evidence from this study also underscores the fact that physeal bar formation occurs from the migration of osteoblasts and osteoclasts along vertical septa...
  71. ncbi request reprint Recent advances in disc cell biology
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, North Carolina 28232, USA
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 28:186-93. 2003
    ..There have been many advances over the past decade in understanding and experimentally modulating biologic aspects of intervertebral disc cell function. An overview of the current state of this biologic research is presented...
  72. doi request reprint Adipose-derived stem cells: characterization and current application in orthopaedic tissue repair
    Hazel Tapp
    Department of Family Medicine, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 234:1-9. 2009
    ..Recent in vivo studies utilizing ASC are discussed giving results on defect repair and potential for clinical orthopaedic tissue regeneration...
  73. pmc Telomerase transduced osteoarthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes display a distinct gene expression profile
    Yubo Sun
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Biology Division, Cannon Research 304, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    J Rheumatol 36:141-55. 2009
    ....
  74. ncbi request reprint Ultrastructure of the human intervertebral disc during aging and degeneration: comparison of surgical and control specimens
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, North Carolina, USA
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 27:798-805. 2002
    ..Experimental studies were approved by the authors' Human Subjects Institutional Review Board. Discs were obtained from surgical specimens and control donors...
  75. ncbi request reprint Hepatic arterial flow becomes the primary supply of sinusoids following partial portal vein ligation in rats
    Yukihiro Yokoyama
    Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, North Carolina 28223, USA
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol 21:1567-74. 2006
    ..The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the hepatic arterial flow becomes the primary source feeding the sinusoids in the liver after PPVL...
  76. pmc UV-killed Staphylococcus aureus enhances adhesion and differentiation of osteoblasts on bone-associated biomaterials
    Shankari N Somayaji
    Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, North Carolina 28223 0001, USA
    J Biomed Mater Res A 95:574-9. 2010
    ..Osteoblast markers such as collagen, osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineralized nodule formation were increased on Ti alloy coated with bacteria compared to uncoated surfaces...
  77. doi request reprint Fukutin-related protein is essential for mouse muscle, brain and eye development and mutation recapitulates the wide clinical spectrums of dystroglycanopathies
    Yiumo Michael Chan
    McColl Lockwood Laboratory for Muscular Dystrophy Research, Neuromuscular ALS Center, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC 28231, USA
    Hum Mol Genet 19:3995-4006. 2010
    ..The mutant mouse represents a valuable model to further elucidate the functions of FKRP and develop therapies for FKRP-related muscular dystrophies...
  78. pmc Expression and localization of estrogen receptor-beta in annulus cells of the human intervertebral disc and the mitogenic effect of 17-beta-estradiol in vitro
    Helen E Gruber
    Orthopaedic Research Biology, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC, USA
    BMC Musculoskelet Disord 3:4. 2002
    ..Culture of annulus cells in the presence of 10-7 M 17-beta-estradiol significantly increased cell proliferation. CONCLUSIONS: These data provide new insight into the biology of cells in the annulus of the intervertebral disc...
  79. pmc Magnesium deficiency: effect on bone mineral density in the mouse appendicular skeleton
    Helen E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cannon Bldg, 3rd Floor, Carolinas Medical Center, PO Box 32861, Charlotte, NC 28203, USA
    BMC Musculoskelet Disord 4:7. 2003
    ..Dietary magnesium (Mg) deficiency in the mouse perturbs bone and mineral homeostasis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate bone mineral density of the femur in control and Mg-deficient mice...
  80. ncbi request reprint An improved staining method for intervertebral disc tissue
    H E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    Biotech Histochem 77:81-3. 2002
    ..These details reveal variations within the tissue that would not be apparent with routine stains...
  81. ncbi request reprint Human intervertebral disc cells from the annulus: three-dimensional culture in agarose or alginate and responsiveness to TGF-beta1
    H E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, North Carolina 28232, USA
    Exp Cell Res 235:13-21. 1997
    ..Results support the use of three-dimensional culture systems for in vitro evaluation of human disc cell function and expand our understanding of the in vitro behavior of these cells...
  82. ncbi request reprint Preoperative leuprolide acetate combined with Interceed* optimally reduces uterine adhesions and fibrosis in a rabbit model
    Paul B Marshburn
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, North Carolina 28232, USA
    Fertil Steril 81:194-7. 2004
    ..New Brunswick, NJ), and a combination of leuprolide with Interceed in a rabbit uterine horn adhesion model...
  83. ncbi request reprint Tenascin in the human intervertebral disc: alterations with aging and disc degeneration
    H E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, North Carolina 28232, USA
    Biotech Histochem 77:37-41. 2002
    ....
  84. pmc Exogenous thymosin beta4 prevents apoptosis in human intervertebral annulus cells in vitro
    H Tapp
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, North Carolina 28232, USA
    Biotech Histochem 84:287-94. 2009
    ..Our results indicate the need for further studies of the anti-apoptotic effect of TB4 and suggest that TB4 may have therapeutic application in future biological therapies for disc degeneration...
  85. ncbi request reprint Cell shape and gene expression in human intervertebral disc cells: in vitro tissue engineering studies
    H E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, P O Box 32861, Charlotte, North Carolina 28232, USA
    Biotech Histochem 78:109-17. 2003
    ..This information is useful for future tissue engineering studies that have the challenging goal of selectively modulating gene expression...
  86. ncbi request reprint Anti-apoptotic effects of IGF-1 and PDGF on human intervertebral disc cells in vitro
    H E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, North Carolina 28232, USA
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 25:2153-7. 2000
    ..The administration of these cytokines may have future therapeutic potential in the treatment of disc degeneration...
