N Eisenberg

Summary

Affiliation: Arizona State University
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Emotion-related regulation: sharpening the definition
    Nancy Eisenberg
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 1104, USA
    Child Dev 75:334-9. 2004
  2. pmc The longitudinal relations of regulation and emotionality to quality of Indonesian children's socioemotional functioning
    Nancy Eisenberg
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA
    Dev Psychol 40:790-804. 2004
  3. ncbi request reprint "Getting in" revisited: an analysis of manuscript characteristics, reviewers' ratings, and acceptance of manuscripts in Psychological Bulletin
    Nancy Eisenberg
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe 85287 1104, USA
    Psychol Bull 128:997-1004. 2002
  4. ncbi request reprint The relations of parenting, effortful control, and ego control to children's emotional expressivity
    Nancy Eisenberg
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe 85287 1104, USA
    Child Dev 74:875-95. 2003
  5. pmc Relations among positive parenting, children's effortful control, and externalizing problems: a three-wave longitudinal study
    Nancy Eisenberg
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA
    Child Dev 76:1055-71. 2005
  6. pmc Differential susceptibility and the early development of aggression: interactive effects of respiratory sinus arrhythmia and environmental quality
    Nancy Eisenberg
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 1104, USA
    Dev Psychol 48:755-68. 2012
  7. doi request reprint Growing up in the shadow of terrorism: youth in America after 9/11
    Nancy Eisenberg
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 1104, USA
    Am Psychol 66:468-81. 2011
  8. pmc Longitudinal relations of children's effortful control, impulsivity, and negative emotionality to their externalizing, internalizing, and co-occurring behavior problems
    Nancy Eisenberg
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 1104, USA
    Dev Psychol 45:988-1008. 2009
  9. pmc The relations of effortful control and impulsivity to children's resiliency and adjustment
    Nancy Eisenberg
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 1104, USA
    Child Dev 75:25-46. 2004
  10. ncbi request reprint The relations of parental emotional expressivity with quality of Indonesian children's social functioning
    N Eisenberg
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe 85287 1104, USA
    Emotion 1:116-36. 2001

Research Grants

  1. The Course of Regulation and Dysregulation in Children
    Nancy Eisenberg; Fiscal Year: 2009
  2. Emotion, regulation and quality of social functioning
    Nancy Eisenberg; Fiscal Year: 2007
  3. EMOTION, REGULATORY PROCESSES AND SOCIAL FUNCTIONING
    Nancy Eisenberg; Fiscal Year: 2003
  4. The Course of Regulation and Dysregulation in Children
    TRACY LORRAINE SPINRAD; Fiscal Year: 2010

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. ncbi request reprint Emotion-related regulation: sharpening the definition
    Nancy Eisenberg
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 1104, USA
    Child Dev 75:334-9. 2004
    ..An alternate definition of emotion-related self-regulation is provided...
  2. pmc The longitudinal relations of regulation and emotionality to quality of Indonesian children's socioemotional functioning
    Nancy Eisenberg
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA
    Dev Psychol 40:790-804. 2004
    ..Shyness for both sexes tended to be associated with concurrent measures of low regulation, high negative emotionality, and low quality of social competence...
  3. ncbi request reprint "Getting in" revisited: an analysis of manuscript characteristics, reviewers' ratings, and acceptance of manuscripts in Psychological Bulletin
    Nancy Eisenberg
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe 85287 1104, USA
    Psychol Bull 128:997-1004. 2002
  4. ncbi request reprint The relations of parenting, effortful control, and ego control to children's emotional expressivity
    Nancy Eisenberg
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe 85287 1104, USA
    Child Dev 74:875-95. 2003
    ..The alternative hypothesis that children's ego overcontrol elicited positive parenting and expressivity also was supported...
  5. pmc Relations among positive parenting, children's effortful control, and externalizing problems: a three-wave longitudinal study
    Nancy Eisenberg
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA
    Child Dev 76:1055-71. 2005
    ..Children's EC mediated the relation between positive parenting and low levels of externalizing problems (whereas there was no evidence that children's EC predicted parenting)...
  6. pmc Differential susceptibility and the early development of aggression: interactive effects of respiratory sinus arrhythmia and environmental quality
    Nancy Eisenberg
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 1104, USA
    Dev Psychol 48:755-68. 2012
    ..The results provide mixed but not full support for differential susceptibility theory and provide little support for the diathesis-stress model...
