J R Stabel

Summary

Affiliation: Agricultural Research Service
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Disparate host immunity to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis antigens in calves inoculated with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, M. avium subsp. avium, M. kansasii, and M. bovis
    J R Stabel
    USDA ARS, National Animal Disease Center, Ames, IA, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 20:848-57. 2013
  2. doi request reprint Comparison of fecal DNA extraction kits for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis by polymerase chain reaction
    Fernando L Leite
    Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA
    J Vet Diagn Invest 25:27-34. 2013
  3. doi request reprint Evaluation of protection in a mouse model after vaccination with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculois protein cocktails
    J R Stabel
    USDA ARS, National Animal Disease Center, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    Vaccine 31:127-34. 2012
  4. pmc Induction of B cell responses upon experimental infection of neonatal calves with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis
    J R Stabel
    USDA ARS, National Animal Disease Center, 1920 Dayton Ave, Building 20, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 18:1139-49. 2011
  5. doi request reprint Pathogenesis of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in neonatal calves after oral or intraperitoneal experimental infection
    J R Stabel
    USDA ARS, National Animal Disease Center, Ames, IA 50010, United States
    Vet Microbiol 136:306-13. 2009
  6. pmc Early immune markers associated with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in a neonatal calf model
    J R Stabel
    USDA ARS, National Animal Disease Center, 1920 Dayton Ave, Building 20, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 18:393-405. 2011
  7. doi request reprint Differential expression of CD5 on B lymphocytes in cattle infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis
    J R Stabel
    USDA ARS, National Animal Disease Center, Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, 2300 Dayton Road, Ames, IA 50010, United States
    Vet Immunol Immunopathol 126:211-9. 2008
  8. pmc Mediation of host immune responses after immunization of neonatal calves with a heat-killed Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis vaccine
    J R Stabel
    USDA ARS, National Animal Disease Center, 1920 Dayton Ave, Building 20, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 18:2079-89. 2011
  9. doi request reprint Pasteurization of colostrum reduces the incidence of paratuberculosis in neonatal dairy calves
    J R Stabel
    USDA ARS, National Animal Disease Center, 2300 Dayton Rd, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    J Dairy Sci 91:3600-6. 2008
  10. pmc Use of recombinant ESAT-6:CFP-10 fusion protein for differentiation of infections of cattle by Mycobacterium bovis and by M. avium subsp. avium and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis
    W R Waters
    Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Ames, Iowa 50010 0070
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 11:729-35. 2004

Detail Information

Publications46

  1. pmc Disparate host immunity to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis antigens in calves inoculated with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, M. avium subsp. avium, M. kansasii, and M. bovis
    J R Stabel
    USDA ARS, National Animal Disease Center, Ames, IA, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 20:848-57. 2013
    ..paratuberculosis and those inoculated with M. avium that were somewhat disparate from the responses in calves infected with M. bovis, suggesting that the biology of mycobacterial infection plays an important role in diagnosis...
  2. doi request reprint Comparison of fecal DNA extraction kits for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis by polymerase chain reaction
    Fernando L Leite
    Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA
    J Vet Diagn Invest 25:27-34. 2013
    ..The present study demonstrates the importance of choosing the correct methodology for the most accurate diagnosis of paratuberculosis through fecal PCR...
  3. doi request reprint Evaluation of protection in a mouse model after vaccination with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculois protein cocktails
    J R Stabel
    USDA ARS, National Animal Disease Center, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    Vaccine 31:127-34. 2012
    ..The present study demonstrated that MAP proteins are useful as vaccine candidates to reduce MAP tissue burden...
  4. pmc Induction of B cell responses upon experimental infection of neonatal calves with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis
    J R Stabel
    USDA ARS, National Animal Disease Center, 1920 Dayton Ave, Building 20, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 18:1139-49. 2011
    ..In summary, an induction of B cell responses was noted after experimental infection with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, with differences in responses noted according to the method of experimental inoculation...
