S Swaminathan

Summary

Affiliation: Brookhaven National Laboratory
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Structural analysis of the catalytic and binding sites of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin B
    S Swaminathan
    Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    Nat Struct Biol 7:693-9. 2000
  2. pmc A novel acetate-bound complex of human carbonic anhydrase II
    Pooja Anjali Mazumdar
    Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302, India
    Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun 64:163-6. 2008
  3. pmc Substrate binding mode and its implication on drug design for botulinum neurotoxin A
    Desigan Kumaran
    Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, USA
    PLoS Pathog 4:e1000165. 2008
  4. pmc UPF201 archaeal specific family members reveal structural similarity to RNA-binding proteins but low likelihood for RNA-binding function
    Krishnamurthy N Rao
    Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 3:e3903. 2008
  5. doi request reprint Structure-based drug discovery for botulinum neurotoxins
    Subramanyam Swaminathan
    Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 364:197-218. 2013
  6. doi request reprint Discovery of a fluorene class of compounds as inhibitors of botulinum neurotoxin serotype E by virtual screening
    Gyanendra Kumar
    Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Chem Commun (Camb) 48:2412-4. 2012
  7. pmc X-ray structures of two proteins belonging to Pfam DUF178 revealed unexpected structural similarity to the DUF191 Pfam family
    Rajiv Tyagi
    Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    BMC Struct Biol 7:62. 2007
  8. ncbi request reprint Structure and enzymatic activity of botulinum neurotoxins
    Subramanyam Swaminathan
    Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    Mov Disord 19:S17-22. 2004
  9. ncbi request reprint Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin type B
    S Swaminathan
    Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 56:1024-6. 2000
  10. doi request reprint Molecular structures and functional relationships in clostridial neurotoxins
    Subramanyam Swaminathan
    Department of Biology, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    FEBS J 278:4467-85. 2011

Collaborators

  • STEPHEN BURLEY
  • Thomas Binz
  • S A Ahmed
  • F W Studier
  • T Gaasterland
  • A Sali
  • Andras Fiser
  • Zhong Yin Zhang
  • S Koide
  • Christopher D Lima
  • James J Schmidt
  • FRANK RAUSHEL
  • John Dunn
  • M R Chance
  • Leonard A Smith
  • Desigan Kumaran
  • Rakhi Agarwal
  • Subramaniam Eswaramoorthy
  • Krishnamurthy N Rao
  • Jeffrey B Bonanno
  • Rajiv Tyagi
  • S Eswaramoorthy
  • Jayaraman Seetharaman
  • D Kumaran
  • Richa Rawat
  • Seetharaman Jayaraman
  • Mahendra Madegowda
  • Sugadev Ragumani
  • Gyanendra Kumar
  • Damodharan Lakshminarasimhan
  • Patricia M Legler
  • Pooja Anjali Mazumdar
  • Steven C Almo
  • Stefan Sikorra
  • Ping Yuan
  • Jorge Navaza
  • William Furey
  • Robert G Stafford
  • Martin Sax
  • Charles B Millard
  • S Ashraf Ahmed
  • Matthew L Ludivico
  • Amit Kumar Das
  • Steven R Wasserman
  • David S Lawrence
  • Spencer Emtage
  • Johnjeff Alvarado
  • J Michael Sauder
  • Udupi A Ramagopal
  • Vladimir Malashkevich
  • Yury Patskovsky
  • Teresa P DiLorenzo
  • Joana Faber-Barata
  • Thierry Galli
  • Ryan Kniewel
  • Kanagalaghatta R Rajashankar
  • Tina Henke
  • Veronica Solorzano
  • James Keller
  • H Kycia
  • Kunchithapadam Swaminathan
  • Sue Ellen Gerchman
  • V Graziano
  • Helen Shio
  • S Gerchman
  • Helen Kycia
  • David Hewitt
  • Gregory Jedd
  • Nam Hai Chua
  • W Furey
  • C L Lawson
  • M Sax
  • B J Luft

Detail Information

Publications52

  1. ncbi request reprint Structural analysis of the catalytic and binding sites of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin B
    S Swaminathan
    Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    Nat Struct Biol 7:693-9. 2000
    ..The latter may provide valuable information for recombinant vaccine development...