  87. ncbi request reprint Analysis of aging and degeneration of the human intervertebral disc. Comparison of surgical specimens with normal controls
    H E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, North Carolina, USA
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 23:751-7. 1998
    ..The authors of this study analyzed immunohistochemical distributions of Types I, II, III and VI collagen, in situ localization of apoptotic disc cells, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase localization...
  88. ncbi request reprint Physeal fractures, part I: histologic features of bone, cartilage, and bar formation in a small animal model
    J Michael Wattenbarger
    Miller Orthopaedic Clinic and the dagger Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, North Carolina 28203, USA
    J Pediatr Orthop 22:703-9. 2002
    ..This study examines the changes in the histologic features of the rat proximal tibial physis, epiphysis, and metaphysis after a physeal fracture and identifies key factors associated with physeal bar formation...
  89. ncbi request reprint Effects of very high antibiotic concentrations on human intervertebral disc cell proliferation, viability, and metabolism in vitro
    G L Hoelscher
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, North Carolina, USA
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 25:1871-7. 2000
    ..Studies such as the current investigation with cultured cells from the anulus show the importance of a greater understanding concerning antibiotic effects on disc cell proliferation and metabolism...
  90. ncbi request reprint Safety of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 after spinal laminectomy in the dog
    R A Meyer
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, North Carolina, USA
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 24:747-54. 1999
    ....
  91. ncbi request reprint Tapeworm identification in the fat sand rat (Psammomys obesus obesus)
    H E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Orthopaedic Research Biology, Cannon Bldg, 3rd Floor, Carolinas Medical Center, P.O. Box 32861, Charlotte, North Carolina 28232, USA
    Contemp Top Lab Anim Sci 40:22-4. 2001
    ..This report is presented to help clarify the ambiguity found in the laboratory animal literature about the differences in the size of R. nana among rodent species used in research...
  92. ncbi request reprint Optimization of 5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester for labeling human intervertebral disc cells in vitro
    H E Gruber
    Orthopaedic Research Biology, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, North Carolina, 28232, USA
    Biotech Histochem 75:118-23. 2000
    ..CFSE labeling is relatively easy, nontoxic to cells and nonradiocactive. Initial optimization of dose with specific cells types is recommended when confirmation of positive immunocytochemistry is needed for tissue engineering studies...
  93. ncbi request reprint Osteopenia induced by long-term, low- and high-level exposure of the adult rat to lead
    H E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC 28232 2861, USA
    Miner Electrolyte Metab 23:65-73. 1997
    ..No normal compensatory mechanism was elicited to maintain bone mass. Results stress renewed concern about the effects of cumulative, low-level lead exposure in our elderly population...
  94. ncbi request reprint Lumbar spinal fusion using recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein in the canine. A comparison of three dosages and two carriers
    S M David
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, North Carolina, USA
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 24:1973-9. 1999
    ..CONCLUSIONS: The use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 implanted using a Type I collagen carrier resulted in 100% fusion without adverse effects...
  95. ncbi request reprint Alterations in osteoclast morphology following osteoprotegerin administration in the magnesium-deficient mouse
    H E Gruber
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, P O Box 32861, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    Biotech Histochem 78:231-6. 2003
    ....
  96. ncbi request reprint Morphologic and molecular evidence for gap junctions and connexin 43 and 45 expression in annulus fibrosus cells from the human intervertebral disc
    H E Gruber
    Orthopaedic Research Biology, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
    J Orthop Res 19:985-9. 2001
    ..These studies provide additional information on the fundamental cell biology of the disc cell and provide an additional framework for understanding aging, degeneration and potential repair of the human disc...
  97. ncbi request reprint Structural correlation between collagen VI microfibrils and collagen VI banded aggregates
    Carlo Knupp
    Structural Biophysics Group, School of Optometry and Vision Sciences, Redwood Building, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3NB, UK
    J Struct Biol 154:312-26. 2006
    ..Understanding the role played by the collagen VI aggregates in normal and pathological conditions will help to throw light on the pathologies with which they are associated...
  98. ncbi request reprint Bone loss induced by dietary magnesium reduction to 10% of the nutrient requirement in rats is associated with increased release of substance P and tumor necrosis factor-alpha
    Robert K Rude
    University of Southern California and the Orthopaedic Hospital, Los Angeles, CA 90089 9317, USA
    J Nutr 134:79-85. 2004
    ..These data demonstrated that a Mg intake of 10% of NR in rats causes bone loss that may be secondary to the increased release of substance P and TNF-alpha...
  99. ncbi request reprint Dietary magnesium reduction to 25% of nutrient requirement disrupts bone and mineral metabolism in the rat
    Robert K Rude
    University of Southern California and the Orthopaedic Hospital, 1975 Zonal Avenue, GNH 6602, Los Angeles, CA 90089 9317, USA
    Bone 37:211-9. 2005
    ..These data demonstrate that Mg intake of 25% NR in the rat causes lower bone mass which may be related to increased release of substance P and TNFalpha...
  100. pmc Mutation of the sequestosome 1 (p62) gene increases osteoclastogenesis but does not induce Paget disease
    Noriyoshi Kurihara
    VA Pittsburgh Healthcare System, Research and Development, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15240, USA
    J Clin Invest 117:133-42. 2007
    ....
  101. ncbi request reprint Magnesium deficiency and osteoporosis: animal and human observations
    Robert K Rude
    University of Southern California and the Orthopaedic Hospital, Los Angeles, CA 90089 9317, USA
    J Nutr Biochem 15:710-6. 2004
    ..In this paper, we will review animal and human evidence of the association of Mg deficiency with osteoporosis and explore possible mechanisms by which this may occur...