  7. doi request reprint Growing up in the shadow of terrorism: youth in America after 9/11
    Nancy Eisenberg
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 1104, USA
    Am Psychol 66:468-81. 2011
    ....
  8. pmc Longitudinal relations of children's effortful control, impulsivity, and negative emotionality to their externalizing, internalizing, and co-occurring behavior problems
    Nancy Eisenberg
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 1104, USA
    Dev Psychol 45:988-1008. 2009
    ..Low attentional EC was related to internalizing problems only in regard to change in maladjustment. Change in impulsivity was associated with change in internalizing primarily when controlling for change in externalizing problems...
  9. pmc The relations of effortful control and impulsivity to children's resiliency and adjustment
    Nancy Eisenberg
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 1104, USA
    Child Dev 75:25-46. 2004
    ..Evidence of bidirectional effects also was obtained. The results indicate that effortful control and impulsivity are distinct constructs with some unique prediction of resiliency and adjustment...
  10. ncbi request reprint The relations of parental emotional expressivity with quality of Indonesian children's social functioning
    N Eisenberg
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe 85287 1104, USA
    Emotion 1:116-36. 2001
    ..Unexpectedly, parental expression of positive emotion was unrelated to children's social functioning...
  11. ncbi request reprint The relations of effortful control and ego control to children's resiliency and social functioning
    Nancy Eisenberg
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe 85287 1104, USA
    Dev Psychol 39:761-76. 2003
    ....
  12. ncbi request reprint Longitudinal relations among parental emotional expressivity, children's regulation, and quality of socioemotional functioning
    Nancy Eisenberg
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe 85287 1104, USA
    Dev Psychol 39:3-19. 2003
    ..Thus, relations for negative expressivity, but not positive expressivity, changed with age...
  13. pmc The relations of problem behavior status to children's negative emotionality, effortful control, and impulsivity: concurrent relations and prediction of change
    Nancy Eisenberg
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 1104, USA
    Dev Psychol 41:193-211. 2005
    ..Moreover, indices of negative emotionality, regulation, and impulsivity with the level of the same variables 2 years before controlled predicted stability versus change in problem behavior status...
  14. pmc Relations of effortful control, reactive undercontrol, and anger to Chinese children's adjustment
    Nancy Eisenberg
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 1104, USA
    Dev Psychopathol 19:385-409. 2007
    ..Unique prediction from effortful and reactive control was obtained and these predictors (especially when reported by teachers) often interacted with anger/frustration when predicting problem behavior classification...
  15. doi request reprint The relations of majority-minority group status and having an other-religion friend to Indonesian youths' socioemotional functioning
    Nancy Eisenberg
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, USA
    Dev Psychol 45:248-59. 2009
    ..For minority children's social competence and prosocial behavior at school, there was evidence of a buffering effect of having a cross-religion friend...
  16. pmc Relations of parenting style to Chinese children's effortful control, ego resilience, and maladjustment
    Nancy Eisenberg
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 1104, USA
    Dev Psychopathol 21:455-77. 2009
    ..The relation of parenting to children's ego resilience was mediated by EC and/or impulsivity, and ego resilience mediated the relations of EC and impulsivity to internalizing problems...
  17. pmc Emotion-related self-regulation and its relation to children's maladjustment
    Nancy Eisenberg
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 1104, USA
    Annu Rev Clin Psychol 6:495-525. 2010
    ..Some interventions designed to foster self-regulation and, hence, reduce maladjustment, have proved to be at least partially effective...
  18. pmc Relations among maternal socialization, effortful control, and maladjustment in early childhood
    Nancy Eisenberg
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 1004, USA
    Dev Psychopathol 22:507-25. 2010
    ..The findings are discussed in terms of the reasons for the lack of causal relations over time...
  19. pmc Mothers' teaching strategies and children's effortful control: a longitudinal study
    Nancy Eisenberg
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 1104, USA
    Dev Psychol 46:1294-308. 2010
    ..Thus, mothers' teaching strategies were predicted by individual differences in self-regulatory skills, supporting potential evocative child effects on mothers' teaching strategies...
  20. pmc Trajectories of religious coping from adolescence into early adulthood: their form and relations to externalizing problems and prosocial behavior
    Nancy Eisenberg
    Arizona State University, Department of Psychology, Tempe, AZ 85287 1104, USA
    J Pers 79:841-73. 2011
    ..These results can expand our current thinking about religious coping and adolescent adjustment...