  2. pmc A novel acetate-bound complex of human carbonic anhydrase II
    Pooja Anjali Mazumdar
    Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302, India
    Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun 64:163-6. 2008
    ..This mode of binding disrupts the hydrogen-bonded solvent network required for activity of the enzyme. This mode of inhibitor binding is a novel one that has not been observed previously...
  3. pmc Substrate binding mode and its implication on drug design for botulinum neurotoxin A
    Desigan Kumaran
    Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, USA
    PLoS Pathog 4:e1000165. 2008
    ..Knowledge of interactions between the enzyme and substrate peptide from these complex structures should form the basis for design of potent inhibitors for this neurotoxin...
  4. pmc UPF201 archaeal specific family members reveal structural similarity to RNA-binding proteins but low likelihood for RNA-binding function
    Krishnamurthy N Rao
    Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 3:e3903. 2008
    ....
  5. doi request reprint Structure-based drug discovery for botulinum neurotoxins
    Subramanyam Swaminathan
    Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 364:197-218. 2013
    ..Available structural information on botulinum neurotoxins both alone and in complex with their substrates offers an efficient method for designing structure-based drugs to treat botulism...
  6. doi request reprint Discovery of a fluorene class of compounds as inhibitors of botulinum neurotoxin serotype E by virtual screening
    Gyanendra Kumar
    Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Chem Commun (Camb) 48:2412-4. 2012
    ..Here, we report the first small molecule non-peptide inhibitor for botulinum neurotoxin serotype E discovered by structure-based virtual screening and propose a mechanism for its inhibitory activity...
  7. pmc X-ray structures of two proteins belonging to Pfam DUF178 revealed unexpected structural similarity to the DUF191 Pfam family
    Rajiv Tyagi
    Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    BMC Struct Biol 7:62. 2007
    ..Pfam has two large series of functionally uncharacterized families, known as Domains of Unknown Function (DUFs) and Uncharacterized Protein Families (UPFs)...
  8. ncbi request reprint Structure and enzymatic activity of botulinum neurotoxins
    Subramanyam Swaminathan
    Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    Mov Disord 19:S17-22. 2004
    ..Thus, the sulfate ion mimics the transition state of the scissile carbonyl carbon atom. However, the sulfate ion by itself does not inhibit the toxicity...
  9. ncbi request reprint Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin type B
    S Swaminathan
    Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 56:1024-6. 2000
    ..03 degrees and diffract to at least 1.8 A resolution. Native data have been collected from flash-frozen crystals at the National Synchrotron facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory. These crystals often tend to be non-isomorphic...
  10. doi request reprint Molecular structures and functional relationships in clostridial neurotoxins
    Subramanyam Swaminathan
    Department of Biology, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    FEBS J 278:4467-85. 2011
    ..An overview of the structure-function relationship correlating the 3D structures with biochemical and biophysical data and how they can be used for structure-based drug discovery is presented here...
  11. ncbi request reprint Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein C (OspC)
    D Kumaran
    Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 57:298-300. 2001
    ..There are two dimers per asymmetric unit, related by a non-crystallographic twofold axis and a pseudo-translational symmetry...
  12. ncbi request reprint Crystallographic evidence for doxorubicin binding to the receptor-binding site in Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin B
    S Eswaramoorthy
    Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 57:1743-6. 2001
    ..Here, the possibility is presented of designing a potential antagonist for these neurotoxins from crystallographic analysis of the neurotoxin-doxorubicin complex, which will be an excellent lead compound...
  13. ncbi request reprint Structure of staphylococcal enterotoxin C2 at various pH levels
    D Kumaran
    Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 57:1270-5. 2001
    ..0. The results of automated model building using the ARP/wARP program for different data sets collected at various pH values are discussed...
