E Spackman

Summary

Affiliation: Agricultural Research Service
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Characterization of recent H5 subtype avian influenza viruses from US poultry
    Chang Won Lee
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, USDA ARS, 934 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605, USA
    Avian Pathol 33:288-97. 2004
  2. ncbi request reprint Avian influenza virus detection and quantitation by real-time rt-PCR
    Erica Spackman
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, US Department of Agriculture, ARS, 934 College Station Rd, Athens, GA, 30605, USA
    Methods Mol Biol 1161:105-18. 2014
  3. ncbi request reprint Influenza subtype identification with molecular methods
    Erica Spackman
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, US Department of Agriculture, ARS, 934 College Station Rd, Athens, GA, 30605, USA
    Methods Mol Biol 1161:119-23. 2014
  4. ncbi request reprint Avian influenza virus RNA extraction
    Erica Spackman
    Exotic and Emerging Avian Viral Diseases Unit, Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 934 College Station Rd, Athens, GA, USA
    Methods Mol Biol 1161:93-104. 2014
  5. ncbi request reprint A brief introduction to avian influenza virus
    Erica Spackman
    Exotic and Emerging Avian Viral Diseases Unit, Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, US Department of Agriculture, ARS, 934 College Station Rd, Athens, GA, 30605, USA
    Methods Mol Biol 1161:61-8. 2014
  6. ncbi request reprint Avian influenza virus isolation, propagation, and titration in embryonated chicken eggs
    Erica Spackman
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, US Department of Agriculture, ARS, 934 College Station Rd, Athens, GA, 30605, USA
    Methods Mol Biol 1161:125-40. 2014
  7. ncbi request reprint Vaccination of gallinaceous poultry for H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza: current questions and new technology
    Erica Spackman
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, USDA Agricultural Research Service, 934 College Station Rd, Athens, GA 30605, United States Electronic address
    Virus Res 178:121-32. 2013
  8. pmc Transcriptional analysis of the innate immune response of ducks to different species-of-origin low pathogenic H7 avian influenza viruses
    Michele N Maughan
    Department of Animal and Food Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA
    Virol J 10:94. 2013
  9. pmc Optimal specimen collection and transport methods for the detection of avian influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus
    Erica Spackman
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, USDA, Agricultural Research Service, 934 College, Station Road, Athens, GA 30605, USA
    BMC Vet Res 9:35. 2013
  10. doi request reprint Viral diagnostics: will new technology save the day?
    Erica Spackman
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, USDA ARS, Athens, GA 30605, USA
    Avian Pathol 41:251-8. 2012

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications71

  1. ncbi request reprint Characterization of recent H5 subtype avian influenza viruses from US poultry
    Chang Won Lee
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, USDA ARS, 934 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605, USA
    Avian Pathol 33:288-97. 2004
    ..The outbreak in Texas with a more chicken-adapted H5N3 virus underscores the importance of ongoing surveillance and control efforts regarding the H5 subtype AI virus in the US...
  2. ncbi request reprint Avian influenza virus detection and quantitation by real-time rt-PCR
    Erica Spackman
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, US Department of Agriculture, ARS, 934 College Station Rd, Athens, GA, 30605, USA
    Methods Mol Biol 1161:105-18. 2014
    ..However, the high genetic variability of AIV may decrease sensitivity and increases the chances of a false negative result. This chapter provides an overview of the USDA validated rRT-PCR procedure for the detection of type A influenza. ..
  3. ncbi request reprint Influenza subtype identification with molecular methods
    Erica Spackman
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, US Department of Agriculture, ARS, 934 College Station Rd, Athens, GA, 30605, USA
    Methods Mol Biol 1161:119-23. 2014
    ..The best method to utilize will depend on the goals of the work being conducted and the resources available. The salient features and basic outline of workflow for subtype identification by molecular methods will be discussed. ..
  4. ncbi request reprint Avian influenza virus RNA extraction
    Erica Spackman
    Exotic and Emerging Avian Viral Diseases Unit, Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 934 College Station Rd, Athens, GA, USA
    Methods Mol Biol 1161:93-104. 2014
    ..In this chapter two well established procedures for the isolation of AI virus RNA from common clinical specimen types and enriched virus stocks for further molecular applications will be presented. ..
