Ray W Waters

Summary

Affiliation: Agricultural Research Service
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Immunology of inflammatory diseases of the bowel
    W R Waters
    US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Animal Disease Center, Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Unit, Ames, Iowa, USA
    Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 17:517-34. 2001
  2. pmc Development and evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for use in the detection of bovine tuberculosis in cattle
    W R Waters
    USDA, ARS, National Animal Disease Center, P O Box 70, Ames, IA 50010 0070, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 18:1882-8. 2011
  3. ncbi request reprint Veterinary applications for monitoring mononuclear cell proliferation using cell tracking dyes
    W R Waters
    US Department of Agriculture, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, Ames, Iowa, USA
    Immunol Invest 36:887-908. 2007
  4. pmc Profiling bovine antibody responses to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection by using protein arrays
    John P Bannantine
    National Animal Disease Center, ARS USDA, 2300 North Dayton Avenue, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    Infect Immun 76:739-49. 2008
  5. pmc Use of recombinant ESAT-6:CFP-10 fusion protein for differentiation of infections of cattle by Mycobacterium bovis and by M. avium subsp. avium and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis
    W R Waters
    Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Ames, Iowa 50010 0070
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 11:729-35. 2004
  6. pmc Evolution of the CD163 family and its relationship to the bovine gamma delta T cell co-receptor WC1
    Carolyn T A Herzig
    University of Massachusetts Amherst, Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Paige Laboratory, Amherst, MA 01003, USA
    BMC Evol Biol 10:181. 2010
  7. ncbi request reprint Nitric oxide production as an indication of Mycobacterium bovis infection in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)
    W R Waters
    United States, Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Animal Disease Center, Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Unit, P O Box 70, Ames, Iowa 50010 0070, USA
    J Wildl Dis 38:338-43. 2002
  8. ncbi request reprint Mycobacterium bovis infection of vitamin D-deficient NOS2-/- mice
    W R Waters
    Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Ames, IA 50010 0070, USA
    Microb Pathog 36:11-7. 2004
  9. ncbi request reprint Five-color flow cytometric analysis of swine lymphocytes for detection of proliferation, apoptosis, viability, and phenotype
    W Ray Waters
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Animal Disease Center, Ames, Iowa 50010 0070, USA
    Cytometry 48:146-52. 2002
  10. pmc Immune responses to defined antigens of Mycobacterium bovis in cattle experimentally infected with Mycobacterium kansasii
    W R Waters
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Animal Disease Center, P O Box 70, Ames, IA 50010 0070, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 13:611-9. 2006

Detail Information

Publications96

  1. ncbi request reprint Immunology of inflammatory diseases of the bowel
    W R Waters
    US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Animal Disease Center, Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Unit, Ames, Iowa, USA
    Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 17:517-34. 2001
    ..We are in the dawn of a new century, and, it is hoped, a new era of discovery of enteric disease pathogenesis and control...
  2. pmc Development and evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for use in the detection of bovine tuberculosis in cattle
    W R Waters
    USDA, ARS, National Animal Disease Center, P O Box 70, Ames, IA 50010 0070, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 18:1882-8. 2011
    ..bovis-infected dairy herds. A high-throughput ELISA could be adapted as a movement, border, or slaughter surveillance test, as well as a supplemental test to tuberculin skin testing...
  3. ncbi request reprint Veterinary applications for monitoring mononuclear cell proliferation using cell tracking dyes
    W R Waters
    US Department of Agriculture, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, Ames, Iowa, USA
    Immunol Invest 36:887-908. 2007
    ..Comparative approaches provide unique and comprehensive insights into mononuclear cell biology that may be applicable to similarly described cell populations in humans...
  4. pmc Profiling bovine antibody responses to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection by using protein arrays
    John P Bannantine
    National Animal Disease Center, ARS USDA, 2300 North Dayton Avenue, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    Infect Immun 76:739-49. 2008
    ..This powerful combination of genomic information, molecular tools, and immunological assays has enabled the identification of previously unknown antigens of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis...
  5. pmc Use of recombinant ESAT-6:CFP-10 fusion protein for differentiation of infections of cattle by Mycobacterium bovis and by M. avium subsp. avium and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis
    W R Waters
    Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Ames, Iowa 50010 0070
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 11:729-35. 2004
    ..avium subsp. paratuberculosis, it appears that use of the rESAT-6:CFP-10 fusion protein will be useful for the detection of tuberculous cattle in herds with pre-existing sensitization to M. avium and/or M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis...
  6. pmc Evolution of the CD163 family and its relationship to the bovine gamma delta T cell co-receptor WC1
    Carolyn T A Herzig
    University of Massachusetts Amherst, Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Paige Laboratory, Amherst, MA 01003, USA
    BMC Evol Biol 10:181. 2010
    ....