  5. doi request reprint Pathogenesis of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in neonatal calves after oral or intraperitoneal experimental infection
    J R Stabel
    USDA ARS, National Animal Disease Center, Ames, IA 50010, United States
    Vet Microbiol 136:306-13. 2009
    ..These data suggest that a variety of experimental infection regimes can be effective but oral inoculation with a clinical isolate may result in greater colonization of tissues and fecal shedding of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis...
  6. pmc Early immune markers associated with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in a neonatal calf model
    J R Stabel
    USDA ARS, National Animal Disease Center, 1920 Dayton Ave, Building 20, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 18:393-405. 2011
    ..These were followed by antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferation, iNOS secretion, and expression of CD26 and CD5(bright) markers in the latter part of the 12-month study...
  7. doi request reprint Differential expression of CD5 on B lymphocytes in cattle infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis
    J R Stabel
    USDA ARS, National Animal Disease Center, Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, 2300 Dayton Road, Ames, IA 50010, United States
    Vet Immunol Immunopathol 126:211-9. 2008
    ..These results suggest that differential expression of CD5bright and CD5dim subpopulations on B cells in animals with paratuberculosis may reflect a shift in host immunity during the disease process...
  8. pmc Mediation of host immune responses after immunization of neonatal calves with a heat-killed Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis vaccine
    J R Stabel
    USDA ARS, National Animal Disease Center, 1920 Dayton Ave, Building 20, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 18:2079-89. 2011
    ..These results suggest that the Mycopar vaccine will interfere with diagnostic tools for paratuberculosis but result in low interference with the comparative cervical skin test and emerging serologic tests for M. bovis...
  9. doi request reprint Pasteurization of colostrum reduces the incidence of paratuberculosis in neonatal dairy calves
    J R Stabel
    USDA ARS, National Animal Disease Center, 2300 Dayton Rd, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    J Dairy Sci 91:3600-6. 2008
    ..avium ssp. paratuberculosis, perhaps decreasing dissemination of infection over time...
  10. pmc Use of recombinant ESAT-6:CFP-10 fusion protein for differentiation of infections of cattle by Mycobacterium bovis and by M. avium subsp. avium and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis
    W R Waters
    Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Ames, Iowa 50010 0070
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 11:729-35. 2004
    ..avium subsp. paratuberculosis, it appears that use of the rESAT-6:CFP-10 fusion protein will be useful for the detection of tuberculous cattle in herds with pre-existing sensitization to M. avium and/or M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis...
  11. doi request reprint Osteopontin: a novel cytokine involved in the regulation of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection in periparturient dairy cattle
    E L Karcher
    Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011, USA
    J Dairy Sci 91:3079-91. 2008
    ..This is the first study to evaluate the role of Opn on the immune response of dairy cows naturally infected with MAP, and results suggest Opn may be a key regulator against MAP infection...
  12. ncbi request reprint Time delay, temperature effects and assessment of positive controls on whole blood for the gamma interferon ELISA to detect paratuberculosis
    S Robbe-Austerman
    National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, 2300 Dayton Ames, IA 50010, USA
    J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health 53:213-7. 2006
    ..The PPDs were more potent at stimulating IFN-gamma production than the whole cell sonicate. In conclusion, whole blood should be stored/transported at ambient room temperature and stimulated within 12 h of collection...
  13. ncbi request reprint Immune responses after oral inoculation of weanling bison or beef calves with a bison or cattle isolate of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis
    J R Stabel
    USDA ARS, National Animal Disease Center, Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, 2300 Dayton Road, Ames, Iowa 50010, USA
    J Wildl Dis 39:545-55. 2003
    ..Antibody was not detected in either beef or bison calves during the 6 mo infection period. These results indicate that the host response to strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis may differ between ruminant species...
  14. ncbi request reprint HspX is present within Mycobacterium paratuberculosis-infected macrophages and is recognized by sera from some infected cattle
    J P Bannantine
    National Animal Disease Center, ARS USDA, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    Vet Microbiol 76:343-58. 2000
    ..Collectively, these data give a preliminary characterization of the first described M. paratuberculosis protein identified within infected macrophages...