  5. ncbi request reprint A brief introduction to avian influenza virus
    Erica Spackman
    Exotic and Emerging Avian Viral Diseases Unit, Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, US Department of Agriculture, ARS, 934 College Station Rd, Athens, GA, 30605, USA
    Methods Mol Biol 1161:61-8. 2014
    ..Approaches to control vary widely, but elimination of the disease in poultry is a common goal. The basics of AIV biology, clinical disease, molecular aspects, and AIV detection are briefly reviewed. ..
  6. ncbi request reprint Avian influenza virus isolation, propagation, and titration in embryonated chicken eggs
    Erica Spackman
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, US Department of Agriculture, ARS, 934 College Station Rd, Athens, GA, 30605, USA
    Methods Mol Biol 1161:125-40. 2014
    ..Once an agent is isolated in culture, the presence of influenza viruses is confirmed with any of several assays. The methods for propagating virus isolates in ECE are described. ..
  7. ncbi request reprint Vaccination of gallinaceous poultry for H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza: current questions and new technology
    Erica Spackman
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, USDA Agricultural Research Service, 934 College Station Rd, Athens, GA 30605, United States Electronic address
    Virus Res 178:121-32. 2013
    ..Numerous technical improvements to these platforms and novel vaccine platforms for H5N1 vaccines have been reported, but most are not ready to be implemented in the field. ..
  8. pmc Transcriptional analysis of the innate immune response of ducks to different species-of-origin low pathogenic H7 avian influenza viruses
    Michele N Maughan
    Department of Animal and Food Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA
    Virol J 10:94. 2013
    ..In the current study, three H7 LPAIVs isolated from either chicken, duck, or turkey avian species were evaluated for their comparative effect on the transcriptional innate immune response of ducks...
  9. pmc Optimal specimen collection and transport methods for the detection of avian influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus
    Erica Spackman
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, USDA, Agricultural Research Service, 934 College, Station Road, Athens, GA 30605, USA
    BMC Vet Res 9:35. 2013
    ..5 ml), 4) transporting the swab wet in the vial or removing the swab prior to transport, or transporting the swab dry with no media, and 5) single swabs versus pooling 5 or 11 swabs per vial...
  10. doi request reprint Viral diagnostics: will new technology save the day?
    Erica Spackman
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, USDA ARS, Athens, GA 30605, USA
    Avian Pathol 41:251-8. 2012
    ..It is not entirely comprehensive of all technology and the author makes no claims or endorsements of any of the technology or products mentioned...
  11. pmc Susceptibility of turkeys to pandemic-H1N1 virus by reproductive tract insemination
    Mary Pantin-Jackwood
    Exotic and Emerging Avian Viral Diseases Research Unit, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Athens, Georgia 30605 USA
    Virol J 7:27. 2010
    ..This understanding of virus exposure provides an improved understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease and can improve poultry husbandry to prevent disease outbreaks...
  12. pmc Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of H7N3 avian influenza viruses isolated from poultry in Pakistan 1995-2004
    Muhammad A Abbas
    National Reference Laboratory for Poultry Diseases, ASI, NARC, Islamabad 45500, Pakistan
    Virol J 7:137. 2010
    ..To accomplish this we produced whole genome sequences for 6 H7N3 viruses and data for the HA and NA genes of an additional 7 isolates. All available sequence from H7N3 AIV from Pakistan was included in the analysis...
  13. ncbi request reprint Astrovirus, reovirus, and rotavirus concomitant infection causes decreased weight gain in broad-breasted white poults
    Erica Spackman
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, 934 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605, USA
    Avian Dis 54:16-21. 2010
    ..Cloacal shedding of TAstV-2 and TRotV was evaluated by reverse-transcription PCR testing of cloacal swabs and minimal differences were observed among the treatment groups...
