J S Fowler

Summary

Affiliation: Brookhaven National Laboratory
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Measuring dopamine transporter occupancy by cocaine in vivo: radiotracer considerations
    J S Fowler
    Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    Synapse 28:111-6. 1998
  2. pmc Brain monoamine oxidase A inhibition in cigarette smokers
    J S Fowler
    Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 5000, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:14065-9. 1996
  3. ncbi request reprint Association of methylphenidate-induced craving with changes in right striato-orbitofrontal metabolism in cocaine abusers: implications in addiction
    N D Volkow
    Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 156:19-26. 1999
  4. ncbi request reprint Dopamine transporter occupancies in the human brain induced by therapeutic doses of oral methylphenidate
    N D Volkow
    Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 155:1325-31. 1998
  5. ncbi request reprint Decreased striatal dopaminergic responsiveness in detoxified cocaine-dependent subjects
    N D Volkow
    Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    Nature 386:830-3. 1997
  6. ncbi request reprint Effects of methylphenidate on regional brain glucose metabolism in humans: relationship to dopamine D2 receptors
    N D Volkow
    Medical and Chemistry Departments, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, N Y 11973, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 154:50-5. 1997
  7. ncbi request reprint Prediction of reinforcing responses to psychostimulants in humans by brain dopamine D2 receptor levels
    N D Volkow
    Medical and Chemistry Departments, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, N Y, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 156:1440-3. 1999
  8. ncbi request reprint Association between decline in brain dopamine activity with age and cognitive and motor impairment in healthy individuals
    N D Volkow
    Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 155:344-9. 1998
  9. ncbi request reprint Dopamine receptor-mediated regulation of striatal cholinergic activity: positron emission tomography studies with norchloro[18F]fluoroepibatidine
    Y S Ding
    Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 5000, USA
    J Neurochem 74:1514-21. 2000
  10. ncbi request reprint Association between age-related decline in brain dopamine activity and impairment in frontal and cingulate metabolism
    N D Volkow
    Medical and Chemistry Departments, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 157:75-80. 2000

Detail Information

Publications66

  1. ncbi request reprint Measuring dopamine transporter occupancy by cocaine in vivo: radiotracer considerations
    J S Fowler
    Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    Synapse 28:111-6. 1998
    ..We conclude that in vivo measurements of DAT occupancy by rapidly clearing drugs like cocaine requires the use of radiotracers having similar kinetics to the drug itself...
  2. pmc Brain monoamine oxidase A inhibition in cigarette smokers
    J S Fowler
    Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 5000, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:14065-9. 1996
    ..This suggests that MAO A inhibition needs to be considered as a potential contributing variable in the high rate of smoking in depression and in the development of more effective strategies for smoking cessation...
  3. ncbi request reprint Association of methylphenidate-induced craving with changes in right striato-orbitofrontal metabolism in cocaine abusers: implications in addiction
    N D Volkow
    Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 156:19-26. 1999
    ..To assess whether increasing dopamine would reverse these metabolic decrements, they measured the effects of methylphenidate, a drug that increases dopamine, on brain glucose metabolism in 20 cocaine abusers...
  4. ncbi request reprint Dopamine transporter occupancies in the human brain induced by therapeutic doses of oral methylphenidate
    N D Volkow
    Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 155:1325-31. 1998
    ..This study measured, for the first time, dopamine transporter occupancy by orally administered methylphenidate in the human brain and its rate of uptake in the brain...
  5. ncbi request reprint Decreased striatal dopaminergic responsiveness in detoxified cocaine-dependent subjects
    N D Volkow
    Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    Nature 386:830-3. 1997
    ..Moreover, they suggest a participation of thalamic dopamine pathways in cocaine addiction, a possibility that merits further investigation...
  6. ncbi request reprint Effects of methylphenidate on regional brain glucose metabolism in humans: relationship to dopamine D2 receptors
    N D Volkow
    Medical and Chemistry Departments, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, N Y 11973, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 154:50-5. 1997
    ..The authors' goals were to determine whether baseline dopamine activity contributes to response to methylphenidate and to assess the pattern of metabolic responses associated with enhanced dopamine activity...
