William W Kwok

Summary

Affiliation: Benaroya Research Institute
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint HLA-DQ tetramers identify epitope-specific T cells in peripheral blood of herpes simplex virus type 2-infected individuals: direct detection of immunodominant antigen-responsive cells
    W W Kwok
    Virginia Mason Research Center, Seattle, WA 98101, USA
    J Immunol 164:4244-9. 2000
  2. ncbi request reprint Challenges in staining T cells using HLA class II tetramers
    William W Kwok
    Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, 1201 Ninth Avenue, Seattle, WA 98101, USA
    Clin Immunol 106:23-8. 2003
  3. ncbi request reprint Use of class II tetramers for identification of CD4+ T cells
    William W Kwok
    The Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, 1201 Ninth Avenue, Seattle, WA 98101, USA
    J Immunol Methods 268:71-81. 2002
  4. pmc Definition of the peptide binding motif within DRB1*1401 restricted epitopes by peptide competition and structural modeling
    Eddie A James
    Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, Seattle, WA 98101, USA
    Mol Immunol 45:2651-9. 2008
  5. doi request reprint CD4+ T cells from type 1 diabetic and healthy subjects exhibit different thresholds of activation to a naturally processed proinsulin epitope
    Junbao Yang
    Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, 1201 Ninth Ave, Seattle, WA 98101, USA
    J Autoimmun 31:30-41. 2008
  6. ncbi request reprint Allelic variation in key peptide-binding pockets discriminates between closely related diabetes-protective and diabetes-susceptible HLA-DQB1*06 alleles
    Ruth A Ettinger
    Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, Seattle, WA 98101, USA
    J Immunol 176:1988-98. 2006
  7. ncbi request reprint Multiplex mapping of CD4 T cell epitopes using class II tetramers
    Junbao Yang
    Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, 1201 Ninth Ave Seattle, WA 98101, USA
    Clin Immunol 120:21-32. 2006
  8. ncbi request reprint Autoreactive T cells in healthy individuals
    Nancy A Danke
    Benaroya Research Institute, Virginia Mason, Seattle, WA 98101, USA
    J Immunol 172:5967-72. 2004
  9. pmc Searching immunodominant epitopes prior to epidemic: HLA class II-restricted SARS-CoV spike protein epitopes in unexposed individuals
    Junbao Yang
    Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, Seattle, WA, USA
    Int Immunol 21:63-71. 2009
  10. pmc DRB1*12:01 presents a unique subset of epitopes by preferring aromatics in pocket 9
    I Ting Chow
    Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, 1201 9th Avenue, Seattle, WA 98101, USA
    Mol Immunol 50:26-34. 2012

Detail Information

Publications80

  1. ncbi request reprint HLA-DQ tetramers identify epitope-specific T cells in peripheral blood of herpes simplex virus type 2-infected individuals: direct detection of immunodominant antigen-responsive cells
    W W Kwok
    Virginia Mason Research Center, Seattle, WA 98101, USA
    J Immunol 164:4244-9. 2000
    ....
  2. ncbi request reprint Challenges in staining T cells using HLA class II tetramers
    William W Kwok
    Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, 1201 Ninth Avenue, Seattle, WA 98101, USA
    Clin Immunol 106:23-8. 2003
  3. ncbi request reprint Use of class II tetramers for identification of CD4+ T cells
    William W Kwok
    The Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, 1201 Ninth Avenue, Seattle, WA 98101, USA
    J Immunol Methods 268:71-81. 2002
    ..In a clinical setting, potential applications include using these reagents for monitoring disease progression during clinical intervention...
  4. pmc Definition of the peptide binding motif within DRB1*1401 restricted epitopes by peptide competition and structural modeling
    Eddie A James
    Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, Seattle, WA 98101, USA
    Mol Immunol 45:2651-9. 2008
    ..The resulting motif was used to verify T cell epitopes within the novel antigenic peptides identified by tetramer-guided epitope mapping and within peptides from published reports that contain putative DR1401 epitopes...