  7. ncbi request reprint Nitric oxide production as an indication of Mycobacterium bovis infection in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)
    W R Waters
    United States, Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Animal Disease Center, Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Unit, P O Box 70, Ames, Iowa 50010 0070, USA
    J Wildl Dis 38:338-43. 2002
    ..These findings indicate that adherent PBMC from white-tailed deer are capable of NO production and that mononuclear cells isolated from M. bovis-infected white-tailed deer produce NO in an antigen-specific recall response...
  8. ncbi request reprint Mycobacterium bovis infection of vitamin D-deficient NOS2-/- mice
    W R Waters
    Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Ames, IA 50010 0070, USA
    Microb Pathog 36:11-7. 2004
    ..As responses of NOS2(-/-) mice were affected by 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) deficiency, albeit to a lesser extent than were those of NOS2(+/+) mice, NO-independent actions of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) also likely exist...
  9. ncbi request reprint Five-color flow cytometric analysis of swine lymphocytes for detection of proliferation, apoptosis, viability, and phenotype
    W Ray Waters
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Animal Disease Center, Ames, Iowa 50010 0070, USA
    Cytometry 48:146-52. 2002
    ..The objective of this study was to develop a method to simultaneously examine phenotype, proliferation, apoptosis, and death of antigen-stimulated porcine lymphocytes...
  10. pmc Immune responses to defined antigens of Mycobacterium bovis in cattle experimentally infected with Mycobacterium kansasii
    W R Waters
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Animal Disease Center, P O Box 70, Ames, IA 50010 0070, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 13:611-9. 2006
    ..bovis infection. These findings indicate that M. kansasii infection of calves elicits specific responses that may confound the interpretation of bovine tuberculosis tests...
  11. ncbi request reprint Effects of pre-culture holding time and temperature on interferon-gamma responses in whole blood cultures from Mycobacterium bovis-infected cattle
    W R Waters
    Bacterial Diseases of Livestock, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    Vet Microbiol 119:277-82. 2007
    ..Pre-processing conditions, particularly delays in set-up and initial high sample temperatures, reduces IFN-gamma responses of cells from infected cattle increasing the risk of false negatives in this assay of regulatory importance...
  12. pmc Expression of L-Selectin (CD62L), CD44, and CD25 on activated bovine T cells
    W R Waters
    Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Ames, Iowa 50010, USA
    Infect Immun 71:317-26. 2003
    ..These alterations in surface molecule expression upon activation likely impact trafficking to sites of inflammation and the functional capacity of these cells within tuberculous granulomas...
  13. ncbi request reprint Immune responses of elk to Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette Guerin vaccination
    W R Waters
    Bacterial and Respiratory Diseases of Livestock Units, US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Animal Disease Center, 2300 Dayton Avenue, P O Box 70, Ames, IA 50010 0070, USA
    Vaccine 21:1518-26. 2003
    ..A predominant B cell in vitro proliferative response by elk PBMC to crude mycobacterial test antigens will likely impact the development of improved diagnostic tests of tuberculosis infection for this species...
  14. pmc Early induction of humoral and cellular immune responses during experimental Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection of calves
    W R Waters
    Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Ames, Iowa 50010, USA
    Infect Immun 71:5130-8. 2003
    ..Additionally, this study confirms that mycobacteria-specific antibody is detectable early in the course of experimental Johne's disease, even preceding the development of specific cell-mediated responses...
  15. pmc Antigen recognition by serum antibodies in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) experimentally infected with Mycobacterium bovis
    W R Waters
    National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, Ames, IA 50010 0070, USA
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 11:849-55. 2004
    ..Of the 12 antigens tested, the most immunodominant protein was MPB83; however, a highly sensitive serodiagnostic test will likely require use of multiple antigens...
  16. ncbi request reprint Immune responses of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination
    W R Waters
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Animal Disease Center, Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, PO Box 70, Ames, Iowa 50010 0070, USA
    J Wildl Dis 40:66-78. 2004
    ..In contrast, BCG vaccination will likely not interfere with tuberculosis testing by the IFN-gamma assay...
  17. ncbi request reprint Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccination of cattle: activation of bovine CD4+ and gamma delta TCR+ cells and modulation by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3
    W R Waters
    US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Animal Disease Center, Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, P O Box 70, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    Tuberculosis (Edinb) 83:287-97. 2003
    ..Recent evidence suggest that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) may affect T-dependent responses in cattle; however, mechanisms by which this vitamin modulates activation of bovine T cells are unclear...
  18. ncbi request reprint Analysis of mitogen-stimulated lymphocyte subset proliferation and nitric oxide production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells of captive elk (Cervus elaphus)
    W R Waters
    United States, Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Animal Disease Center, Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Unit, P O Box 70, Ames, Iowa 50010 0070, USA
    J Wildl Dis 38:344-51. 2002
    ..Findings from the present study provide basic information on several parameters of cellular immunity of elk...
  19. ncbi request reprint Lymphocyte subset proliferative responses of Mycobacterium bovis-infected cattle to purified protein derivative
    W R Waters
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Animal Disease Center, Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Unit, PO Box 70, Ames, IA 50010 0070, USA
    Vet Immunol Immunopathol 77:257-73. 2000
    ..These data indicate that CD4(+) and gammadelta TCR(+) cells of M. bovis-infected cattle proliferate in a recall response to M. bovis PPD and that the CD4(+) cell response is boosted by intradermal injection with PPD for CCT...