  7. ncbi request reprint Prediction of reinforcing responses to psychostimulants in humans by brain dopamine D2 receptor levels
    N D Volkow
    Medical and Chemistry Departments, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, N Y, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 156:1440-3. 1999
    ..This study assessed whether brain dopamine D2 receptor levels, which show significant intersubject variability, predict reinforcing responses to psychostimulants in humans...
  8. ncbi request reprint Association between decline in brain dopamine activity with age and cognitive and motor impairment in healthy individuals
    N D Volkow
    Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 155:344-9. 1998
    ..This study assessed the relation between measures of brain dopamine activity and indexes of motor and cognitive function in healthy individuals...
  9. ncbi request reprint Dopamine receptor-mediated regulation of striatal cholinergic activity: positron emission tomography studies with norchloro[18F]fluoroepibatidine
    Y S Ding
    Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 5000, USA
    J Neurochem 74:1514-21. 2000
    ..However, both the D1 agonist and antagonist had no significant effect. This suggests that under physiological conditions the predominant influence of endogenous dopamine on striatal ACh output is dopamine D2, not D1, receptor-mediated...
  10. ncbi request reprint Association between age-related decline in brain dopamine activity and impairment in frontal and cingulate metabolism
    N D Volkow
    Medical and Chemistry Departments, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 157:75-80. 2000
    ..This study investigates the relationship between measures of brain dopamine D(2) receptors (molecules that transmit dopamine signals) and regional brain glucose metabolism (a marker of brain function) in healthy individuals...
  11. ncbi request reprint Methylphenidate and cocaine have a similar in vivo potency to block dopamine transporters in the human brain
    N D Volkow
    Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    Life Sci 65:PL7-12. 1999
    ..Other variables i.e. longer duration of methylphenidate's side effects may counterbalance its reinforcing effects...
  12. ncbi request reprint Therapeutic doses of oral methylphenidate significantly increase extracellular dopamine in the human brain
    N D Volkow
    Departments of Medical and Chemistry, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    J Neurosci 21:RC121. 2001
    ..Alternatively methylphenidate-induced increases in DA, a neurotransmitter involved with motivation and reward, could enhance the salience of the task facilitating the "interest that it elicits" and thus improving performance...
  13. ncbi request reprint Comparable changes in synaptic dopamine induced by methylphenidate and by cocaine in the baboon brain
    N D Volkow
    Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    Synapse 31:59-66. 1999
    ....
  14. ncbi request reprint Concentration and occupancy of dopamine transporters in cocaine abusers with [11C]cocaine and PET
    J Logan
    Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, USA
    Synapse 27:347-56. 1997
    ..The average Bmax may, however, provide an estimate of the expected concentration in humans. (2) The DVR can be used as a measure of DAT occupancy without applying an explicit model...
  15. ncbi request reprint Smoking a single cigarette does not produce a measurable reduction in brain MAO B in non-smokers
    J S Fowler
    Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 1:325-9. 1999
    ..These results indicate that the reduction in MAO B in smokers probably occurs gradually and requires chronic tobacco smoke exposure...
  16. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of gender difference in regional brain metabolic responses to lorazepam
    G J Wang
    Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Psychiatry Res 82:37-46. 1998
    ....
  17. ncbi request reprint Dopamine-transporter occupancy after intravenous doses of cocaine and methylphenidate in mice and humans
    S J Gatley
    Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 146:93-100. 1999
    ..The present experiments were conducted to examine dose-occupancy and dose-effect relationships in mice for cocaine and also for methylphenidate, a dopamine uptake blocker used in pediatric psychiatry...
  18. ncbi request reprint Non-MAO A binding of clorgyline in white matter in human brain
    J S Fowler
    Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    J Neurochem 79:1039-46. 2001
    ..The characterization of the non-MAO A binding component of this widely used MAO A inhibitor merits further investigation...
