Affiliation: Agricultural Research Service
- Spackman E, Pantin Jackwood M, Kapczynski D, Swayne D, Suarez D. H5N2 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses from the US 2014-2015 outbreak have an unusually long pre-clinical period in turkeys. BMC Vet Res. 2016;12:260 pubmed..The unusually long mean death times, high levels of virus in feces, and increased adaptation of the later viruses may have contributed to the rapid spread of the virus during the peak of the outbreak. ..
- Spackman E, Day J, Pantin Jackwood M. Astrovirus, reovirus, and rotavirus concomitant infection causes decreased weight gain in broad-breasted white poults. Avian Dis. 2010;54:16-21 pubmed..Cloacal shedding of TAstV-2 and TRotV was evaluated by reverse-transcription PCR testing of cloacal swabs and minimal differences were observed among the treatment groups...
- Spackman E, Pedersen J, McKinley E, Gelb J. Optimal specimen collection and transport methods for the detection of avian influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus. BMC Vet Res. 2013;9:35 pubmed publisher..5 ml), 4) transporting the swab wet in the vial or removing the swab prior to transport, or transporting the swab dry with no media, and 5) single swabs versus pooling 5 or 11 swabs per vial...
- DeJesus E, Costa Hurtado M, Smith D, Lee D, Spackman E, Kapczynski D, et al. Changes in adaptation of H5N2 highly pathogenic avian influenza H5 clade 220.127.116.11 viruses in chickens and mallards. Virology. 2016;499:52-64 pubmed publisher..Increased virus adaptation to chickens was observed with the poultry H5N2 viruses; however these viruses retained high adaptation to mallards but pathogenicity was differently affected. ..
- Spackman E, Gelb J, Preskenis L, Ladman B, Pope C, Pantin Jackwood M, et al. The pathogenesis of low pathogenicity H7 avian influenza viruses in chickens, ducks and turkeys. Virol J. 2010;7:331 pubmed publisher..However the severity of disease and degree of virus shed was not clearly correlated with any isolate or group of isolates, but relied on specific species and isolate combinations. ..
- Spackman E, Swayne D. Vaccination of gallinaceous poultry for H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza: current questions and new technology. Virus Res. 2013;178:121-32 pubmed publisher..Numerous technical improvements to these platforms and novel vaccine platforms for H5N1 vaccines have been reported, but most are not ready to be implemented in the field. ..
- Bertran K, Swayne D, Pantin Jackwood M, Kapczynski D, Spackman E, Suarez D. Lack of chicken adaptation of newly emergent Eurasian H5N8 and reassortant H5N2 high pathogenicity avian influenza viruses in the U.S. is consistent with restricted poultry outbreaks in the Pacific flyway during 2014-2015. Virology. 2016;494:190-7 pubmed publisher..Although these initial U.S. H5 HPAI viruses had reduced adaptation and transmissibility in chickens, multi-generational passage in poultry could generate poultry adapted viruses with higher infectivity and transmissibility. ..
- Lone N, Spackman E, Kapczynski D. Immunologic evaluation of 10 different adjuvants for use in vaccines for chickens against highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. Vaccine. 2017;35:3401-3408 pubmed publisher..These studies support the use of oil adjuvanted vaccines for use in the poultry industry for control for AIV. ..
- Stephens C, Spackman E. Thermal Inactivation of avian influenza virus in poultry litter as a method to decontaminate poultry houses. Prev Vet Med. 2017;145:73-77 pubmed publisher..Heat treatment will provide an added level of safety to personnel and against further spread by eliminating infectious virus prior to cleaning a house. ..