  14. pmc Characterization of low-pathogenicity H5N1 avian influenza viruses from North America
    Erica Spackman
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, U S Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service, 934 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605, USA
    J Virol 81:11612-9. 2007
    ....
  15. pmc Characterization of low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds in Mongolia 2005 through 2007
    Erica Spackman
    U S Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, Athens, GA 30605, USA
    Virol J 6:190. 2009
    ..An important feature of Mongolia is that there is little domestic poultry production in the country, therefore AIV detection in wild birds would not likely be from spill-over from domestic poultry...
  16. ncbi request reprint An evaluation of avian influenza diagnostic methods with domestic duck specimens
    Erica Spackman
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, USDA, Agricultural Research Service, 934 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605, USA
    Avian Dis 53:276-80. 2009
    ..At all time points AGID detected antibody in substantially fewer samples than either ELISA or HI assay...
  17. doi request reprint The ecology of avian influenza virus in wild birds: what does this mean for poultry?
    E Spackman
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, USDA, Agricultural Research Service, 934 College Station Rd, Athens, GA 30605, USA
    Poult Sci 88:847-50. 2009
    ....
  18. pmc The pathogenesis of low pathogenicity H7 avian influenza viruses in chickens, ducks and turkeys
    Erica Spackman
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, USDA ARS, 934 College Station Rd, Athens, GA, 30605, USA
    Virol J 7:331. 2010
    ..In this study twelve H7 LPAI virus isolates from North America were each evaluated for their comparative pathogenesis in chickens, ducks, and turkeys...
  19. ncbi request reprint Analytical validation of a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test for Pan-American lineage H7 subtype Avian influenza viruses
    Erica Spackman
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Athens, GA 30605, USA
    J Vet Diagn Invest 20:612-6. 2008
    ..Furthermore, the 2008 test was able to detect 100% (n = 27) of the H7 AI, V isolates recovered from North American wild birds in a 2006-2007 sample set, (none of which were detected by the 2002 H7 test)...
  20. pmc Characterization of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza A viruses isolated from South Korea
    Chang Won Lee
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, USDA ARS, 934 College Station Rd, Athens, GA 30605, USA
    J Virol 79:3692-702. 2005
    ....
  21. ncbi request reprint Enteric viruses detected by molecular methods in commercial chicken and turkey flocks in the United States between 2005 and 2006
    Mary J Pantin-Jackwood
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Athens, GA 30605, USA
    Avian Dis 52:235-44. 2008
    ....
  22. ncbi request reprint Age at infection affects the pathogenicity of Asian highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses in ducks
    M J Pantin-Jackwood
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, U S Department of Agriculture, 934 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605, United States
    Virus Res 130:151-61. 2007
    ..High titers of virus in organs, high viral shedding, and variable mortality enable ducks to circulate H5N1 HPAI viruses...
  23. ncbi request reprint Development of real-time RT-PCR for the detection of avian influenza virus
    E Spackman
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, USDA ARS, 934 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605, USA
    Avian Dis 47:1079-82. 2003
    ..Although RRT-PCR was less sensitive than VI on an individual sample basis, this study demonstrated that the AIV and H7 RRT-PCR assays are good tools for the rapid screening of flocks and LBMs...
  24. ncbi request reprint Development of multiplex real-time RT-PCR as a diagnostic tool for avian influenza
    E Spackman
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, U S Department of Agriculture, 934 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605, USA
    Avian Dis 47:1087-90. 2003
    ..2%) of the 83 samples, of which 77 were positive for H7 and two were determined to be non-H5/non-H7 subtypes. No samples were determined to be the H5 subtype by either assay...
  25. ncbi request reprint The effect of various disinfectants on detection of avian influenza virus by real time RT-PCR
    D L Suarez
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, Agriculture Research Service, U S Department of Agriculture, 934 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605, USA
    Avian Dis 47:1091-5. 2003
    ..Therefore, the RRT-PCR test can potentially be used to assure proper cleaning and disinfection when certain disinfectants are used...