  20. pmc Diagnostic implications of antigen-induced gamma interferon, nitric oxide, and tumor necrosis factor alpha production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Mycobacterium bovis-infected cattle
    W R Waters
    Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Animal Disease Center, Ames, Iowa 50010, USA
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 10:960-6. 2003
    ..Overall, these findings indicate that NO and TNF-alpha, like IFN-gamma, may prove useful as indices for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis...
  21. ncbi request reprint Antigen-specific proliferation and activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Mycobacterium bovis-infected reindeer
    W Ray Waters
    National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, P O Box 70, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    Vet Immunol Immunopathol 111:263-77. 2006
    ..Present in vitro findings, therefore, may be predictive of host responses by reindeer that limit progression to disseminated disease...
  22. pmc [(1)N,(12)N]Bis(Ethyl)-cis-6,7-dehydrospermine: a new drug for treatment and prevention of Cryptosporidium parvum infection of mice deficient in T-cell receptor alpha
    W R Waters
    Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, U S Department of Agriculture, Ames, Iowa 50010, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 44:2891-4. 2000
    ..parvum from previously infected mice. These findings provide further evidence that polyamine metabolic pathways are targets for new anticryptosporidial chemotherapeutic agents...
  23. pmc Modulation of Mycobacterium bovis-specific responses of bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3)
    W R Waters
    Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Ames, Iowa 50010 0070, USA
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 8:1204-12. 2001
    ..bovis-induced IFN-gamma production...
  24. pmc Diagnostic implications of antigen-induced gamma interferon production by blood leukocytes from Mycobacterium bovis-infected reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)
    W R Waters
    National Animal Disease Center, 2300 Dayton Ave, P O Box 70, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 13:37-44. 2006
    ..Together, these findings indicate that IFN-gamma-based tests may prove useful for TB surveillance of reindeer...
  25. pmc Early antibody responses to experimental Mycobacterium bovis infection of cattle
    W R Waters
    Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, Agricultural Research Service, National Animal Disease Center, United States Department of Agriculture, P O Box 70, Ames, IA 50010 0070, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 13:648-54. 2006
    ..These findings demonstrate the potential for new-generation antibody-based tests for the early detection of M. bovis infection in cattle...
  26. pmc Antibody responses in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) infected with Mycobacterium bovis
    W R Waters
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Animal Disease Center, P O Box 70, Ames, IA 50010 0070, USA
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 12:727-35. 2005
    ..bovis infection of reindeer elicits an antibody response to multiple antigens that can be boosted by skin testing. Serological tests using carefully selected specific antigens have potential for early detection of infections in reindeer...
  27. ncbi request reprint MHC class II-restricted, CD4(+) T-cell proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Mycobacterium bovis-infected white-tailed deer
    W R Waters
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Animal Disease Center, Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Unit, P O Box 70, Ames, IA 50010 0070, USA
    Vet Immunol Immunopathol 76:215-29. 2000
    ..bovis antigens, this response is not sufficient to clear M. bovis and immunologic intervention may require stimulation of alternate subsets of lymphocytes...
  28. ncbi request reprint Blood culture and stimulation conditions for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in cervids by the Cervigam assay
    W R Waters
    Tuberculosis Research Project, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    Vet Rec 162:203-8. 2008
    ..The results show that the commercial assay is valid for the detection of TB in reindeer; however, further development of the assay will be required before it is used in surveillance programmes for white-tailed deer, fallow deer, and elk...
  29. pmc Humoral immune responses of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination and experimental challenge with M. bovis
    P Nol
    National Wildlife Research Center, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Fort Collins, Colorado 80521, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 16:323-9. 2009
    ....
  30. ncbi request reprint Development of an adult-like cell-mediated immune response in calves after early vaccination with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin
    B J Nonnecke
    Periparturient Diseases of Cattle Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Ames, IA 50011, USA
    J Dairy Sci 88:195-210. 2005
    ..In conclusion, these results suggest that the bovine neonate can mount a vigorous, adult-like cell-mediated immune response when vaccinated at an early age...
  31. pmc Effects of different tuberculin skin-testing regimens on gamma interferon and antibody responses in cattle experimentally infected with Mycobacterium bovis
    M V Palmer
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, 2300 Dayton Avenue, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 13:387-94. 2006
    ..Measurement of both IFN-gamma and antibody responses after skin testing may be useful in identifying M. bovis-infected cattle; however, the timing of collection of such samples may influence interpretation...
  32. pmc Antigen-specific B-cell unresponsiveness induced by chronic Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection of cattle
    W R Waters
    Veterinary Medical Research Institute, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011, USA
    Infect Immun 67:1593-8. 1999
    ..Furthermore, the immunologic mechanisms responsible for the antigen-specific unresponsiveness of peripheral blood B cells may be significant in the eventual progression from subclinical to clinical Johne's disease in cattle...