  19. ncbi request reprint Evidence that gingko biloba extract does not inhibit MAO A and B in living human brain
    J S Fowler
    Department of Chemistry, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 5000, USA
    Life Sci 66:PL141-6. 2000
    ..Ginkgo biloba administration did not produce significant changes in brain MAO A or MAO B suggesting that mechanisms other than MAO inhibition need to be considered as mediating some of its CNS effects...
  20. ncbi request reprint Evidence that L-deprenyl treatment for one week does not inhibit MAO A or the dopamine transporter in the human brain
    J S Fowler
    Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Life Sci 68:2759-68. 2001
    ....
  21. ncbi request reprint Regional brain metabolic activation during craving elicited by recall of previous drug experiences
    G J Wang
    Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Life Sci 64:775-84. 1999
    ....
  22. pmc Decreased dopamine activity predicts relapse in methamphetamine abusers
    G J Wang
    Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 17:918-25. 2012
    ..Detection of the extent of DA dysfunction may be helpful in predicting therapeutic outcomes...
  23. ncbi request reprint [18F]haloperidol binding in baboon brain in vivo
    K A Yousef
    Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Nucl Med Biol 23:47-52. 1996
    ..Haloperidol increased the clearance rate from all brain regions. These results indicate that the binding profile of [18F]haloperidol does not permit the selective examination of either dopamine D2 or sigma sites using PET...
  24. ncbi request reprint Species differences in [11C]clorgyline binding in brain
    J S Fowler
    Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    Nucl Med Biol 28:779-85. 2001
    ..This suggests a species difference in the susceptibility of MAO A to inhibition by clorgyline and represents an unusual example of where the behavior of a radiotracer in the baboon brain does not predict its behavior in the human brain...
  25. ncbi request reprint Cocaine abusers show a blunted response to alcohol intoxication in limbic brain regions
    N D Volkow
    Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    Life Sci 66:PL161-7. 2000
    ..Analysis of the regional measures showed that cocaine abusers had a blunted response to alcohol in limbic regions, cingulate gyrus, medial frontal and orbitofrontal cortices...
  26. ncbi request reprint Displacement of RTI-55 from the dopamine transporter by cocaine
    S J Gatley
    Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Eur J Pharmacol 296:145-51. 1996
    ..These results suggest that: (1) cocaine can displace pharmacological doses of RTI-55 from striatum, and (2) radioligands used to assess binding site occupancy should have a lower affinity than the occupying drug...
  27. ncbi request reprint Low level of brain dopamine D2 receptors in methamphetamine abusers: association with metabolism in the orbitofrontal cortex
    N D Volkow
    Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 158:2015-21. 2001
    ..Because the orbitofrontal cortex is associated with compulsive behaviors, its disruption may contribute to compulsive drug intake in addicted subjects. This study explored whether a similar association occurs in methamphetamine abusers...
  28. ncbi request reprint Loss of dopamine transporters in methamphetamine abusers recovers with protracted abstinence
    N D Volkow
    Medical and Chemistry Departments, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    J Neurosci 21:9414-8. 2001
    ..These findings have treatment implications because they suggest that protracted abstinence may reverse some of methamphetamine-induced alterations in brain DA terminals...
  29. ncbi request reprint Comparative studies of epibatidine derivatives [18F]NFEP and [18F]N-methyl-NFEP: kinetics, nicotine effect, and toxicity
    Y S Ding
    Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 5000, USA
    Nucl Med Biol 26:139-48. 1999
    ..Our results suggest that although the binding characteristics of [18F]NFEP and [18F]N-Me-NFEP appear to be ideally suited for PET imaging studies of the human brain, their relatively small safety margin will limit their use in humans...
  30. ncbi request reprint Chiral drugs: comparison of the pharmacokinetics of [11C]d-threo and L-threo-methylphenidate in the human and baboon brain
    Y S Ding
    Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 5000, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 131:71-8. 1997
    ..These results indicate that pharmacological specificity of MP resides entirely in the d-threo isomer and directly show that binding of the l-isomer in human brain is mostly nonspecific...