  5. doi request reprint CD4+ T cells from type 1 diabetic and healthy subjects exhibit different thresholds of activation to a naturally processed proinsulin epitope
    Junbao Yang
    Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, 1201 Ninth Ave, Seattle, WA 98101, USA
    J Autoimmun 31:30-41. 2008
    ..These data suggest that T cells from type 1 diabetic subjects have a lower threshold of activation in response to PPI peptide stimulation as compared to healthy subjects...
  6. ncbi request reprint Allelic variation in key peptide-binding pockets discriminates between closely related diabetes-protective and diabetes-susceptible HLA-DQB1*06 alleles
    Ruth A Ettinger
    Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, Seattle, WA 98101, USA
    J Immunol 176:1988-98. 2006
    ..This study furthers our understanding of the structure-function relationships of MHC class II polymorphisms...
  7. ncbi request reprint Multiplex mapping of CD4 T cell epitopes using class II tetramers
    Junbao Yang
    Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, 1201 Ninth Ave Seattle, WA 98101, USA
    Clin Immunol 120:21-32. 2006
    ..Using this multiplex approach, novel epitopes from influenza antigens hemagglutinin and matrix protein presented by multiple class II alleles were identified in a single experimental setting...
  8. ncbi request reprint Autoreactive T cells in healthy individuals
    Nancy A Danke
    Benaroya Research Institute, Virginia Mason, Seattle, WA 98101, USA
    J Immunol 172:5967-72. 2004
    ..These results show that autoreactive T cells are present in most healthy individuals and that Treg likely play an important role of keeping these autoreactive T cells in check...
  9. pmc Searching immunodominant epitopes prior to epidemic: HLA class II-restricted SARS-CoV spike protein epitopes in unexposed individuals
    Junbao Yang
    Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, Seattle, WA, USA
    Int Immunol 21:63-71. 2009
    ..Our study demonstrates a strategy to determine potential immunodominant epitopes for emerging infectious pathogens prior to their epidemic circulation...
  10. pmc DRB1*12:01 presents a unique subset of epitopes by preferring aromatics in pocket 9
    I Ting Chow
    Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, 1201 9th Avenue, Seattle, WA 98101, USA
    Mol Immunol 50:26-34. 2012
    ..This algorithm was used to verify T cell epitopes within novel antigenic peptides identified by tetramer staining and within peptides from published reports that contain putative DR1201 epitopes...
  11. ncbi request reprint Comparative study of GAD65-specific CD4+ T cells in healthy and type 1 diabetic subjects
    Nancy A Danke
    Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, 1201 Ninth Avenue, Seattle, WA 98101, USA
    J Autoimmun 25:303-11. 2005
    ....
  12. ncbi request reprint GAD65-specific CD4+ T-cells with high antigen avidity are prevalent in peripheral blood of patients with type 1 diabetes
    Helena Reijonen
    Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, Seattle, Washington 98101, USA
    Diabetes 53:1987-94. 2004
    ..1 and Valpha17-Vbeta4. Presence of these high-avidity TcRs indicates a failure to delete autoreactive T-cells that likely arise from oligoclonal expansion in response to autoantigen exposure during the progression of type 1 diabetes...
  13. ncbi request reprint Islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein-reactive CD4+ T cells in human subjects
    Junbao Yang
    Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, Seattle, WA 98101, USA
    J Immunol 176:2781-9. 2006
    ....
  14. pmc The anthrax vaccine adsorbed vaccine generates protective antigen (PA)-Specific CD4+ T cells with a phenotype distinct from that of naive PA T cells
    William W Kwok
    Benaroya Research Institute, Seattle, WA 98101, USA
    Infect Immun 76:4538-45. 2008
    ..The data also demonstrated the feasibility of using class II tetramers to analyze CD4(+) cell responses and lineage development after vaccination...
  15. pmc Functional islet-specific Treg can be generated from CD4+CD25- T cells of healthy and type 1 diabetic subjects
    S Alice Long
    Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, Seattle, WA 98101, USA
    Eur J Immunol 39:612-20. 2009
    ..Thus, these data suggest that development of functional adaptive Treg can occur in response to islet antigens and activation of islet-specific Treg may potentially be used as a targeted immunotherapy in T1D...