  33. ncbi request reprint Vaccination of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette Guerín
    M V Palmer
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Animal Disease Center, 2300 Dayton Avenue, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    Vaccine 25:6589-97. 2007
    ..In white-tailed deer BCG provides measurable protection against challenge with virulent M. bovis. However, persistence of vaccine within tissues as well as shedding of BCG from vaccinates remain areas for further investigation...
  34. pmc Immune responses in cattle inoculated with Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, or Mycobacterium kansasii
    W R Waters
    USDA, ARS, National Animal Disease Center, P O Box 70, Ames, IA 50010 0070, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 17:247-52. 2010
    ....
  35. ncbi request reprint Cellular immune responses of pigs induced by vaccination with either a whole cell sonicate or pepsin-digested Brachyspira (Serpulina) hyodysenteriae bacterin
    W R Waters
    Veterinary Medical Research Institute, Iowa State University, 1802 Elwood Drive, Ames, IA 50011, USA
    Vaccine 18:711-9. 1999
    ..These findings demonstrate the unique sensitivity of porcine CD8(+) T cells to priming for recall response by vaccination with a proteinase-digested B. hyodysenteriae bacterin...
  36. ncbi request reprint Characterization of mitogen-stimulated porcine lymphocytes using a stable fluorescent dye (PKH2) and multicolor flow cytometry
    A D Dorn
    Veterinary Medical Research Institute, Iowa State University, 1802 Elwood Drive, Ames, IA 50011, USA
    Vet Immunol Immunopathol 87:1-10. 2002
    ..Little or no proliferative responses were detected within the IgM(+) population (e.g. B cells). This is the first study to define the contribution of individual lymphocyte subsets to mitogen-induced proliferation of porcine PBMCs...
  37. doi request reprint Persistence of Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) after oral or parenteral vaccination
    M V Palmer
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Animal Disease Center, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    Zoonoses Public Health 57:e206-12. 2010
    ..Although vaccine persistence was noted, especially in SC vaccinated deer, the distribution of culture-positive tissues makes human exposure through consumption unlikely...
  38. pmc Cryptosporidium parvum initiates inflammatory bowel disease in germfree T cell receptor-alpha-deficient mice
    R E Sacco
    Veterinary Medical Research Institute, Iowa State University, Ames, USA
    Am J Pathol 153:1717-22. 1998
    ..Our results indicate that a single microbial species, C. parvum, is capable of triggering the development of IBD-like lesions in germfree TCR-alpha-deficient mice...
  39. ncbi request reprint Lesion development and immunohistochemical changes in granulomas from cattle experimentally infected with Mycobacterium bovis
    M V Palmer
    Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Ames, IA, USA
    Vet Pathol 44:863-74. 2007
    ..Diminished expression of iNOS and reduced numbers of CD8+ and gamma/delta T cells late in the progression of tuberculous granulomas may represent a failure of the host response to control infection...
  40. ncbi request reprint Comparative nitric oxide production by LPS-stimulated monocyte-derived macrophages from Ovis canadensis and Ovis aries
    R E Sacco
    National Animal Disease Center, USDA ARS, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 29:1-11. 2006
    ....
  41. doi request reprint Vaccination with Mycobacterium bovis BCG strains Danish and Pasteur in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) experimentally challenged with Mycobacterium bovis
    M V Palmer
    National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    Zoonoses Public Health 56:243-51. 2009
    ..In white-tailed deer, BCG provides protection against challenge with virulent M. bovis. Issues related to vaccine persistence, safety and shedding remain to be further investigated...
  42. ncbi request reprint Experimental deer-to-deer transmission of Mycobacterium bovis
    M V Palmer
    National Animal Diseases Center, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    Am J Vet Res 62:692-6. 2001
    ..Wildlife management practices that result in unnatural gatherings of deer may enhance both direct and indirect transmission of M bovis...
  43. pmc Immune responses of elk to initial and booster vaccinations with Brucella abortus strain RB51 or 19
    S C Olsen
    Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, U S Department of Agriculture, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 13:1098-103. 2006
    ..These data may explain why the vaccination of elk with S19 and SRB51 induces poor protection against brucellosis...
  44. ncbi request reprint Apoptosis in lymph node granulomas from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) experimentally infected with Mycobacterium bovis
    M V Palmer
    Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agriculture Research Service, United State Department of Agriculture, Ames, Iowa 50010, USA
    J Comp Pathol 127:7-13. 2002
    ..These findings suggested that cell death within M. bovis -induced granulomas in white-tailed deer was due mainly to mechanisms other than apoptosis...
  45. ncbi request reprint An aerosolized Brucella spp. challenge model for laboratory animals
    S C Olsen
    Bacterial Diseases Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, USDA, Agriculture, Research Service, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    Zoonoses Public Health 54:281-5. 2007
    ..05) after aerosol challenge when compared with control mice after i.p. S2308 challenge...