  21. ncbi request reprint Mothers' emotional expressivity and children's behavior problems and social competence: mediation through children's regulation
    N Eisenberg
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe 85287 1104, USA
    Dev Psychol 37:475-90. 2001
    ..Alternative models of causation were tested; a child-directed model in which maternal expressivity mediated the effects of child regulation on child outcomes did not fit the data as well...
  22. ncbi request reprint Parental reactions to children's negative emotions: longitudinal relations to quality of children's social functioning
    N Eisenberg
    Arizona State University, Tempe 85287 1104, USA
    Child Dev 70:513-34. 1999
    ..Parental perceptions of their reactions were substantially correlated over 6 years. Some nonsupportive reactions declined in the early to mid-school years, but all increased into late childhood/early adolescence...
  23. ncbi request reprint Dispositional emotionality and regulation: their role in predicting quality of social functioning
    N Eisenberg
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe 85287 1104, USA
    J Pers Soc Psychol 78:136-57. 2000
    ..These results highlight the importance of examining different types of regulation and the ways in which dispositional characteristics interact in predicting social outcomes...
  24. ncbi request reprint Emotion, regulation, and moral development
    N Eisenberg
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe 85287 1107, USA
    Annu Rev Psychol 51:665-97. 2000
    ..In addition, the role of nonmoral emotions (e.g. anger and sadness), including moods and dispositional differences in negative emotionality and its regulation, in morally relevant behavior, is reviewed...
  25. ncbi request reprint Prediction of elementary school children's externalizing problem behaviors from attentional and behavioral regulation and negative emotionality
    N Eisenberg
    Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe 85287 1104, USA
    Child Dev 71:1367-82. 2000
    ..There were unique, additive effects of behavioral and attentional regulation for predicting problem behavior as well as moderating effects of negative emotionality for attentional regulation...
  26. ncbi request reprint Brazilian adolescents' prosocial moral judgment and behavior: relations to sympathy, perspective taking, gender-role orientation, and demographic characteristics
    N Eisenberg
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe 85287 1104, USA
    Child Dev 72:518-34. 2001
    ..Moreover, patterns of correlations among variables were similar to those found in the United States...
  27. ncbi request reprint Shyness and children's emotionality, regulation, and coping: contemporaneous, longitudinal, and across-context relations
    N Eisenberg
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe 85287 1104, USA
    Child Dev 69:767-90. 1998
    ..e., temperamental shyness), whereas teacher-rated shyness tapped social inhibition due to social evaluative concerns...
  28. ncbi request reprint Contemporaneous and longitudinal prediction of children's social functioning from regulation and emotionality
    N Eisenberg
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe 85287 1104, USA
    Child Dev 68:642-64. 1997
    ..Contemporaneous correlations at age 8-10 were similar to those obtained at age 6-8, and prediction of later social functioning from emotionality and regulation at age 4-6 was similar at ages 6-8 and 8-10...
  29. ncbi request reprint The relations of regulation and emotionality to resiliency and competent social functioning in elementary school children
    N Eisenberg
    Arizona State University, Tempe 85287 1104, USA
    Child Dev 68:295-311. 1997
    ....
  30. ncbi request reprint Parental socialization of children's dysregulated expression of emotion and externalizing problems
    N Eisenberg
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 1104, USA
    J Fam Psychol 15:183-205. 2001
    ..The findings suggest that parents' emotion-related behaviors are linked to children's regulation of expressivity and externalizing behaviors...
  31. ncbi request reprint The relations of regulation and negative emotionality to Indonesian children's social functioning
    N Eisenberg
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe 85287 1104, USA
    Child Dev 72:1747-63. 2001
    ..Findings are compared with work on regulation, negative emotionality, social competence, and shyness in other countries...
  32. ncbi request reprint Consistency and development of prosocial dispositions: a longitudinal study
    N Eisenberg
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe 85287 1104, USA
    Child Dev 70:1360-72. 1999
    ..The results support the view that there are stable individual differences in prosocial responding that have their origins in early childhood...
  33. ncbi request reprint The relations of regulation and emotionality to children's externalizing and internalizing problem behavior
    N Eisenberg
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe 85287 1104, USA
    Child Dev 72:1112-34. 2001
    ..Findings suggest that emotion and regulation are associated with adjustment in systematic ways and that there is an important difference between effortful control and less voluntary modes of control...
  34. doi request reprint Religious involvement and the social competence and adjustment of Indonesian Muslim adolescents
    Doran C French
    Department of Psychology, Illinois Wesleyan University, Bloomington, IL 61702 2900, USA
    Dev Psychol 44:597-611. 2008
    ....