  16. pmc H5N1 strain-specific hemagglutinin CD4+ T cell epitopes restricted by HLA DR4
    Junbao Yang
    Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, Seattle, WA 98101 2795, United States
    Vaccine 27:3862-9. 2009
    ..Thus, H5N1 strain-specific H5HA(57-76) immunogenic epitope represents a unique marker for monitoring the efficacy of vaccination or as a candidate vaccine peptide...
  17. ncbi request reprint Persistence of herpes simplex virus type 2 VP16-specific CD4+ T cells
    Nancy A Danke
    Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, Seattle, WA 98101, USA
    Hum Immunol 66:777-87. 2005
    ....
  18. pmc HLA-DR1001 presents "altered-self" peptides derived from joint-associated proteins by accepting citrulline in three of its binding pockets
    Eddie A James
    Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, Seattle, Washington, USA
    Arthritis Rheum 62:2909-18. 2010
    ..The present study was undertaken to assess the capacity of DR1001 to accommodate citrulline in its binding pockets and to identify citrullinated T cell epitopes derived from joint-associated proteins...
  19. pmc The binding of antigenic peptides to HLA-DR is influenced by interactions between pocket 6 and pocket 9
    Eddie A James
    Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, Seattle, WA 98101, USA
    J Immunol 183:3249-58. 2009
    ..These findings provide a structural explanation for observations that an amino acid in one pocket can influence binding elsewhere in the MHC class II peptide binding groove...
  20. pmc Differences in self-peptide binding between T1D-related susceptible and protective DR4 subtypes
    Xinhui Ge
    Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, Seattle, WA 98101, USA
    J Autoimmun 36:155-60. 2011
    ..The enhanced peptide competition of DR0403 leads to a down-modulation of DQ8 epitope presentation, as compared to weak competitors such as DR0401 and DR0405, and therefore contributes to disease protection...
  21. ncbi request reprint HLA class II-restricted CD4+ T cell responses directed against influenza viral antigens postinfluenza vaccination
    Nancy A Danke
    Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, Seattle, WA 98101, USA
    J Immunol 171:3163-9. 2003
    ....
  22. pmc Differential binding of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-E2 epitopes by DRB1*08:01 and DRB1*11:01 Is predicted by their structural motifs and correlates with disease risk
    I Ting Chow
    Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, Seattle, WA 98101, USA
    J Immunol 190:4516-24. 2013
    ..Therefore, the unique molecular features of DR0801 may lead to the selection of a distinct T cell repertoire that contributes to breakdown of self-tolerance in primary biliary cirrhosis, whereas those of DR1101 promote tolerance...
  23. pmc Specific immunotherapy modifies allergen-specific CD4(+) T-cell responses in an epitope-dependent manner
    Erik Wambre
    Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, Seattle, Wash
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 133:872-9.e7. 2014
    ..Understanding the mechanisms by which the immune system induces and controls allergic inflammation at the T-cell epitope level is critical for the design of new allergy vaccine strategies...
  24. pmc Frequency of epitope-specific naive CD4(+) T cells correlates with immunodominance in the human memory repertoire
    William W Kwok
    Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, Seattle, WA 98101 2795, USA
    J Immunol 188:2537-44. 2012
    ..These findings implicate naive frequencies as a crucial factor in shaping the epitope specificity of memory CD4(+) T cell responses...
  25. ncbi request reprint CD8+ suppressor-mediated regulation of human CD4+ T cell responses to glutamic acid decarboxylase 65
    Eddie A James
    Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, Seattle, USA
    Eur J Immunol 37:78-86. 2007
    ..The suppression of CD4+ T cell responses to GAD65 in healthy individuals raises the possibility that CD8+ suppressor T cells play an important role in controlling potentially autoreactive T cells in the general population...
  26. pmc Healthy human subjects have CD4+ T cells directed against H5N1 influenza virus
    Michelle Roti
    Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    J Immunol 180:1758-68. 2008
    ....
  27. ncbi request reprint Low-avidity recognition by CD4+ T cells directed to self-antigens
    John A Gebe
    Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, Seattle, Washington 98101, USA
    Eur J Immunol 33:1409-17. 2003
    ..As recently described in studies of murine CD8(+) T cell function, the predominance of low avidity recognition of self-peptide epitopes may be a characteristic feature of CD4(+) T cells responding to autoantigens...