  14. ncbi request reprint Structural analysis of a ternary complex of allantoate amidohydrolase from Escherichia coli reveals its mechanics
    Rakhi Agarwal
    Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    J Mol Biol 368:450-63. 2007
    ..Two cis-prolyl peptide bonds found on either side of the dimerization domain in close proximity to the substrate and ligand-binding sites may be involved in protein folding and in preserving the integrity of the catalytic site...
  15. pmc Crystal structure of outer surface protein C (OspC) from the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi
    D Kumaran
    Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    EMBO J 20:971-8. 2001
    ..This feature is present only on OspCs from strains known to cause invasive human disease...
  16. ncbi request reprint Role of metals in the biological activity of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins
    Subramaniam Eswaramoorthy
    Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    Biochemistry 43:2209-16. 2004
    ..We have also identified two calcium ions in the molecule and present biochemical evidence to show that they play a role in the translocation of the light chain through the membrane...
  17. pmc Crystal structure of a putative HTH-type transcriptional regulator yxaF from Bacillus subtilis
    Jayaraman Seetharaman
    Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    Proteins 63:1087-91. 2006
  18. ncbi request reprint Common binding site for disialyllactose and tri-peptide in C-fragment of tetanus neurotoxin
    Seetharaman Jayaraman
    Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    Proteins 61:288-95. 2005
    ..A comparison with the TeNT binding domain in complex with small molecules, BoNT/A and /B, provides insight into the different modes of ganglioside binding...
  19. ncbi request reprint Structure of a yeast hypothetical protein selected by a structural genomics approach
    S Eswaramoorthy
    Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 59:127-35. 2003
    ..In this case, similarity to a known structure allowed inferences to be made about the structure and function of a widely distributed protein family...
  20. pmc A common catalytic mechanism for proteins of the HutI family
    Rajiv Tyagi
    Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    Biochemistry 47:5608-15. 2008
    ..A catalytic mechanism involving His265 is proposed on the basis of the inhibitor-bound structure. This mechanism is applicable to all HutI forms...
  21. pmc Crystal structure of a putative lysostaphin peptidase from Vibrio cholerae
    Sugadev Ragumani
    Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    Proteins 72:1096-103. 2008
  22. doi request reprint Domain organization in Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin type E is unique: its implication in faster translocation
    Desigan Kumaran
    Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    J Mol Biol 386:233-45. 2009
    ..We also suggest that this translocation-competent conformation in BoNT E is a probable reason for its faster toxic rate compared to BoNT A. However, this needs further experimental elucidation...
  23. pmc Structure determination of an FMN reductase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01 using sulfur anomalous signal
    Rakhi Agarwal
    Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 62:383-91. 2006
    ..Structural comparisons of the apoenzyme and the protein complexed with flavin mononucleotide show conformational changes on cofactor binding. NADPH-dependent activity has been confirmed with biochemical assays...
  24. ncbi request reprint Structural genomics: beyond the human genome project
    S K Burley
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 1230 York Avenue, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Nat Genet 23:151-7. 1999
    ..We present the rationale for creation of a structural genomics initiative, recount the efforts of ongoing structural genomics pilot studies, and detail the lofty goals, technical challenges and pitfalls facing structural biologists...
  25. ncbi request reprint X-ray structure of imidazolonepropionase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens at 1.87 A resolution
    Rajiv Tyagi
    Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    Proteins 69:652-8. 2007
  26. ncbi request reprint Crystal structure of a conserved protein of unknown function (MJ1651) from Methanococcus jannaschii
    Krishnamurthy N Rao
    Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    Proteins 70:572-7. 2008
  27. pmc SNAP-25 substrate peptide (residues 180-183) binds to but bypasses cleavage by catalytically active Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin E
    Rakhi Agarwal
    Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    J Biol Chem 283:25944-51. 2008
    ..Also, our complex structure opens up an excellent opportunity of structure-based drug design for this fast acting and extremely toxic high priority BoNT E...