  15. doi request reprint Modulation of cytokine gene expression and secretion during the periparturient period in dairy cows naturally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis
    E L Karcher
    Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    Vet Immunol Immunopathol 123:277-88. 2008
    ..These data suggest that parturition is a very dynamic time period for host immunity, with potential for altered immunity to hinder the ability of dairy cows to thwart infectious diseases...
  16. doi request reprint Activation of immune cells in bovine mammary gland secretions by zymosan-treated bovine serum
    K Kimura
    USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Animal Disease Center, Periparturient Diseases of Cattle Research Unit, Ames, IA 50010 0070, USA
    J Dairy Sci 91:1852-64. 2008
    ..The ZTS can stimulate PMN and lymphocyte-mediated immune defense mechanisms in the mammary gland, which may provide a useful means of preventing new intramammary infections during the dry period as well as at the initiation of lactation...
  17. doi request reprint Parturition invokes changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cell populations in Holstein dairy cows naturally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis
    E L Karcher
    Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50010, United States
    Vet Immunol Immunopathol 124:50-62. 2008
    ..These results suggest changes in the percentages of lymphocyte subsets, monocytes, and CD5 markers are modulated by both infection status and the periparturient period...
  18. pmc Development of a nested PCR method targeting a unique multicopy element, ISMap02, for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in fecal samples
    J R Stabel
    USDA ARS, National Animal Disease Center, Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 43:4744-50. 2005
    ..In conclusion, the ISMap02 element provides a very sensitive and specific alternative as a diagnostic reagent for use in PCR assays for the detection of paratuberculosis...
  19. ncbi request reprint Upregulation of transforming growth factor-beta and interleukin-10 in cows with clinical Johne's disease
    M S Khalifeh
    USDA ARS, National Animal Disease Center, Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, 2300 Dayton Rd, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    Vet Immunol Immunopathol 99:39-46. 2004
    ..These results suggest that a change in the balance of cytokines at the site of infection may contribute to the ability of the host to control Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection...
  20. pmc Antigen-specific B-cell unresponsiveness induced by chronic Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection of cattle
    W R Waters
    Veterinary Medical Research Institute, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011, USA
    Infect Immun 67:1593-8. 1999
    ..Furthermore, the immunologic mechanisms responsible for the antigen-specific unresponsiveness of peripheral blood B cells may be significant in the eventual progression from subclinical to clinical Johne's disease in cattle...
  21. ncbi request reprint Cytokine gene expression in ileal tissues of cattle infected with Mycobacterium paratuberculosis
    H Lee
    Periparturient Diseases of Cattle Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, USDA-ARS, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    Vet Immunol Immunopathol 82:73-85. 2001
    ..paratuberculosis. These data demonstrate that localized ileal cytokine production is different between cows chronically infected with M. paratuberculosis and noninfected control cows...
  22. ncbi request reprint Comparison of diagnostic detection methods for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in North American bison
    J F J Huntley
    Department of Veterinary Pathology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA
    Vet Pathol 42:42-51. 2005
    ..paratuberculosis was more sensitive than bacterial culture or staining, identified infection in all the bison, and detected the greatest number of positive tissues within each animal...
  23. ncbi request reprint A simple, rapid, and effective method for the extraction of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis DNA from fecal samples for polymerase chain reaction
    J R Stabel
    USDA ARS, National Animal Disease Center, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    J Vet Diagn Invest 16:22-30. 2004
    ..The method described here is rapid, simple, and inexpensive compared with other techniques. In addition, this method can detect animals that are shedding less than 1 cfu/g...
  24. pmc Early induction of humoral and cellular immune responses during experimental Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection of calves
    W R Waters
    Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Ames, Iowa 50010, USA
    Infect Immun 71:5130-8. 2003
    ..Additionally, this study confirms that mycobacteria-specific antibody is detectable early in the course of experimental Johne's disease, even preceding the development of specific cell-mediated responses...
  25. pmc Expression library immunization confers protection against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection
    J F Huntley
    College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, 50010, USA
    Infect Immun 73:6877-84. 2005
    ..This study is the first study to demonstrate protection against M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection with expression library immunization...