  28. ncbi request reprint Differential recognition and activation thresholds in human autoreactive GAD-specific T-cells
    Roberto Mallone
    Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, Seattle, Washington 98101, USA
    Diabetes 53:971-7. 2004
    ..Induction of apoptosis is a potential immunomodulatory target for therapeutic applications of MHC class II multimers, but the relative resistance of low-avidity T-cells may limit its benefits...
  29. pmc Peptide-MHC cellular microarray with innovative data analysis system for simultaneously detecting multiple CD4 T-cell responses
    Xinhui Ge
    Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, Seattle, Washington, USA
    PLoS ONE 5:e11355. 2010
    ....
  30. pmc Low-affinity major histocompatibility complex-binding peptides in type 1 diabetes
    Eddie A James
    Benaroya Research Institute, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, Washington, USA
    Diabetes 57:1788-9. 2008
  31. ncbi request reprint Expression of HLA-DP0401 molecules for identification of DP0401 restricted antigen specific T cells
    Junbao Yang
    Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, Seattle, WA, USA
    J Clin Immunol 25:428-36. 2005
    ..The availability of HLA-DP0401 tetramers should facilitate the study of DP restricted T cell responses...
  32. ncbi request reprint Tracking antigen specific CD4+ T-cells with soluble MHC molecules
    John A Gebe
    Benaroya Research Institute, Seattle, WA, USA
    Methods Mol Med 136:39-50. 2007
    ..In this method we describe how to generate recombinant non-covalently bound peptide MHC-multimers in insect cells. MHC multimers are generated as tetravalent complexes using a streptavidin scaffold...
  33. ncbi request reprint Tetramer-guided epitope mapping reveals broad, individualized repertoires of tetanus toxin-specific CD4+ T cells and suggests HLA-based differences in epitope recognition
    Eddie A James
    Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, 1201 Ninth Avenue, Seattle, WA 98101, USA
    Int Immunol 19:1291-301. 2007
    ..Rather these results illustrate heterogeneous T-cell responses for different class II alleles and individual-specific variation of the T-cell repertoire...
  34. pmc Functional avidity directs T-cell fate in autoreactive CD4+ T cells
    Roberto Mallone
    Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, 1201 Ninth Ave, Seattle, WA 98101, USA
    Blood 106:2798-805. 2005
    ..Regulation via down-modulation of antigen-presenting cell function, a form of cell-to-cell licensing for suppression, also offers possibilities for the application of peptide-MHC therapeutics...
  35. pmc Differentiation stage determines pathologic and protective allergen-specific CD4+ T-cell outcomes during specific immunotherapy
    Erik Wambre
    Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, Seattle, Wash 98101, USA
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 129:544-51, 551.e1-7. 2012
    ....
  36. ncbi request reprint Differential antigen sensitivity and costimulatory requirements in human Th1 and Th2 antigen-specific CD4+ cells with similar TCR avidity
    Ursula Holzer
    Benaroya Research Institute, Virginia Mason Research Center, Seattle, WA 98101, USA
    J Immunol 170:1218-23. 2003
    ..These distinctions between Th1 and Th2 activation are not consistent with a simple avidity model of Ag recognition and indicate both qualitative and quantitative differences in determining cell lineage commitment...
  37. pmc Assessment of seasonal influenza A virus-specific CD4 T-cell responses to 2009 pandemic H1N1 swine-origin influenza A virus
    Xinhui Ge
    Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, Seattle, WA 98101, USA
    J Virol 84:3312-9. 2010
    ..These findings suggest that without protective antibody responses, individuals vaccinated against seasonal influenza A may still benefit from preexisting cross-reactive memory CD4 T cells reducing their susceptibility to S-OIV infection...
  38. ncbi request reprint Defining antigen-specific responses with human MHC class II tetramers
    Jane H Buckner
    Benaroya Research Institute, Virginia Mason Research Center, 1201 Ninth Avenue, Seattle, WA 98101 2795, USA
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 110:199-208. 2002
    ....
  39. pmc CD4+ T cells recognize diverse epitopes within GAD65: implications for repertoire development and diabetes monitoring
    Junbao Yang
    Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, Seattle, WA, USA
    Immunology 138:269-79. 2013
    ..Although nearly every individual responded to at least one GAD65 epitope, most were seen in less than half of the subjects tested, suggesting that multiple epitopes are recommended for immune monitoring...