  28. ncbi request reprint Crystal structure of glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens by SAD with a large asymmetric unit
    Krishnamurthy N Rao
    Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    Proteins 65:514-8. 2006
  29. ncbi request reprint Crystal structure of phosphatidylglycerophosphatase (PGPase), a putative membrane-bound lipid phosphatase, reveals a novel binuclear metal binding site and two "proton wires"
    Desigan Kumaran
    Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    Proteins 64:851-62. 2006
    ..Comparison of similar water chain structures in photosynthetic reaction centers (RCs), Cytochrome f, gramicidin, and bacteriorhodopsin, suggests that PGPase may conduct protons via proton wires...
  30. ncbi request reprint Structural analysis of botulinum neurotoxin type E catalytic domain and its mutant Glu212-->Gln reveals the pivotal role of the Glu212 carboxylate in the catalytic pathway
    Rakhi Agarwal
    Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    Biochemistry 43:6637-44. 2004
    ..This or a more nonconservative mutant (e.g., Glu212-->Ala) could provide a novel, genetically modified protein vaccine for botulinum...
  31. pmc Crystal structures of two putative phosphoheptose isomerases
    Jayaraman Seetharaman
    Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    Proteins 63:1092-6. 2006
  32. ncbi request reprint Structural analysis of botulinum neurotoxin serotype F light chain: implications on substrate binding and inhibitor design
    Rakhi Agarwal
    Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    Biochemistry 44:11758-65. 2005
    ..The orientation of docking of the substrate at the active site is consistent with the experimental BoNT/A-LC:SNAP-25 peptide model and our proposed model for BoNT/E-LC:SNAP-25...
  33. doi request reprint Structure- and substrate-based inhibitor design for Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin serotype A
    Desigan Kumaran
    Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    J Biol Chem 283:18883-91. 2008
    ..Furthermore, the S1' site is formed by Phe(194), Thr(215), Thr(220), Asp(370), and Arg(363). The K(i) of the best inhibitory tetrapeptide is 157 nm...
  34. ncbi request reprint Structural genomics of protein phosphatases
    Steven C Almo
    Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA
    J Struct Funct Genomics 8:121-40. 2007
    ....
  35. ncbi request reprint Mode of VAMP substrate recognition and inhibition of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin F
    Rakhi Agarwal
    Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, USA
    Nat Struct Mol Biol 16:789-94. 2009
    ..Arg133 and Arg171, which form part of two separate exosites, are crucial for substrate binding and catalysis...
  36. pmc Structure of YqgQ protein from Bacillus subtilis, a conserved hypothetical protein
    Damodharan Lakshminarasimhan
    Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun 66:8-11. 2010
    ..7% (R(free) = 28.0%). The protein molecule mainly comprises a three-helical bundle. Its putative function is inferred to be single-stranded nucleic acid binding based on sequence and structural homology...
  37. ncbi request reprint A novel mechanism for Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin inhibition
    Subramaniam Eswaramoorthy
    Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Biochemistry 41:9795-802. 2002
    ..The environment of the active site rearranges in the presence of the inhibitor, and the zinc ion is gradually removed from the active site and transported to a different site in the protein, probably causing loss of catalytic activity...
  38. ncbi request reprint Crystal structure of a putative CN hydrolase from yeast
    Desigan Kumaran
    Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    Proteins 52:283-91. 2003
    ..As with serine hydrolases, the active-site nucleophile (cysteine in this case) is positioned on a nucleophile elbow...
  39. ncbi request reprint Structural analysis of the catalytic domain of tetanus neurotoxin
    Krishnamurthy N Rao
    Brookhaven National Laboratory, Biology Department, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Toxicon 45:929-39. 2005
    ..The structure provides a basis for designing a novel recombinant vaccine or structure-based drugs for tetanus...
  40. ncbi request reprint N-terminal helix reorients in recombinant C-fragment of Clostridium botulinum type B
    Seetharaman Jayaraman
    Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 330:97-103. 2005
    ..The probable reasons for different binding affinity of botulinum and tetanus toxins are discussed...