  26. pmc Sequence analysis of recent H7 avian influenza viruses associated with three different outbreaks in commercial poultry in the United States
    Erica Spackman
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, U S Department of Agriculture, Athens, Georgia 30605, USA
    J Virol 77:13399-402. 2003
    ..Furthermore, analysis of the HA cleavage site amino acid sequence, a marker for pathogenicity in chickens and turkeys, shows a progression toward a cleavage site sequence that fulfills the molecular criteria for highly pathogenic AIV...
  27. ncbi request reprint Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the S1 genome segment of turkey-origin reoviruses
    J Michael Day
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, USDA ARS, 934 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605, USA
    Virus Genes 35:235-42. 2007
    ..This report supports the earlier suggestion that the TRVs are a separate virus species within the Orthoreovirus genus, and may provide some insight into TRV host specificity and pathogenesis...
  28. ncbi request reprint Pathology and virus tissue distribution of Turkey origin reoviruses in experimentally infected Turkey poults
    M J Pantin-Jackwood
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 934 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605, USA
    Vet Pathol 44:185-95. 2007
    ..The lymphoid depletion observed in the bursa appears to be the effect of an indirectly induced apoptosis and would most likely result in immune dysfunction in poults infected with TRV...
  29. ncbi request reprint Biologic characterization of H4, H6, and H9 type low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses from wild birds in chickens and turkeys
    Antonio C Morales
    Department of Population Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, 953 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30602, USA
    Avian Dis 53:552-62. 2009
    ..Specifically, detection is difficult because these viruses did not cause overt clinical disease or mortality, but only induced mild microscopic lesions and exhibited poor seroconversion...
  30. ncbi request reprint Molecular characterization and typing of chicken and turkey astroviruses circulating in the United States: implications for diagnostics
    Mary J Pantin-Jackwood
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, U S Department of Agriculture, 934 College Station Rd, Athens, Georgia 30605, USA
    Avian Dis 50:397-404. 2006
    ..Based on these data, a revision of the present taxonomic classification for avian astroviruses within the genus Avastrovirus is warranted...
  31. ncbi request reprint Characterization and efficacy determination of commercially available Central American H5N2 avian influenza vaccines for poultry
    Dawn Eggert
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, 934 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605, USA
    Vaccine 28:4609-15. 2010
    ....
  32. pmc Development of a real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay for type A influenza virus and the avian H5 and H7 hemagglutinin subtypes
    Erica Spackman
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Athens, Georgia 30605, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 40:3256-60. 2002
    ..The remaining samples were positive with only one detection method. Overall the sensitivity and specificity of the H7- and H5-specific RRT-PCR were similar to those of VI and HI...
  33. ncbi request reprint Update on molecular epidemiology of H1, H5, and H7 influenza virus infections in poultry in North America
    D L Suarez
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, Agriculture Research Service, U S Department of Agriculture, 934 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605, USA
    Avian Dis 47:888-97. 2003
    ..Additional serologic evidence suggests that flocks in other states were infected with a H1N2 virus...
  34. doi request reprint Molecular characterization of avian astroviruses
    M J Pantin-Jackwood
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research Laboratory, U S Department of Agriculture, 934 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605, USA
    Arch Virol 156:235-44. 2011
    ..6% similar to CAstV. The results of this study underline the great genetic variability of avian astroviruses and indicate that there are most likely multiple serotypes of each avian astrovirus circulating in commercial poultry...
  35. ncbi request reprint Validation of a real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR assay for the detection of H7 avian influenza virus
    Janice Pedersen
    U S Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Veterinary Services, National Veterinary Services Laboratories, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    Avian Dis 54:639-43. 2010
    ..S. Department of Agriculture procedure for the detection of H7 AIV. The 2008 H7 assay replaced the previously used (2002) assay, which does not detect H7 viruses currently circulating in wild birds in North and South America...
  36. ncbi request reprint Turkey origin reovirus-induced immune dysfunction in specific pathogen free and commercial turkey poults
    J Michael Day
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, 934 College Station Road, Athens, Georgia 30605, USA
    Avian Dis 52:387-91. 2008
    ..This immune dysfunction and bursal atrophy was not present in commercial poults inoculated at three weeks of age...