  40. pmc Cytotoxic herpes simplex type 2-specific, DQ0602-restricted CD4 T+-cell clones show alloreactivity to DQ0601
    Sandra Reichstetter
    Research Institute at Virginia Mason, WA 98101, USA
    Immunology 117:350-7. 2006
    ..These clones are cytotoxic and produce cytokines of a T helper 2-like pattern. Possible implications in a DR-matched transplantation setting are discussed...
  41. pmc Lineages of human T-cell clones, including T helper 17/T helper 1 cells, isolated at different stages of anti-factor VIII immune responses
    Ruth A Ettinger
    Puget Sound Blood Center, Seattle, WA 98104, USA
    Blood 114:1423-8. 2009
    ..Furthermore, this is the first report of successful isolation and expansion of antigen-specific human T(H)17/T(H)1 clones using standard culture conditions...
  42. ncbi request reprint Detection of GAD65-specific T-cells by major histocompatibility complex class II tetramers in type 1 diabetic patients and at-risk subjects
    Helena Reijonen
    Virginia Mason Research Center, Benaroya Research Institute, Seattle, Washington 98101 2795, USA
    Diabetes 51:1375-82. 2002
    ..Phenotyping of T-cells utilizing HLA class II tetramers provides a new tool to characterize the autoimmune response in type 1 diabetes...
  43. ncbi request reprint Mutational analysis of critical residues determining antigen presentation and activation of HLA-DQ0602 restricted T-cell clones
    Sandra Reichstetter
    Virginia Mason Research Center, Seattle, WA 98101, USA
    Hum Immunol 63:185-93. 2002
    ..Supported by molecular modeling data, we conclude that the distinct molecular topography of DQ0602 is not contributed by a single residue, but rather the interactions of various polymorphic DQ residues with particular antigenic peptides...
  44. pmc Papillomavirus-specific CD4+ T cells exhibit reduced STAT-5 signaling and altered cytokine profiles in patients with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis
    Eddie A James
    Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, Seattle, WA 98101, USA
    J Immunol 186:6633-40. 2011
    ..Therapeutic vaccination or interventions aimed at restoring Th1-like cytokine responses to HPV proteins and reversing anergy could improve clinical outcomes for RRP patients...
  45. ncbi request reprint Identification of type II collagen peptide 261-273-specific T cell clones in a patient with relapsing polychondritis
    Jane H Buckner
    Virginia Mason Research Center, Seattle, WA 98101, USA
    Arthritis Rheum 46:238-44. 2002
    ....
  46. ncbi request reprint Use of HLA class II tetramers in tracking antigen-specific T cells and mapping T-cell epitopes
    Helena Reijonen
    Virginia Mason Research Center, 1201 Ninth Avenue, Seattle, WA 98101 2795, USA
    Methods 29:282-8. 2003
    ..In this article, we provide a description of the methodological approach of using HLA class II tetramers in tracking and isolating T cells, and the use of class II tetramers in mapping T-cell epitopes...
  47. pmc Yellow fever vaccination elicits broad functional CD4+ T cell responses that recognize structural and nonstructural proteins
    Eddie A James
    Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, Seattle, Washington, USA
    J Virol 87:12794-804. 2013
    ..Therefore, YFV elicits robust early effector CD4(+) T cell responses that contract, forming a detectable memory population. ..
  48. pmc Characterization of CD4+ T cell subsets in allergy
    Erik Wambre
    Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, Seattle, WA 98101 2795, USA
    Curr Opin Immunol 24:700-6. 2012
    ..Therefore, elimination of pathogenic T(H)2 cells is an essential step in tolerance induction...
  49. pmc CD4+ T cells recognize unique and conserved 2009 H1N1 influenza hemagglutinin epitopes after natural infection and vaccination
    Junbao Yang
    Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, 1201 9th Ave, Seattle, WA 98101, USA
    Int Immunol 25:447-57. 2013
    ....