  41. pmc Crystal structure of trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase-related protein: biochemical and biological implications
    Krishnamurthy N Rao
    Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Protein Sci 15:1735-44. 2006
    ..We have confirmed that T6PP is a trehalose phosphatase from amino acid sequence, three-dimensional structure, and biochemical assays...
  42. pmc X-ray crystal structure of the B component of Hemolysin BL from Bacillus cereus
    Mahendra Madegowda
    Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    Proteins 71:534-40. 2008
    ..The X-ray structure of the binding domain of HBL suggests that it may form a pore similar to other soluble channel forming proteins. A putative pathway of pore formation is discussed...
  43. pmc Structure and mechanism of ADP-ribose-1''-monophosphatase (Appr-1''-pase), a ubiquitous cellular processing enzyme
    Desigan Kumaran
    Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Protein Sci 14:719-26. 2005
    ..Loop-region residues Asn 80, Asp 90, and His 145 may form a catalytic triad...
  44. doi request reprint Structure of human dual specificity protein phosphatase 23, VHZ, enzyme-substrate/product complex
    Rakhi Agarwal
    Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    J Biol Chem 283:8946-53. 2008
    ....
  45. ncbi request reprint Analysis of active site residues of botulinum neurotoxin E by mutational, functional, and structural studies: Glu335Gln is an apoenzyme
    Rakhi Agarwal
    Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    Biochemistry 44:8291-302. 2005
    ..The residues forming the S1' subsite have been identified by comparing this structure with a thermolysin-inhibitor complex structure...
  46. pmc Mechanism of action of a flavin-containing monooxygenase
    Subramaniam Eswaramoorthy
    Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:9832-7. 2006
    ..The oxygenated and reduced forms of the prosthetic group help stabilize interactions with cofactor and substrate alternately to permit continuous enzyme turnover...
  47. ncbi request reprint High level expression of the light chain of botulinum neurotoxin serotype C1 and an efficient HPLC assay to monitor its proteolytic activity
    Richa Rawat
    Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Protein Expr Purif 60:165-9. 2008
    ..Although the 17-mer substrate bound 110-fold less tightly to BoNT/C1(1-430) than SNAP-25, the optimal assay conditions facilitated an increase in the catalytic efficiency of the enzyme by about 5-fold...
  48. doi request reprint A novel mode of dimerization via formation of a glutamate anhydride crosslink in a protein crystal structure
    Rakhi Agarwal
    Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    Proteins 71:1038-41. 2008
  49. ncbi request reprint Cloning, high level expression, purification, and crystallization of the full length Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin type E light chain
    Rakhi Agarwal
    Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Protein Expr Purif 34:95-102. 2004
    ..Recombinant BoNT/E-LC has been crystallized under five different conditions and at various pHs. Crystals diffract to better than 2.1A...
  50. ncbi request reprint A HEX-1 crystal lattice required for Woronin body function in Neurospora crassa
    Ping Yuan
    Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, 30 Medical Drive, The National University of Singapore, Singapore, 117609
    Nat Struct Biol 10:264-70. 2003
    ..Thus, we propose that a new function has evolved following duplication of an ancestral eIF-5A gene and that this may define an important step in fungal evolution...
  51. doi request reprint Structural characterization and reversal of the natural organophosphate resistance of a D-type esterase, Saccharomyces cerevisiae S-formylglutathione hydrolase
    Patricia M Legler
    Division of Biochemistry, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland 20910, USA
    Biochemistry 47:9592-601. 2008
    ..We also characterized three histidine substitutions near the oxyanion hole, G57H, L58H, and M162H, which significantly decrease esterase activity...
  52. ncbi request reprint Identification of the amino acid residues rendering TI-VAMP insensitive toward botulinum neurotoxin B
    Stefan Sikorra
    Institut fur Biochemie, OE 4310 Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, D 30623 Hannover, Germany
    J Mol Biol 357:574-82. 2006
    ..However, the insensitivity of TI-VAMP to botulinum neurotoxin B relies on at least 12 amino acid changes versus VAMP-2. These are scattered along an interface of 22 amino acid residues in length...