  46. ncbi request reprint Reduction in inflammation following blockade of CD18 or CD29 adhesive pathways during the acute phase of a spirochetal-induced colitis in mice
    R E Sacco
    Veterinary Medical Research Institute, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA
    Microb Pathog 29:289-99. 2000
    ..The data provide evidence for a threshold number of PMNs necessary for lesion development and indicate that CD18, but not CD29, adhesive pathways are crucial for PMN recruitment in bacterial colitis...
  47. ncbi request reprint Investigation of the transmission of Mycobacterium bovis from deer to cattle through indirect contact
    Mitchell V Palmer
    Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, 2300 Dayton Ave, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    Am J Vet Res 65:1483-9. 2004
    ..To investigate the infection of calves with Mycobacterium bovis through oral exposure and transmission of M. bovis from experimentally infected white-tailed deer to uninfected cattle through indirect contact...
  48. ncbi request reprint Lesion development in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) experimentally infected with Mycobacterium bovis
    M V Palmer
    National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    Vet Pathol 39:334-40. 2002
    ..An understanding of lesion development will aid in the identification of the spectrum of disease that may be seen in this important wildlife reservoir of tuberculosis...
  49. ncbi request reprint Tuberculin skin testing in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)
    M V Palmer
    Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    J Vet Diagn Invest 13:530-3. 2001
    ..As used in the present study, the comparative cervical skin test is a sensitive method of antemortem diagnosis of M. bovis infection in white-tailed deer...
  50. ncbi request reprint Milk containing Mycobacterium bovis as a source of infection for white-tailed deer fawns (Odocoileus virginianus)
    M V Palmer
    Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    Tuberculosis (Edinb) 82:161-5. 2002
    ..The behavior of does with nursing fawns provides several potential mechanisms for disease transmission. Little information exists concerning transmission between doe and fawn, specifically transmammary transmission...
  51. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of an in vitro blood-based assay to detect production of interferon-gamma by Mycobacterium bovis-infected white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)
    Mitchell V Palmer
    Bacterial Diseases of Livestock, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, 2300 Dayton Avenue, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    J Vet Diagn Invest 16:17-21. 2004
    ..Measurement of IFN-gamma production to PPDb may serve as a useful assay for the antemortem diagnosis of tuberculosis in Cervidae...
  52. ncbi request reprint Effects of increased dietary protein and energy on composition and functional capacities of blood mononuclear cells from vaccinated, neonatal calves
    Monica R Foote
    Nutritional Physiology Group, Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
    Int J Vitam Nutr Res 75:357-68. 2005
    ..Additional research is necessary to determine whether these subtle effects influence the calf's susceptibility to infectious disease...
  53. ncbi request reprint West Nile virus infection in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)
    Mitchell V Palmer
    Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    J Vet Diagn Invest 16:219-22. 2004
    ....
  54. ncbi request reprint In vitro effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion by blood leukocytes from young and adult cattle vaccinated with Mycobacterium bovis BCG
    Brian J Nonnecke
    Periparturient Diseases in Cattle Research Unit, USDA ARS, National Animal Disease Center, 2300 Dayton Rd, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    Int J Vitam Nutr Res 73:235-44. 2003
    ..e., age) and antigenic experience affect IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha secretion by bovine leukocytes and suggest that 1,25-(OH)2D3 can alter secretion of both cytokines under specific conditions of culture...
  55. doi request reprint Short communication: the preruminant calf as a model for characterizing the effects of vitamin D status in the neonate
    B J Nonnecke
    Periparturient Diseases of Cattle Research Unit, USDA ARS National Animal Disease Center, Ames, IA 50010 0070, USA
    J Dairy Sci 92:5692-6. 2009
    ....
  56. ncbi request reprint Efficacy of oral and parenteral routes of Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccination against experimental bovine tuberculosis in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): a feasibility study
    P Nol
    USDA APHIS National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins, Colorado 80521, USA
    J Wildl Dis 44:247-59. 2008
    ..bovis challenge as compared to controls. This study suggests that oral BCG vaccination may be a feasible means of controlling bovine tuberculosis in wild white-tailed deer populations...
  57. ncbi request reprint Failure of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis DeltaRD1 DeltapanCD double deletion mutant in a neonatal calf aerosol M. bovis challenge model: comparisons to responses elicited by M. bovis bacille Calmette Guerin
    W Ray Waters
    National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, 2300 Dayton Avenue, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    Vaccine 25:7832-40. 2007
    ..The calf sensitization and challenge model provides an informative screen for candidate tuberculosis vaccines before their evaluation in costly non-human, primates...
  58. ncbi request reprint Associations between cytokine gene expression and pathology in Mycobacterium bovis infected cattle
    Tyler C Thacker
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, 2300 Dayton Avenue, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    Vet Immunol Immunopathol 119:204-13. 2007
    ..In addition, more robust immunological responses were associated with increased pathology. These results suggest that early immune responses play a critical role in establishing the pathological outcome...