  37. ncbi request reprint Biologic characterization of chicken-derived H6N2 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in chickens and ducks
    Mark W Jackwood
    Department of Population Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, 953 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30602, USA
    Avian Dis 54:120-5. 2010
    ..However, the viruses isolated in 2004 did not appear to replicate or cause more disease than earlier virus isolates...
  38. ncbi request reprint Removal of real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) inhibitors associated with cloacal swab samples and tissues for improved diagnosis of Avian influenza virus by RT-PCR
    Amaresh Das
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Athens, GA 30605, USA
    J Vet Diagn Invest 21:771-8. 2009
    ..The MagMAX-M protocol reported in the present study can be useful in extracting high-quality RNA for accurate detection of AIV from cloacal swabs and tissues by real-time RT-PCR...
  39. doi request reprint Pathogenesis of type 2 turkey astroviruses with variant capsid genes in 2-day-old specific pathogen free poults
    Mary J Pantin-Jackwood
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Athens, GA 30605, USA
    Avian Pathol 37:193-201. 2008
    ..In conclusion, TAstV-2 viruses with variant capsids produce a similar enteric disease in young turkeys and may also affect the immune system of the birds by causing bursal lymphoid depletion...
  40. pmc Development of an internal positive control for rapid diagnosis of avian influenza virus infections by real-time reverse transcription-PCR with lyophilized reagents
    Amaresh Das
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, 934 College Station Rd, Athens, GA 30605, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 44:3065-73. 2006
    ..The same IPC in the form of armored RNA was also used to monitor the extraction of viral RNA and subsequent detection by RRT-PCR...
  41. pmc H7N3 avian influenza virus found in a South American wild duck is related to the Chilean 2002 poultry outbreak, contains genes from equine and North American wild bird lineages, and is adapted to domestic turkeys
    Erica Spackman
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, US Department of Agriculture ARS, 934 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605, USA
    J Virol 80:7760-4. 2006
    ..The HA protein cleavage site and the results of pathogenesis studies in chickens were consistent with a low-pathogenicity virus, and the infective dose was 10(5) times higher for chickens than turkeys...
  42. ncbi request reprint Phylogenetic analysis of Turkey astroviruses reveals evidence of recombination
    Mary J Pantin-Jackwood
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, Agriculture Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Athens, GA 30605, USA
    Virus Genes 32:187-92. 2006
    ..Based on differing topologies of the capsid and polymerase gene phylogenetic trees, TAstV appears to undergo recombination...
  43. ncbi request reprint Periodic monitoring of commercial turkeys for enteric viruses indicates continuous presence of astrovirus and rotavirus on the farms
    Mary J Pantin-Jackwood
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, U S Department of Agriculture, Athens, GA 30605, USA
    Avian Dis 51:674-80. 2007
    ..The full impact on flock performance needs to be further determined...
  44. ncbi request reprint A multiplex RT-PCR test for the differential identification of turkey astrovirus type 1, turkey astrovirus type 2, chicken astrovirus, avian nephritis virus, and avian rotavirus
    J Michael Day
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, USDA, ARS, 934 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605, USA
    Avian Dis 51:681-4. 2007
    ..The specificity was further shown by testing 109 chicken specimens and 32 turkey specimens from commercial flocks with the appropriate test and sequencing the RT-PCR amplicons to confirm amplification of the correct target...
  45. ncbi request reprint Inactivated North American and European H5N2 avian influenza virus vaccines protect chickens from Asian H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus
    David E Swayne
    United States Department of Agriculture, Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, 934 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605, USA
    Avian Pathol 35:141-6. 2006
    ..They will be an adjunct to biosecurity measures to reduce virus transmission...
  46. pmc NP, PB1, and PB2 viral genes contribute to altered replication of H5N1 avian influenza viruses in chickens
    Jamie L Wasilenko
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, USDA ARS, 934 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605, USA
    J Virol 82:4544-53. 2008
    ..While the pathogenesis of AIVs in chickens is clearly dependent on the interaction of multiple gene products, we have shown that single-gene reassortment events are sufficient to alter the virulence of AIVs in chickens...