  31. ncbi request reprint [(11)]Cocaine: PET studies of cocaine pharmacokinetics, dopamine transporter availability and dopamine transporter occupancy
    J S Fowler
    Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    Nucl Med Biol 28:561-72. 2001
    ..This article will summarize preclinical and clinical research with [(11)C]cocaine...
  32. ncbi request reprint Reproducibility of repeated measures of deuterium substituted [11C]L-deprenyl ([11C]L-deprenyl-D2) binding in the human brain
    J Logan
    Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    Nucl Med Biol 27:43-9. 2000
    ..84 +/- 7.07%. Linear regression applied to values of lambda k3 from the LIN and NLLSQ methods validated the use of the linear method for calculating lambda k3...
  33. ncbi request reprint Maintenance of brain monoamine oxidase B inhibition in smokers after overnight cigarette abstinence
    J S Fowler
    Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 157:1864-6. 2000
    ..The authors' goal was to replicate a previous finding that smokers have lower brain monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) levels than comparison nonsmoking subjects and to determine if levels recover after overnight cigarette abstinence...
  34. pmc Liking and wanting of drug and non-drug rewards in active cocaine users: the STRAP-R questionnaire
    R Z Goldstein
    Department of Medical Research, Center for Translational Neuroimaging, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 5000, USA
    J Psychopharmacol 24:257-66. 2010
    ..Additional studies are required to assess the reliability of the STRAP-R in larger samples and to examine its validity in measuring the subjective value attributed to experienced reinforcers or in predicting behaviour...
  35. ncbi request reprint A consideration of the dopamine D2 receptor monomer-dimer equilibrium and the anomalous binding properties of the dopamine D2 receptor ligand, N-methyl spiperone
    J Logan
    Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    J Neural Transm 108:279-86. 2001
    ..If increasing DA favors cluster with fewer receptors, an increase in NMSP binding sites may also occur under some circumstances with an increase in DA...
  36. ncbi request reprint Differences in regional brain metabolic responses between single and repeated doses of methylphenidate
    N D Volkow
    Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Psychiatry Res 83:29-36. 1998
    ..This indicates that methylphenidate's metabolic effects vary with acute previous exposure and highlights the importance of studying drugs after single and repeated administration...
  37. ncbi request reprint Effects of route of administration on cocaine induced dopamine transporter blockade in the human brain
    N D Volkow
    Medical Department, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Life Sci 67:1507-15. 2000
    ..The faster time course for the subjective effects for smoked than intravenous and for intravenous than for intranasal cocaine highlights the importance of the speed of cocaine's delivery into the brain on its reinforcing effects...
  38. ncbi request reprint Reinforcing effects of psychostimulants in humans are associated with increases in brain dopamine and occupancy of D(2) receptors
    N D Volkow
    Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 291:409-15. 1999
    ....
  39. ncbi request reprint In vitro and ex vivo autoradiographic studies of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors using [18F]fluoronochloroepibatidine in rodent and human brain
    S J Gatley
    Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Nucl Med Biol 25:449-54. 1998
    ..However, similar Kd values close to 50 pM were calculated for all regions. These studies support the suitability of [18F]NFEP as a radioligand for PET studies of nAcChR in the living human brain...
  40. ncbi request reprint Brain dopamine and obesity
    G J Wang
    Department of Medicine, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    Lancet 357:354-7. 2001
    ..To test the hypothesis that obese individuals have abnormalities in brain dopamine activity we measured the availability of dopamine D2 receptors in brain...
  41. ncbi request reprint Imaging studies on the role of dopamine in cocaine reinforcement and addiction in humans
    N D Volkow
    Department of Medicine, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, NY 11973, USA
    J Psychopharmacol 13:337-45. 1999
    ..Thus, strategies to enhance DA brain function in ways that mimic physiological DA activity may be of help in overcoming cocaine addiction...