  59. ncbi request reprint Experimental infection of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis
    Mitchell V Palmer
    Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, USDA, Agricultural Research Service, 2300 Dayton Avenue, Ames, Iowa 50010, USA
    J Wildl Dis 43:597-608. 2007
    ..These findings suggest that experimental oral inoculation of white-tailed deer fawns may mimic all aspects of subclinical and clinical paratuberculosis...
  60. doi request reprint Development and use of a partial Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis protein array
    John P Bannantine
    National Animal Disease Center, USDA ARS, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    Proteomics 8:463-74. 2008
    ..paratuberculosis surface proteins for immune profiling experiments in cattle...
  61. doi request reprint Histology, immunohistochemistry and ultrastructure of the bovine palatine tonsil with special emphasis on reticular epithelium
    Mitchell V Palmer
    Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    Vet Immunol Immunopathol 127:277-85. 2009
    ..Bovine palatine tonsilar reticular epithelium contains key immune cells, as well as potential M-cell-like cells; elements essential for antigen uptake, antigen processing and initiation of immune responses...
  62. doi request reprint Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in captive and free-ranging, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)
    W Ray Waters
    National Animal Disease Center, Ames, Iowa 50010, USA
    Int J Vitam Nutr Res 79:180-7. 2009
    ..Additional research is necessary to determine if low serum 25(OH)D concentrations during the winter or pre-weaning period are associated with increased rates of infectious and metabolic disease...
  63. pmc T-cell mRNA expression in response to Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination and Mycobacterium bovis infection of white-tailed deer
    Tyler C Thacker
    US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 16:1139-45. 2009
    ..GATA3 expression inversely correlated with pathology. Overall, expression of immune response genes correlated more closely with pathology than vaccination treatment...
  64. pmc Signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPalpha) cells in the adaptive response to ESAT-6/CFP-10 protein of tuberculous mycobacteria
    W Ray Waters
    National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, U S Department of Agriculture, Ames, Iowa, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 4:e6414. 2009
    ..In tissue culture models, signal regulatory protein (SIRP)alpha (also referred to as macrophage fusion receptor or CD172a) is essential for multi-nucleate giant cell formation...
  65. pmc Cytokine protein expression levels in tracheobronchial lymph node homogenates of pigs infected with pseudorabies virus
    Laura C Miller
    Virus and Prion Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Ames, Iowa 500101, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 17:728-34. 2010
    ..Collectively, these findings demonstrate that a feral PRV in commercial swine can modulate the host's early immune response to allow the virus to establish an infection...
  66. ncbi request reprint Characterization of Cos-7 cells overexpressing the rat secretory pathway Ca2+-ATPase
    Timothy A Reinhardt
    Periparturient Diseases of Cattle Research Unit, U S Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service, National Animal Disease Center, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 286:C164-9. 2004
    ..These data demonstrate that overexpression of the rat SPCA results in significant changes in the expression of calcium transport and storage proteins in COS-7 cells...
  67. ncbi request reprint Advances in bovine tuberculosis diagnosis and pathogenesis: what policy makers need to know
    Mitchell V Palmer
    Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, 2300 Dayton Avenue, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    Vet Microbiol 112:181-90. 2006
    ..Differences likely exist; however, between cattle and deer in both disease distribution and primary route of inoculation in naturally infected animals...
  68. ncbi request reprint Experimentally induced infection of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) with Mycobacterium bovis
    Mitchell V Palmer
    Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, USDA, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    J Vet Diagn Invest 18:52-60. 2006
    ..Comparative cervical skin testing of reindeer can be highly sensitive, but has low specificity. Specificity can be improved by modification of criteria for interpretation of the CCT...
  69. ncbi request reprint Aerosol exposure of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to Mycobacterium bovis
    Mitchell V Palmer
    Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, 2300 Dayton Avenue, Ames, Iowa 50010, USA
    J Wildl Dis 39:817-23. 2003
    ..Aerosol delivery of M. bovis to white-tailed deer results in a reliable manner of experimental infection that may be useful for studies of disease pathogenesis, immune response, mycobacterial shedding, and vaccine efficacy...
  70. ncbi request reprint Induction of neutralizing antibodies in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) after administration of a killed West Nile virus vaccine
    Mitchell V Palmer
    Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Ames, Iowa 50010, USA
    J Wildl Dis 40:759-62. 2004
    ..Protective efficacy of vaccination was not evaluated. Vaccination of reindeer for WNV may be warranted in certain circumstances combined with management practices to limit exposure to potential vectors...
  71. ncbi request reprint Aerosol delivery of virulent Mycobacterium bovis to cattle
    M V Palmer
    Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, 2300 Dayton Avenue, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    Tuberculosis (Edinb) 82:275-82. 2002
    ..Although animal models of aerosol inoculation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. bovis have been reported using laboratory animals, a model of aerosol delivery of M. bovis to cattle has not been reported previously...