  50. pmc Expression of cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen and E-selectin ligand by circulating human memory CD4+ T lymphocytes specific for herpes simplex virus type 2
    Julio C Gonzalez
    Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
    J Infect Dis 191:243-54. 2005
    ..Short-term culture-expanded HSV-2-specific CD4(+) T lymphocytes also selectively express ESL. These findings have implications for the optimization of vaccines for HSV and other cutaneous pathogens...
  51. ncbi request reprint Detection of CD4+ autoreactive T cells in T1D using HLA class II tetramers
    Helena Reijonen
    Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, Seattle, Washington 98101, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1005:82-7. 2003
    ....
  52. pmc Ara h 1-reactive T cells in individuals with peanut allergy
    Jonathan H Delong
    Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, Seattle, WA 98101, USA
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 127:1211-8.e3. 2011
    ..Effective immunotherapy for peanut allergy is hampered by a lack of understanding of peanut-reactive CD4(+) T cells...
  53. ncbi request reprint HLA class II tetramers: tools for direct analysis of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells
    Gerald T Nepom
    Virginia Mason Research Center and University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle 98101 2795, USA
    Arthritis Rheum 46:5-12. 2002
    ..Opportunities for application of tetramer technologies in the near future will enable both clinical progress and the development of new insights into human CD4+ T cell biology in vivo...
  54. ncbi request reprint HLA class II peptide-binding and autoimmunity
    J A Gebe
    Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, Seattle, WA 98101, USA
    Tissue Antigens 59:78-87. 2002
    ....
  55. ncbi request reprint Linear B-cell epitopes in Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome defined by cell-free synthetic peptide binding
    Kevin T Parsons
    Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, 1201 Ninth Avenue, Seattle, WA 98101, USA
    J Neuroimmunol 126:190-5. 2002
    ..A major epitope is located within the S5-S6 linker peptide of Domain IV defined by the acidic amino acid sequence EDEDSDEDE...
  56. pmc Virologic and immunologic evidence of multifocal genital herpes simplex virus 2 infection
    Christine Johnston
    Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
    J Virol 88:4921-31. 2014
    ..These data provide evidence that asymptomatic HSV-2 shedding contributes to chronic inflammation throughout the genital tract...
  57. ncbi request reprint Allergen-specific MHC class II tetramer+ cells are detectable in allergic, but not in nonallergic, individuals
    Claudia Macaubas
    Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University, CA 94305, USA
    J Immunol 176:5069-77. 2006
    ..Thus, analysis using DRB1*0401 tetramers loaded with a major epitope of Lol p 1 indicates that allergen-specific CD4+ T cells in nonallergic individuals are distinct from those in allergic subjects...
  58. pmc Searching for borrelial T cell epitopes associated with antibiotic-refractory Lyme arthritis
    Elise E Drouin
    Center for Immunology and Inflammatory Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Mol Immunol 45:2323-32. 2008
    ..Therefore, while additional Bb epitopes may be involved in the development of antibiotic-refractory Lyme arthritis, recognition of OspA(163-175) remains the only known Bb epitope associated with this disease course...
  59. ncbi request reprint Clustering of T cell ligands on artificial APC membranes influences T cell activation and protein kinase C theta translocation to the T cell plasma membrane
    Francesca Giannoni
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093, USA
    J Immunol 174:3204-11. 2005
    ..Engineered aAPC may have immediate application for basic and clinical immunology studies pertaining to modulation of T cells ex vivo...
  60. ncbi request reprint Detection of low avidity desmoglein 3-reactive T cells in pemphigus vulgaris using HLA-DR beta 1*0402 tetramers
    Christian Veldman
    Department of Dermatology and Allergology, University of Marburg, Deutschhausstrasse 9, D 35033 Marburg, Germany
    Clin Immunol 122:330-7. 2007
    ..The findings of this study suggest that HLA class II tetramers may provide a highly specific approach to monitor ex vivo the T cellular autoimmune response against Dsg3 in patients with PV...
  61. pmc HLA-DQ2 and -DQ8 signatures of gluten T cell epitopes in celiac disease
    Stig Tollefsen
    Institute of Immunology, University of Oslo, Rikshospitalet Radiumhospitalet Medical Center, Oslo, Norway
    J Clin Invest 116:2226-36. 2006
    ..Peptides combining the DQ2 and DQ8 signatures could be presented by DQ2, DQ8, and trans-encoded DQ heterodimers. Our findings shed light on the basis for the HLA associations in celiac disease and type 1 diabetes...