  26. doi request reprint Osteopontin immunoreactivity in the ileum and ileocecal lymph node of dairy cows naturally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis
    E L Karcher
    Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    Vet Immunol Immunopathol 126:142-8. 2008
    ..The frequency of staining for Opn in the ICN was not affected by MAP infection. Results of this study confirm for the first time, the expression of Opn in the ileum and ICN of MAP-infected cattle...
  27. ncbi request reprint Dietary calcium modulates Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection in beige mice
    J R Stabel
    Zoonotic Diseases Research Unit, NADC, ARS, USDA, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    Vet Immunol Immunopathol 66:377-90. 1998
    ..Numbers of viable bacteria cultured from the ileum and MLN after 6 months of infection were also significantly reduced in 1.0% Ca mice. These results suggest that Ca metabolism is an important modulator of M. paratuberculosis infection...
  28. ncbi request reprint Johne's disease and milk: do consumers need to worry?
    J R Stabel
    National Animal Disease Center, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    J Dairy Sci 83:1659-63. 2000
    ..A summary of past and current studies concerning this issue along with a discussion of methodologies used to recover M. paratuberculosis from experimentally inoculated milk will be presented in this paper...
  29. ncbi request reprint An evaluation of a modified interferon-gamma assay for the detection of paratuberculosis in dairy herds
    J R Stabel
    Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, 2300 Dayton Road, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    Vet Immunol Immunopathol 79:69-81. 2001
    ....
  30. pmc Development and evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for use in the detection of bovine tuberculosis in cattle
    W R Waters
    USDA, ARS, National Animal Disease Center, P O Box 70, Ames, IA 50010 0070, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 18:1882-8. 2011
    ..bovis-infected dairy herds. A high-throughput ELISA could be adapted as a movement, border, or slaughter surveillance test, as well as a supplemental test to tuberculin skin testing...
  31. ncbi request reprint Efficacy of pasteurization conditions for the inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk
    J R Stabel
    US Department of Agriculture, Animal Research Service, National Animal Disease Center, Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, Ames, Iowa 50010, USA
    J Food Prot 67:2719-26. 2004
    ..paratuberculosis, but some bacteria survived subpasteurization heat treatment of milk used for cheese manufacture...
  32. ncbi request reprint Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in free-ranging bison (Bison bison) by PCR
    J L E Ellingson
    Zoonotics Disease Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, USDA, Agriculture Research Service, P O Box 70, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    Mol Cell Probes 19:219-25. 2005
    ..Using these criteria, 25 of 25 bison tested were positive for MAP. The data indicate that these free-ranging bison have been infected by MAP...
  33. ncbi request reprint Identification of a gene unique to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and application to diagnosis of paratuberculosis
    J L Ellingson
    Zoonotics Disease Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, USDA, Ames, Iowa 50010, USA
    Mol Cell Probes 12:133-42. 1998
    ..paratuberculosis. The dOH method could be a good alternative to existing assays and will be adapted for specific identification of M. paratuberculosis from faecal samples, mixed bacteriologic cultures, tissue specimens and whole blood...
  34. ncbi request reprint Identification of two Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis gene products differentially recognised by sera from rabbits immunised with live mycobacteria but not heat-killed mycobacteria
    J P Bannantine
    National Animal Disease Center, ARS USDA, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    J Med Microbiol 50:795-804. 2001
    ..These purified antibodies demonstrated that Csp1 was present within infected macrophages. Collectively, these data identify novel M. paratuberculosis antigens that may be important in pathogenesis...
  35. pmc Heat inactivation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in raw milk: are current pasteurization conditions effective?
    J R Stabel
    National Animal Disease Center, U S Department of Agriculture, Ames, Iowa 50010, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 63:4975-7. 1997
    ..Use of a laboratory-scale pasteurizer unit demonstrated that treatment of raw milk at 72 degrees C for 15 s effectively killed all M. paratuberculosis...