  72. pmc Correlation of cytokine gene expression with pathology in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) infected with Mycobacterium bovis
    Tyler C Thacker
    Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, 2300 Dayton Ave, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 13:640-7. 2006
    ..More robust IFN-gamma mRNA expression correlated with pathology early in infection. These findings indicate that IFN-gamma expression likely plays a role in both protection and pathogenesis...
  73. ncbi request reprint Mycobacterium bovis-infected white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): detection of immunoglobulin specific to crude mycobacterial antigens by ELISA
    W Ray Waters
    USDA Agricultural Research Service, National Animal Disease Center, Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Unit, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    J Vet Diagn Invest 14:470-5. 2002
    ..05) that of the uninfected deer. Although this is encouraging, further studies are necessary to validate the use of the proteinase K-digested M. bovis antigens in the antibody-based assays of tuberculosis...
  74. ncbi request reprint Susceptibility of raccoons (Procyon lotor) to infection with Mycobacterium bovis
    Mitchell V Palmer
    Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Services, USDA, 2300 N Dayton Avenue, Ames, Iowa 50010, USA
    J Wildl Dis 38:266-74. 2002
    ..The need for multiple large oral doses to establish infection, and the low number of orally inoculated raccoons that excreted M. bovis in nasal secretions or saliva, suggest that wide-spread tuberculosis among raccoons is unlikely...
  75. ncbi request reprint Shared feed as a means of deer-to-deer transmission of Mycobacterium bovis
    Mitchell V Palmer
    Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Ames, Iowa 50010, USA
    J Wildl Dis 40:87-91. 2004
    ..Intentional or unintentional feeding of deer by wildlife or agricultural interests in regions where M. bovis infection is endemic should be avoided because both direct and indirect transmission through sharing of feed are enhanced...
  76. pmc Efficacy and immunogenicity of Mycobacterium bovis DeltaRD1 against aerosol M. bovis infection in neonatal calves
    W Ray Waters
    National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    Vaccine 27:1201-9. 2009
    ..The DeltaRD1 strain may prove useful for bovine TB vaccine programs, particularly if additional mutations are included to improve safety and immunogenicity...
  77. ncbi request reprint Identification of a haemomycoplasma species in anemic reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)
    W C Stoffregen
    Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 2300 Dayton Road, Ames, Iowa 50010, USA
    J Wildl Dis 42:249-58. 2006
    ..Although several animals were also infected with abomasal nematodes, the presence of this newly described haemomycoplasma may have contributed to the anemic syndrome...
  78. ncbi request reprint Abomasal ulcers in captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)
    M V Palmer
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Animal Disease Center, 2300 Dayton Road, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    J Comp Pathol 125:224-7. 2001
    ..The anatomical distribution of abomasal ulcers in this population of captive white-tailed deer resembled that seen in veal calves...
  79. doi request reprint Adaptive immunity in the colostrum-deprived calf: response to early vaccination with Mycobacterium bovis strain bacille Calmette Guerin and ovalbumin
    B J Nonnecke
    Ruminant Diseases and Immunology Research Unit, USDA Agricultural Research Service, National Centers for Animal Health, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    J Dairy Sci 95:221-39. 2012
    ..Although colostrum appeared to block endogenous antibody production, certain B-cell functions were retained. These findings will aid in development of new vaccination strategies for improving health of the preruminant calf...
  80. pmc Mediation of host immune responses after immunization of neonatal calves with a heat-killed Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis vaccine
    J R Stabel
    USDA ARS, National Animal Disease Center, 1920 Dayton Ave, Building 20, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 18:2079-89. 2011
    ..These results suggest that the Mycopar vaccine will interfere with diagnostic tools for paratuberculosis but result in low interference with the comparative cervical skin test and emerging serologic tests for M. bovis...
  81. pmc Characterization of Treponema phagedenis-like spirochetes isolated from papillomatous digital dermatitis lesions in dairy cattle
    Darren J Trott
    School of Veterinary Science, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland, Australia
    J Clin Microbiol 41:2522-9. 2003
    ..These results demonstrate genetic and antigenic diversity among T. phagedenis-like treponemes and provide further evidence for the involvement of these spirochetes in the pathogenesis of PDD...
  82. ncbi request reprint Characterization of bovine homologues of granulysin and NK-lysin
    Janice J Endsley
    Department of Pediatrics and Sealy Center for Vaccine Development, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA
    J Immunol 173:2607-14. 2004
    ..The identification of a biologically active bovine homologue to granulysin demonstrates the potential of the bovine model in characterizing the role of granulysin in the immune response to a variety of infectious agents...
  83. pmc Analysis of immune responses directed toward a recombinant early secretory antigenic target six-kilodalton protein-culture filtrate protein 10 fusion protein in Mycobacterium bovis-infected cattle
    Alexander C Maue
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, University of Missouri, Columbia, 65211, USA
    Infect Immun 73:6659-67. 2005
    ..Collectively, data indicate that recall immune responses directed toward the rESAT-6-CFP10 fusion protein or purified protein derivative are comparable and that recall to mycobacterial antigens correlates with a CD45RO(+) phenotype...