  62. ncbi request reprint Melan-A/MART-1-specific CD4 T cells in melanoma patients: identification of new epitopes and ex vivo visualization of specific T cells by MHC class II tetramers
    Gilles Bioley
    Division of Clinical Onco Immunology, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Lausanne Branch, University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland
    J Immunol 177:6769-79. 2006
    ..Together, these results provide the basis for monitoring of naturally occurring and vaccine-induced Melan-A/MART-1-specific CD4 T cell responses, allowing precise and ex vivo characterization of responding T cells...
  63. pmc Human homologues of a Borrelia T cell epitope associated with antibiotic-refractory Lyme arthritis
    Elise E Drouin
    Center for Immunology and Inflammatory Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Mol Immunol 45:180-9. 2008
    ..However, molecular mimicry due to sequence homology between OspA(165-173) and a human peptide seems unlikely to be the critical mechanism...
  64. ncbi request reprint GAD65- and proinsulin-specific CD4+ T-cells detected by MHC class II tetramers in peripheral blood of type 1 diabetes patients and at-risk subjects
    Viveka Oling
    Department of Virology, University of Turku, MediCity, Biocity 4 krs, Tykistokatu 6 A, 20520 Turku, Finland
    J Autoimmun 25:235-43. 2005
    ..In conclusion, type 1 diabetes patients and at-risk subjects have a significantly higher prevalence of GAD65- and proinsulin-specific CD4(+) T-cells than the control subjects...
  65. ncbi request reprint In vivo biotinylation of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II/peptide complex by coexpression of BirA enzyme for the generation of MHC class II/tetramers
    Junbao Yang
    Department of Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, MO 63110 1093, USA
    Hum Immunol 65:692-9. 2004
    ..DR2BSP/MBP protein expressed and purified from such a clone was ready to be tetramerized with streptavidin to be used for staining antigen-specific T cells...
  66. ncbi request reprint Direct killing of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected B cells by CD4 T cells directed against the EBV lytic protein BHRF1
    Elise Landais
    INSERM U463, Institut de Biologie, 9 quai Moncousu, 44035 Nantes Cedex 01, France
    Blood 103:1408-16. 2004
    ..Taken together, these data provide the first demonstration that a lytic antigen can induce a direct cytolytic response against EBV-infected cells...
  67. ncbi request reprint Decline in the frequencies of Borrelia burgdorferi OspA161 175-specific T cells after antibiotic therapy in HLA-DRB1*0401-positive patients with antibiotic-responsive or antibiotic-refractory lyme arthritis
    Priya Kannian
    Center for Immunology and Inflammatory Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    J Immunol 179:6336-42. 2007
    ..However, the marked decline in the frequency of such cells with antibiotic therapy suggests that persistent synovitis in the refractory group is not perpetuated by these cells...
  68. ncbi request reprint HLA class II polymorphisms determine responses to bacterial superantigens
    Martin Llewelyn
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, Department of Immunology, Guy s, Kings and St Thomas School of Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 172:1719-26. 2004
    ..Our observations reveal a mechanism for the different outcomes seen following infection by toxigenic bacteria...
  69. ncbi request reprint P53(110-124)-specific human CD4+ T-helper cells enhance in vitro generation and antitumor function of tumor-reactive CD8+ T cells
    Kazuaki Chikamatsu
    Division of Basic Research, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute and the Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    Cancer Res 63:3675-81. 2003
    ..This model of tumor-specific CD8(+) and CD4(+) T-cell interactions suggests that future vaccination strategies targeting tumor cells should incorporate helper and cytotoxic T cell-defined epitopes...
  70. pmc Antibiotic-refractory Lyme arthritis is associated with HLA-DR molecules that bind a Borrelia burgdorferi peptide
    Allen C Steere
    Center for Immunology and Inflammatory Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    J Exp Med 203:961-71. 2006
    ..4; P < 0.001). We conclude that binding of a single spirochetal peptide to certain DRB molecules is a marker for antibiotic-refractory Lyme arthritis and might play a role in the pathogenesis of the disease...