  42. ncbi request reprint A strategy for removing the bias in the graphical analysis method
    J Logan
    Chemistry and Medical Departments, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 21:307-20. 2001
    ..The DVR generated directly from the model (DVR(FL)) was compared with DVR(FG) (determined from a "smoothed" uptake curve as for DV(FG)) using the graphical method...
  43. ncbi request reprint Enhanced sensitivity to benzodiazepines in active cocaine-abusing subjects: a PET study
    N D Volkow
    Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, NY 11973, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 155:200-6. 1998
    ..Because cocaine enhances dopamine brain activity and dopamine signals are transferred through gamma-aminobutyric acid pathways, the authors hypothesized GABA-ergic disruption in cocaine-abusing subjects. This study tests this hypothesis...
  44. ncbi request reprint Inhibition of monoamine oxidase B in the brains of smokers
    J S Fowler
    Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    Nature 379:733-6. 1996
    ..We propose that reduction of MAO B activity may synergize with nicotine to produce the diverse behavioural and epidemiological effects of smoking...
  45. ncbi request reprint Imaging the neurochemistry of nicotine actions: studies with positron emission tomography
    N D Volkow
    Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 1:S127-32; discussion S139-40. 1999
    ....
  46. ncbi request reprint Mapping catechol-O-methyltransferase in vivo: initial studies with [18F]Ro41-0960
    Y S Ding
    Chemistry Dept, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, USA
    Life Sci 58:195-208. 1996
    ..They also provide the first example of a positron emitter labeled radiotracer for COMT, and provide initial encouraging evidence that [18F]Ro41-0960 may be used to examine COMT in peripheral organs in vivo...
  47. ncbi request reprint A novel strategy for the treatment of cocaine addiction
    S L Dewey
    Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Synapse 30:119-29. 1998
    ..Human trials with GVG are currently being developed to directly examine the utility of this novel strategy for the treatment of cocaine addiction...
  48. ncbi request reprint Resting brain metabolic activity in a 4 tesla magnetic field
    N D Volkow
    Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, USA
    Magn Reson Med 44:701-5. 2000
    ..We conclude that a static magnetic field of 4 T does not in itself affect this fairly sensitive measure of brain activity...
  49. ncbi request reprint Distribution of tracer levels of cocaine in the human brain as assessed with averaged [11C]cocaine images
    F W Telang
    Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    Synapse 31:290-6. 1999
    ..Further work is required to characterize the binding properties of cocaine in these brain areas and to elucidate their role in the reinforcing and addictive properties of cocaine...
  50. ncbi request reprint Increased activity of the temporal insula in subjects with bradycardia
    N D Volkow
    Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    Life Sci 67:2213-20. 2000
    ..The temporal insula is interconnected with limbic brain region and autonomic centers and suggests that this may be a mechanism by which emotional responses regulate heart rate...
  51. ncbi request reprint Regional brain metabolism during alcohol intoxication
    G J Wang
    Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 24:822-9. 2000
    ..The results were compared with those we previously published in a different group of 16 normal male subjects who received intravenous lorazepam, a benzodiazepine drug that also enhances GABA neurotransmission...
  52. ncbi request reprint Mechanism of action of methylphenidate: insights from PET imaging studies
    N D Volkow
    Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    J Atten Disord 6:S31-43. 2002
    ....
  53. ncbi request reprint Synthesis and evaluation of 6-[(18)F]fluoro-3-(2(S)-azetidinylmethoxy)pyridine as a PET tracer for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors
    Y Ding
    Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, USA
    Nucl Med Biol 27:381-9. 2000
    ..Preliminary compartative PET studies of 6-[(18)F]fluoro-A-85380 and 2-[(18)F]fluoro-A-85380 were carried out in baboon to examine their suitability as tracers for studying nAChR system...
  54. ncbi request reprint Role of dopamine in drug reinforcement and addiction in humans: results from imaging studies
    N D Volkow
    Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    Behav Pharmacol 13:355-66. 2002
    ....