  84. pmc New latex bead agglutination assay for differential diagnosis of cattle infected with Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis
    Hye Cheong Koo
    Department of Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, and School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 11:1070-4. 2004
    ..bovis or M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis for differential diagnosis of cattle infected with M. bovis or M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis...
  85. ncbi request reprint Mycobacterium avium in pygmy rabbits (Brachylagus idahoensis): 28 cases
    Lisa A Harrenstien
    Oregon Zoo, 4001 Southwest Canyon Road Portland, Oregon 97221, USA
    J Zoo Wildl Med 37:498-512. 2006
    ..Compromised cell-mediated immunity appears to be the best explanation at this time for the observed high morbidity and mortality from mycobacterial infections in pygmy rabbits...
  86. ncbi request reprint An ESAT-6:CFP10 DNA vaccine administered in conjunction with Mycobacterium bovis BCG confers protection to cattle challenged with virulent M. bovis
    Alexander C Maue
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
    Vaccine 25:4735-46. 2007
    ..These data suggest that a combined vaccine regimen of M. bovis BCG and a candidate ESAT-6:CFP10 DNA vaccine may offer greater protection against tuberculosis in cattle than vaccination with BCG alone...
  87. pmc Tuberculosis in elephants: antibody responses to defined antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, potential for early diagnosis, and monitoring of treatment
    Konstantin P Lyashchenko
    Chembio Diagnostic Systems, Inc, 3661 Horseblock Road, Medford, New York 11763, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 13:722-32. 2006
    ..Similarly to MAPIA, infected elephants were identified using the RT up to 4 years prior to positive culture. These findings demonstrate the potential for TB surveillance and treatment monitoring using the RT and MAPIA, respectively...
  88. pmc Development and evaluation of a real-time reverse transcription-PCR assay for quantification of gamma interferon mRNA to diagnose tuberculosis in multiple animal species
    Noel P Harrington
    Ottawa Laboratory Fallowfield, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, 3851 Fallowfield Road, Ottawa, Ontario K2H 8P9, Canada
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 14:1563-71. 2007
    ....
  89. pmc A novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infections (Johne's Disease) in cattle
    C A Speer
    Center for Wildlife Health, Department of Forestry, Wildlife and Fisheries, The University of Tennessee, P O Box 1071, Knoxville, TN 37901 1071, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 13:535-40. 2006
    ..avium subsp. paratuberculosis or other mycobacteria. Based on diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, the SELISA appears superior to the commercial ELISAs routinely used for the diagnosis of JD...
  90. ncbi request reprint Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination induces memory CD4+ T cells characterized by effector biomarker expression and anti-mycobacterial activity
    Janice J Endsley
    Department of Pediatrics and Sealy Center for Vaccine Development, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, United States
    Vaccine 25:8384-94. 2007
    ....
  91. pmc Use of rMPB70 protein and ESAT-6 peptide as antigens for comparison of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent, immunochromatographic, and latex bead agglutination assays for serodiagnosis of bovine tuberculosis
    Hye Cheong Koo
    Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University, Pullman, 99164 7040, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 43:4498-506. 2005
    ....
  92. pmc Analysis of the immune response to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in experimentally infected calves
    Hye Cheong Koo
    Department of Veterinary Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea
    Infect Immun 72:6870-83. 2004
    ..The studies clearly show multicolor FC offers a consistent reliable way to monitor the evolution and changes in the immune response to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis that occur during disease progression...
  93. ncbi request reprint CD80 and CD86, but not CD154, augment DNA vaccine-induced protection in experimental bovine tuberculosis
    Alexander C Maue
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
    Vaccine 23:769-79. 2004
    ....
  94. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of in vitro and in vivo activity of benzindazole-4,9-quinones against Cryptosporidium parvum
    Oliver Kayser
    Freie Universitat Berlin, Institut fur Pharmazie, Pharmazeutische Technologie, Biopharmazie und Biotechnologie, Kelchstrasse 31, 12169 Berlin
    J Antimicrob Chemother 50:975-80. 2002
    ..44 (P < 0.05). There were similar differences in IS in the ileum, where the score for treated mice was 1.12-0.20 and that for mice receiving no drug was 1.32. There was no acute or chronic toxicity for any compound tested in vivo...
  95. pmc Activities of DL-alpha-difluoromethylarginine and polyamine analogues against Cryptosporidium parvum infection in a T-cell receptor alpha-deficient mouse model
    Nigel Yarlett
    Haskins Laboratories, Department of Chemistry and Physical Sciences, Pace University, 41 Park Row, New York, NY 10038, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51:1234-9. 2007
    ....
  96. ncbi request reprint Cryptosporidium parvum spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase exhibits different characteristics from the host enzyme
    Nigel Yarlett
    Haskins Laboratories, Pace University, New York, NY 10038, USA
    Mol Biochem Parasitol 152:170-80. 2007
    ..The results of this study reveal that the C. parvum SSAT may provide a rational target for drug design...