  47. pmc Recombination resulting in virulence shift in avian influenza outbreak, Chile
    David L Suarez
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, Athens, Georgia, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 10:693-9. 2004
    ..Sequence comparison of all eight gene segments showed the Chilean viruses were also distinct from all other avian influenza viruses and represent a distinct South American clade...
  48. ncbi request reprint The pathogenesis of turkey origin reoviruses in turkeys and chickens
    Erica Spackman
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, USDA ARS, 934 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605, USA
    Avian Pathol 34:291-6. 2005
    ..Molecular characterization of the isolates revealed that the TRVs and chicken origin reoviruses had identical electropherotype profiles...
  49. ncbi request reprint Phylogenetic analyses of type A influenza genes in natural reservoir species in North America reveals genetic variation
    Erica Spackman
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, USDA ARS, 934 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605, USA
    Virus Res 114:89-100. 2005
    ..A lack of clear temporal or spatial grouping shows that multiple lineages of virus co-circulate and precludes the development of an epidemiological map for influenza virus from these species...
  50. ncbi request reprint Multiplex real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for the detection of three viruses associated with poult enteritis complex: turkey astrovirus, turkey coronavirus, and turkey reovirus
    Erica Spackman
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, USDA ARS, 934 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605, USA
    Avian Dis 49:86-91. 2005
    ..ARV detection by RRT-PCR was compared with virus isolation and had similar sensitivity...
  51. pmc Domestic poultry and SARS coronavirus, southern China
    David E Swayne
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, U S Department of Agriculture, Athens, Georgia 30605, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 10:914-6. 2004
    ..This finding suggests that domestic poultry were unlikely to have been the reservoir, or associated with dissemination, of SARS coronavirus in the animal markets of southern China...
  52. doi request reprint Current status and future needs in diagnostics and vaccines for high pathogenicity avian influenza
    D E Swayne
    Exotic and Emerging Avian Viral Diseases Research Unit, Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Athens, GA, USA
    Dev Biol (Basel) 135:79-94. 2013
    ....
  53. ncbi request reprint An avian influenza virus from waterfowl in South America contains genes from North American avian and equine lineages
    Erica Spackman
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, U S Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service, 934 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605, USA
    Avian Dis 51:273-4. 2007
    ..Two genes were most closely related to North American wild aquatic bird virus lineages and one gene was most closely related to an equine influenza virus from South America...
  54. ncbi request reprint Development and validation of a real-time Taqman PCR assay for the detection and quantitation of infectious laryngotracheitis virus in poultry
    S A Callison
    Department of Population Health, Poultry Diagnostic and Research Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
    J Virol Methods 139:31-8. 2007
    ..In conclusion, the ReTi ILTV assay was highly specific, sensitive, reproducible, and capable of reliably quantifying viral nucleic acid directly from clinical samples...
  55. pmc Immunogenicity of fowlpox virus expressing the avian influenza virus H5 gene (TROVAC AIV-H5) in cats
    Kemal Karaca
    Merial Ltd, 115 Transtech Drive, Athens, Georgia 30601, USA
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 12:1340-2. 2005
    ..The vaccine described in this study and other poxvirus-vectored vaccines may be of value for the prophylaxis of AI virus-associated morbidity and mortality in mammals...
  56. doi request reprint Detection and identification of the H5 hemagglutinin subtype by real-time RT-PCR
    Erica Spackman
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Athens, GA, USA
    Methods Mol Biol 436:27-33. 2008
    ..This assay can identify the H5 hemagglutinin of any genetic lineage (North American or Asian) and either pathotype (highly pathogenic or low pathogenic), but does not differentiate between subtypes or pathotypes...
  57. pmc Development of a real-time reverse-transcription PCR for detection of newcastle disease virus RNA in clinical samples
    Mark G Wise
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Athens, Georgia 30605, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 42:329-38. 2004
    ..Overall, a positive correlation was obtained between the RRT-PCR results and virus isolation for NDV from clinical samples...