  35. ncbi request reprint Contemporaneous and longitudinal prediction of children's sympathy from dispositional regulation and emotionality
    N Eisenberg
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe 85287 1104, USA
    Dev Psychol 34:910-24. 1998
    ..Dispositional sympathy was associated with verbal or physiological markers of sympathy in a laboratory setting...
  36. pmc Relations of parenting and temperament to Chinese children's experience of negative life events, coping efficacy, and externalizing problems
    Qing Zhou
    Department of Psychology, University of California, 3210 Tolman Hall 1650, Berkeley, CA 94720 1650, USA
    Child Dev 79:493-513. 2008
    ..The results suggest there is some cross-cultural universality in the developmental pathways for externalizing problems...
  37. ncbi request reprint Regulation, emotionality, and preschoolers' socially competent peer interactions
    R A Fabes
    Department of Family Resources and Human Development, Arizona State University, Tempe 85287 2502, USA
    Child Dev 70:432-42. 1999
    ..The results support the conclusion that individual differences in regulation interact with situational factors in influencing young children's socially competent responding...
  38. ncbi request reprint Children's physiological indices of empathy and their socioemotional adjustment: does caregivers' expressivity matter?
    Jeffrey Liew
    Arizona State University, Department of Psychology, Tempe, AZ 85287 1104, USA
    J Fam Psychol 17:584-97. 2003
    ..Fewer findings were obtained for girls or for positive slides...
  39. ncbi request reprint The development of empathy-related responding
    Nancy Eisenberg
    Arizona State University, USA
    Nebr Symp Motiv 51:73-117. 2005
  40. ncbi request reprint Children's coping strategies and coping efficacy: relations to parent socialization, child adjustment, and familial alcoholism
    Cynthia L Smith
    Arizona State University, USA
    Dev Psychopathol 18:445-69. 2006
    ....
  41. ncbi request reprint The relations of dispositional regulation and emotionally to elder's empathy-related responding and affect while volunteering
    N Eisenberg
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe 85287 1104, USA
    J Pers 64:157-83. 1996
    ..The results demonstrate the findings pertaining to vicarious emotional responding are generalizable to nonstudent populations engaged in planned, sustained helping behavior...
  42. ncbi request reprint Prosocial development in early adulthood: a longitudinal study
    Nancy Eisenberg
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe 85287, USA
    J Pers Soc Psychol 82:993-1006. 2002
    ..Interview and objective measures of moral reasoning were substantially interrelated in late adolescence/early adulthood and correlated with participants' and friends' reports of a prosocial disposition...
  43. pmc How the study of regulation can inform the study of coping
    Nancy Eisenberg
    Department of Psychology at Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 1104, USA
    New Dir Child Adolesc Dev 2009:75-86. 2009
    ....
  44. ncbi request reprint The relations of effortful control and reactive control to children's externalizing problems: a longitudinal assessment
    Carlos Valiente
    Arizona State University, Tempe, 85287, USA
    J Pers 71:1171-96. 2003
    ....
  45. ncbi request reprint Regulatory control and adults' stress-related responses to daily life events
    R A Fabes
    Department of Family Resources and Human Development, Arizona State University, Tempe 85287 2502, USA Internet to
    J Pers Soc Psychol 73:1107-17. 1997
    ..The results support the conclusion that individual differences in regulatory control interact with situational factors in influencing the prediction of stress-related responses...
  46. pmc Individual differences in preschoolers' salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase reactivity: relations to temperament and maladjustment
    Tracy L Spinrad
    School of Social and Family Dynamics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 3701, USA
    Horm Behav 56:133-9. 2009
    ..The findings suggest that sAA reactivity in response to a frustrating social task may reflect girls' constrained behavior...
  47. ncbi request reprint The relations of parental warmth and positive expressiveness to children's empathy-related responding and social functioning: a longitudinal study
    Qing Zhou
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe 85287 1104, USA
    Child Dev 73:893-915. 2002
    ..Moreover, concurrent and cross-time consistencies were found on measures of parenting, children's situational empathic responding, and social functioning...
  48. ncbi request reprint The relation of children's everyday nonsocial peer play behavior to their emotionality, regulation, and social functioning
    Tracy L Spinrad
    Department of Family and Human Development, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 2502, USA
    Dev Psychol 40:67-80. 2004
    ....