  36. ncbi request reprint Effects of supplemental energy on metabolic and immune measurements in periparturient dairy cows with Johne's disease
    J R Stabel
    USDA ARS, National Animal Disease Center, Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    J Dairy Sci 86:3527-35. 2003
    ..These data demonstrate that energy balance is improved by providing additional energy in this manner and suggest energy supplementation can improve some aspects of immune function during the periparturient period...
  37. pmc Effects of gamma interferon, interleukin-10, and transforming growth factor beta on the survival of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in monocyte-derived macrophages from naturally infected cattle
    M S Khalifeh
    National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Ames, Iowa 50010, USA
    Infect Immun 72:1974-82. 2004
    ..avium subsp. paratuberculosis that may be directly related to their effects on macrophage activation and killing of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis...
  38. ncbi request reprint Relationships between fecal culture, ELISA, and bulk tank milk test results for Johne's disease in US dairy herds
    J R Stabel
    Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, USDA ARS, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    J Dairy Sci 85:525-31. 2002
    ..In addition, contamination of bulk tank milk samples with M. paratuberculosis does occur in seropositive herds, even in some with negative fecal cultures...
  39. ncbi request reprint Destruction of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Salmonella spp., and Mycoplasma spp. in raw milk by a commercial on-farm high-temperature, short-time pasteurizer
    J R Stabel
    USDA ARS, National Animal Disease Center, Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, Ames, IA 50014, USA
    J Dairy Sci 87:2177-83. 2004
    ..paratuberculosis but resulted in an average 25% reduction in colostral immunoglobulin. These results suggest that HTST pasteurization is effective in generating a safer product to feed to young calves...
  40. ncbi request reprint On-farm batch pasteurization destroys Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in waste milk
    J R Stabel
    USDA ARS, National Animal Disease Center, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    J Dairy Sci 84:524-7. 2001
    ..No viable bacteria were recovered after 28 wk of incubation. These results suggest that batch pasteurization of waste milk contaminated with M. paratuberculosis was effective at generating a clean product to feed to young calves...
  41. ncbi request reprint Transitions in immune responses to Mycobacterium paratuberculosis
    J R Stabel
    USDA ARS, National Animal Disease Center, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    Vet Microbiol 77:465-73. 2000
    ..This paper reviews the current knowledge of T cell immune responses in M. paratuberculosis infection based upon clinical studies and research using mouse models...
  42. ncbi request reprint Host responses to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: a complex arsenal
    J R Stabel
    USDA ARS NADC, Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, 2300 Dayton Rd, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    Anim Health Res Rev 7:61-70. 2006
    ..paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis), in an attempt to understand the dialogue between immune cells and their mediators during infection and what causes this discourse to go awry...
  43. pmc Chemical decontamination with N-acetyl-L-cysteine-sodium hydroxide improves recovery of viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis organisms from cultured milk
    L Bradner
    Roy J Carver Department of Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Molecular Biology, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 51:2139-46. 2013
    ..Therefore, it is important to optimize milk decontamination protocols to ensure that low concentrations of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis can be detected...
  44. ncbi request reprint Temporal Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection in T-cell receptor (TCR)-alpha and TCR-delta-deficient mice
    J R Stabel
    National Disease of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, USDA ARS, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    Vet Immunol Immunopathol 89:127-32. 2002
    ..These results suggest that alphabeta T cells play a major role in resistance to infection with M. paratuberculosis and that gammadelta T cells may play a lesser role and potentially confound protective immune responses...
  45. pmc Optimization of hexadecylpyridinium chloride decontamination for culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from milk
    L Bradner
    Roy J Carver Department of Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Molecular Biology, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 51:1575-7. 2013
    ..This study demonstrates that the efficiency of MAP recovery from milk is highly dependent upon the culturing protocol, and such protocols should be optimized to ensure that low concentrations of MAP in milk can be detected...
  46. ncbi request reprint Short communication: Allele, genotype, and haplotype data for bovine spongiform encephalopathy-resistance polymorphisms from healthy US Holstein cattle
    B W Brunelle
    Virus and Prion Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    J Dairy Sci 91:338-42. 2008
    ..Based on the frequencies of these regulatory region polymorphisms, the US Holstein population is not at a greater risk for BSE than Holsteins worldwide...