  58. pmc Domestic pigs have low susceptibility to H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses
    Aleksandr S Lipatov
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Athens, Georgia, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 4:e1000102. 2008
    ....
  59. doi request reprint Type A influenza virus detection and quantitation by real-time RT-PCR
    Erica Spackman
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Athens, GA, USA
    Methods Mol Biol 436:19-26. 2008
    ..This chapter will provide an overview of the USDA-validated rRT-PCR procedure for the detection of type A influenza...
  60. ncbi request reprint Detection of H5N1 high-pathogenicity avian influenza virus in meat and tracheal samples from experimentally infected chickens
    Amaresh Das
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, U S Department of Agriculture, 934 College Station Road, Athens, Georgia 30605, USA
    Avian Dis 52:40-8. 2008
    ..In addition, the modified RNA extraction and RRT-PCR test on meat samples provide a rapid and sensitive method of identifying HPAI virus in illegal contraband or domestic meat samples...
  61. ncbi request reprint Use of a novel virus inactivation method for a multicenter avian influenza real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction proficiency study
    Erica Spackman
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, USDA ARS, Athens, GA 30605, USA
    J Vet Diagn Invest 17:76-80. 2005
    ..Variation in cycle threshold values among 35 data sets and 490 samples was minimal (CV = 5.19%), and sample identifications were highly accurate (96.7% correct identifications) regardless of real-time PCR instrumentation...
  62. doi request reprint Avian influenza virus RNA extraction from tissue and swab material
    Erica Spackman
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Athens, GA, USA
    Methods Mol Biol 436:13-8. 2008
    ..In this chapter, two well-established procedures for the isolation of AI virus RNA from common clinical specimen types and enriched virus stocks for further molecular applications will be presented...
  63. doi request reprint A brief introduction to the avian influenza virus
    Erica Spackman
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Athens, GA, USA
    Methods Mol Biol 436:1-6. 2008
    ..e., H1 and H3 in swine, H3 in horses, and H5 and H7 in chickens...
  64. pmc Evidence for a new avian paramyxovirus serotype 10 detected in rockhopper penguins from the Falkland Islands
    Patti J Miller
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Athens, GA 30605, USA
    J Virol 84:11496-504. 2010
    ....
  65. pmc Movements of birds and avian influenza from Asia into Alaska
    Kevin Winker
    University of Alaska Museum, Fairbanks, Alaska 99775, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 13:547-52. 2007
    ....
  66. pmc Influenza A virus infections in land birds, People's Republic of China
    A Townsend Peterson
    Natural History Museum and Biodiversity Research Center, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 14:1644-6. 2008
    ..Influenza A infection was found, particularly among migratory species. Surveillance programs for monitoring spread of these viruses need to be redesigned...
  67. ncbi request reprint Sequence analysis and receptor specificity of the hemagglutinin of a recent influenza H2N2 virus isolated from chicken in North America
    Laurel Glaser
    Department of Microbiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Glycoconj J 23:93-9. 2006
    ..Sequence analysis revealed that this HA is a member of the Eurasian clade, and receptor binding studies show that it maintains its specificity for the avian influenza virus alpha2-3 linked sialic acid receptor...
  68. pmc A combination in-ovo vaccine for avian influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus
    John Steel
    Department of Microbiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 6574, USA
    Vaccine 26:522-31. 2008
    ..We propose that this virus has potential as a safe in-ovo live, attenuated, bivalent avian influenza and Newcastle disease virus vaccine...
  69. ncbi request reprint Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays for the detection and differentiation of North American swine influenza viruses
    Jürgen A Richt
    Virus and Prion Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    J Vet Diagn Invest 16:367-73. 2004
    ....
  70. ncbi request reprint Characteristics of diagnostic tests used in the 2002 low-pathogenicity avian influenza H7N2 outbreak in Virginia
    Francois Elvinger
    Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, Virginia Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
    J Vet Diagn Invest 19:341-8. 2007
    ....
  71. pmc Rarity of influenza A virus in spring shorebirds, southern Alaska
    Kevin Winker
    Emerg Infect Dis 14:1314-6. 2008