  55. pmc Repeat variation in the human PER2 gene as a new genetic marker associated with cocaine addiction and brain dopamine D2 receptor availability
    E Shumay
    Brookhaven National Laboratory, Medical Department, Center for Translational Neuroimaging, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Transl Psychiatry 2:e86. 2012
    ..01). Taken together, these results provide preliminary evidence for the role of the PER2 gene in regulating striatal D2R availability in the human brain and in vulnerability for cocaine addiction...
  56. ncbi request reprint Therapeutic doses of amphetamine or methylphenidate differentially increase synaptic and extracellular dopamine
    W K Schiffer
    Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    Synapse 59:243-51. 2006
    ..The similar potencies of MP and AMP to alter synaptic DA, despite their different potencies in raising ECF DA, could reflect their different molecular mechanisms...
  57. ncbi request reprint The heritage of radiotracers for positron emission tomography
    J S Fowler
    Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York
    Acta Radiol Suppl 374:13-6. 1990
    ....
  58. ncbi request reprint Investigations of acetonitrile solvent cluster formation in supercritical carbon dioxide, and its impact on microscale syntheses of carbon-11-labeled radiotracers for PET
    R A Ferrieri
    Department of Chemistry, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 5000, USA
    Nucl Med Biol 26:443-54. 1999
    ..Results showed that greater than 90% radiochemical yield of the desired product could be attained using 40 times less labeling substrate than in conventional PET tracer syntheses...
  59. ncbi request reprint Ion chromatographic analysis of high specific activity 18FDG preparations and detection of the chemical impurity 2-deoxy-2-chloro-D-glucose
    D L Alexoff
    Department of Chemistry, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973
    Int J Rad Appl Instrum A 43:1313-22. 1992
    ....
  60. ncbi request reprint Removal of the 2.2.2 cryptand (Kryptofix 2.2.2) from 18FDG by cation exchange
    D L Alexoff
    Department of Chemistry, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973
    Int J Rad Appl Instrum A 42:1189-93. 1991
    ..Quality assurance tests including apyrogenicity, sterility, radiochemical purity, carbohydrate composition and pH were not compromised by the incorporation of the cryptand removal cartridge...
  61. ncbi request reprint Imaging brain cholinergic activity with positron emission tomography: its role in the evaluation of cholinergic treatments in Alzheimer's dementia
    N D Volkow
    Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 49:211-20. 2001
    ..Moreover, because positron emission tomography has the potential to identify Alzheimer's disease during early disease, it can be used to establish whether early interventions can prevent or delay further development...
  62. pmc Addiction changes orbitofrontal gyrus function: involvement in response inhibition
    R Z Goldstein
    Brookhaven National Laboratory, Medical Research, Bldg. 490, 30 Bell Ave, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Neuroreport 12:2595-9. 2001
    ....
  63. ncbi request reprint PET imaging studies in drug abuse
    J S Fowler
    Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 36:163-74. 1998
    ..Review: In this article, we will highlight some examples of the use of Positron Emission Tomography to measure drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and their relationship to addiction and to toxicity...
  64. ncbi request reprint Addiction, a disease of compulsion and drive: involvement of the orbitofrontal cortex
    N D Volkow
    Medical and Chemistry Departments, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Cereb Cortex 10:318-25. 2000
    ....
  65. ncbi request reprint Dopamine in drug abuse and addiction: results from imaging studies and treatment implications
    N D Volkow
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 9:557-69. 2004
    ....
  66. ncbi request reprint The synthesis of no-carrier-added DL-4-[18F]fluorodeprenyl via the nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction
    A Plenevaux
    Liege University, Cyclotron Research Center, Belgium
    Int J Rad Appl Instrum A 42:121-7. 1991
    ..Clearance of radioactivity from brain after injection of DL-4-[18F]fluorodeprenyl was more rapid than that previously observed for [11C]L-deprenyl...