  71. ncbi request reprint The heat shock protein Hsp70 enhances antigen-specific proliferation of human CD4+ memory T cells
    Markus Haug
    Children s Hospital, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany
    Eur J Immunol 35:3163-72. 2005
    ..Taken together, we show the potential of Hsp70 to enhance antigen-specific CD4+ T cell proliferation and to increase the immunogenicity of presented peptides in human CD4+ T cells...
  72. ncbi request reprint Potential of an altered peptide ligand of lipocalin allergen Bos d 2 for peptide immunotherapy
    Tuure Kinnunen
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 119:965-72. 2007
    ..One way to enhance the efficacy of peptide immunotherapy is to use altered peptide ligands (APLs) that contain amino acid substitutions compared with the natural peptide...
  73. ncbi request reprint Dominance and diversity in the primary human CD4 T cell response to replication-competent vaccinia virus
    Lichen Jing
    Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle 98101, USA
    J Immunol 178:6374-86. 2007
    ..These findings are consistent with models in which exogenous Ag drives CD4 immunodominance, and provides tools to investigate the relationship between Ab and CD4 T cell specificity for complex pathogens...
  74. pmc Disease-associated bias in T helper type 1 (Th1)/Th2 CD4(+) T cell responses against MAGE-6 in HLA-DRB10401(+) patients with renal cell carcinoma or melanoma
    Tomohide Tatsumi
    Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    J Exp Med 196:619-28. 2002
    ..Our data suggest that immunotherapeutic approaches will likely have to overcome or complement systemic Th2-dominated, tumor-reactive CD4(+) T cell responses to provide optimal clinical benefit...
  75. ncbi request reprint HLA tetramer-based artificial antigen-presenting cells for stimulation of CD4+ T cells
    Marcela V Maus
    Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, 557 BRB II III, 421 Curie Boulevard, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 19104, USA
    Clin Immunol 106:16-22. 2003
    ..We find that an indirect coating of HLA-peptide tetramers on beads via an anti-Class II antibody provides specific stimulation of antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells...
  76. ncbi request reprint Immunomodulatory potential of heteroclitic analogs of the dominant T-cell epitope of lipocalin allergen Bos d 2 on specific T cells
    Tuure Kinnunen
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, FIN 70211 Kuopio, Finland
    Int Immunol 17:1573-81. 2005
    ..Our results suggest that heteroclitic analogs of a T-cell epitope of an allergen may enhance the efficacy of peptide-based allergen immunotherapy...
  77. pmc Diminished proliferation of human immunodeficiency virus-specific CD4+ T cells is associated with diminished interleukin-2 (IL-2) production and is recovered by exogenous IL-2
    Christiana Iyasere
    Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1876, USA
    J Virol 77:10900-9. 2003
    ..These results also suggest that relatively high frequencies of HIV-specific CD4(+) T cells persist in the peripheral blood during viremia, are not replicatively senescent, and proliferate when IL-2 is provided exogenously...
  78. ncbi request reprint Extensive replicative capacity of human central memory T cells
    Marcela V Maus
    Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, University of Pennsylvania Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    J Immunol 172:6675-83. 2004
    ..In conclusion, aAPCs expand T(CM) that have extensive replicative capacity, and have potential applications in adoptive immunotherapy as well as for studying the biology of human MHC class II-restricted T cells...
  79. pmc Identification and in vitro expansion of functional antigen-specific CD25+ FoxP3+ regulatory T cells in hepatitis C virus infection
    Hirotoshi Ebinuma
    Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    J Virol 82:5043-53. 2008
    ..Detection of FoxP3 expression in non-HCV-specific CD4 T cells suggests that immune regulation through antigen-specific Treg induction extends beyond HCV...
  80. pmc High level of PD-1 expression on hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells during acute HCV infection, irrespective of clinical outcome
    Victoria Kasprowicz
    Partners AIDS Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 149 13th Street, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
    J Virol 82:3154-60. 2008
    ..Our results suggest that an analysis of PD-1 expression alone is not sufficient to predict infection outcome or to determine T-cell functionality in HCV infection...