  49. ncbi request reprint The relations of parental expressivity and support to children's coping with daily stress
    Carlos Valiente
    Department of Family and Human Development, Arizona State University, Tempe, 85287 1104, USA
    J Fam Psychol 18:97-106. 2004
    ..Children's constructive coping was positively related to mothers' supportive strategies...
  50. doi request reprint Indonesian adolescents' spiritual and religious experiences and their longitudinal relations with socioemotional functioning
    Julie Sallquist
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA
    Dev Psychol 46:699-716. 2010
    ....
  51. ncbi request reprint The expression and regulation of negative emotions: risk factors for young children's peer victimization
    Laura D Hanish
    Arizona State University, Department of Family and Human Development, Tempe 85287 2502, USA
    Dev Psychopathol 16:335-53. 2004
    ..Support for internalizing variables as risk factors for being victimized was weak. The implications of the findings for developmental models connecting symptomatology and victimization are discussed...
  52. pmc Prediction of children's empathy-related responding from their effortful control and parents' expressivity
    Carlos Valiente
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA
    Dev Psychol 40:911-26. 2004
    ..There were also quadratic relations between the measures of parents' expressivity and children's empathy-related responses...
  53. ncbi request reprint Preschoolers' effortful control and negative emotionality, immediate reactions to disappointment, and quality of social functioning
    Jeffrey Liew
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA
    J Exp Child Psychol 89:298-319. 2004
    ....
  54. ncbi request reprint Empathy-related responding and prosocial behaviour
    Nancy Eisenberg
    Department of Psychology, Box 871104, Tempe, AZ 85287 1104, USA
    Novartis Found Symp 278:71-80; discussion 80-96, 216-21. 2007
    ..Because of its close relations to social and prosocial responding, an understanding of empathy-related responding contributes to efforts to promote children's moral development...
  55. pmc Relations of maternal socialization and toddlers' effortful control to children's adjustment and social competence
    Tracy L Spinrad
    School of Social and Family Dynamics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 3701, USA
    Dev Psychol 43:1170-86. 2007
    ..When using stronger tests of mediation, controlling for stability over time, the authors found only partial evidence for mediation. The findings suggest these relations may be set at an early age...
  56. pmc Relation of emotion-related regulation to children's social competence: a longitudinal study
    Tracy L Spinrad
    Department of Family and Human Development, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA
    Emotion 6:498-510. 2006
    ....
  57. pmc Positive and negative emotionality: trajectories across six years and relations with social competence
    Julie Vaughan Sallquist
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 1104, USA
    Emotion 9:15-28. 2009
    ..These findings provide insight into the stability and association of emotion-related constructs to social competence across the elementary and middle school years...
  58. pmc Relations among mothers' expressivity, children's effortful control, and their problem behaviors: a four-year longitudinal study
    Carlos Valiente
    Department of Family and Human Development, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA
    Emotion 6:459-72. 2006
    ..The same process of mediation was significant for teacher- but not mother-reported internalizing problems. The results provide one explanation for how emotion-related socializing behaviors influence children's problem behaviors...
  59. ncbi request reprint Chinese children's effortful control and dispositional anger/frustration: relations to parenting styles and children's social functioning
    Qing Zhou
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 1104, USA
    Dev Psychol 40:352-66. 2004
    ..Effortful control weakly mediated the positive relation of authoritative parenting to social functioning...
  60. pmc Predictors of withdrawal: possible precursors of avoidant personality disorder
    Natalie D Eggum
    Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 1104, USA
    Dev Psychopathol 21:815-38. 2009
    ..Findings are discussed in terms of the developmental precursors to social withdrawal and avoidant behavior...
  61. ncbi request reprint Children's emotion-related regulation
    Nancy Eisenberg
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287, USA
    Adv Child Dev Behav 30:189-229. 2002
  62. pmc The developmental trajectories of attention focusing, attentional and behavioral persistence, and externalizing problems during school-age years
    Qing Zhou
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA
    Dev Psychol 43:369-85. 2007
    ....

Research Grants11

  1. The Course of Regulation and Dysregulation in Children
    Nancy Eisenberg; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..g., stress, parenting). ..
  2. Emotion, regulation and quality of social functioning
    Nancy Eisenberg; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  3. EMOTION, REGULATORY PROCESSES AND SOCIAL FUNCTIONING
    Nancy Eisenberg; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The findings will provide valuable information on the role of emotion, its regulation, and socialization, in children's social competence and adjustment in childhood and adolescence. ..
  4. The Course of Regulation and Dysregulation in Children
    TRACY LORRAINE SPINRAD; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..g., stress, parenting). ..