R Fayer

Summary

Affiliation: Agricultural Research Service
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Contamination of Atlantic coast commercial shellfish with Cryptosporidium
    R Fayer
    Animal Waste Pathogen Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    Parasitol Res 89:141-5. 2003
  2. ncbi request reprint Temporal variability of Cryptosporidium in the Chesapeake Bay
    R Fayer
    Animal Waste Pathogen Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    Parasitol Res 88:998-1003. 2002
  3. ncbi request reprint Prevalence of species and genotypes of Cryptosporidium found in 1-2-year-old dairy cattle in the eastern United States
    Ronald Fayer
    Environmental Microbial Safety Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Building 173, BARC East, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    Vet Parasitol 135:105-12. 2006
  4. ncbi request reprint Prevalence of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in mature dairy cattle on farms in eastern United States compared with younger cattle from the same locations
    Ronald Fayer
    Environmental Microbial Safety Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, BARC East, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA
    Vet Parasitol 145:260-6. 2007
  5. ncbi request reprint Cryptosporidium bovis n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) in cattle (Bos taurus)
    Ronald Fayer
    Environmental Microbial Safety Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA
    J Parasitol 91:624-9. 2005
  6. ncbi request reprint Cryptosporidium: a water-borne zoonotic parasite
    Ronald Fayer
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    Vet Parasitol 126:37-56. 2004
  7. pmc Sarcocystis spp. in human infections
    Ronald Fayer
    U S Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Environmental Microbial Safety Laboratory, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 17:894-902, table of contents. 2004
  8. ncbi request reprint Enterocytozoon bieneusi in mature dairy cattle on farms in the eastern United States
    R Fayer
    Environmental Microbial Safety Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Building 173, BARC East, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    Parasitol Res 102:15-20. 2007
  9. ncbi request reprint Detection of Cryptosporidium felis and Giardia duodenalis Assemblage F in a cat colony
    Ronald Fayer
    Environmental Microbial Safety Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    Vet Parasitol 140:44-53. 2006
  10. ncbi request reprint Infectivity of microsporidia spores stored in seawater at environmental temperatures
    R Fayer
    Environmental Microbial Safety Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 2350, USA
    J Parasitol 90:654-7. 2004

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications87

  1. ncbi request reprint Contamination of Atlantic coast commercial shellfish with Cryptosporidium
    R Fayer
    Animal Waste Pathogen Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    Parasitol Res 89:141-5. 2003
    ....
  2. ncbi request reprint Temporal variability of Cryptosporidium in the Chesapeake Bay
    R Fayer
    Animal Waste Pathogen Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    Parasitol Res 88:998-1003. 2002
    ..In 28% of 53 collections, C. parvum genotypes 1 and 2 and C. baileyi were identified by PCR and gene sequencing. Oocyst infectivity was confirmed from 37.5% of 40 collections by initiating C. parvum genotype 2 infections in mice...
  3. ncbi request reprint Prevalence of species and genotypes of Cryptosporidium found in 1-2-year-old dairy cattle in the eastern United States
    Ronald Fayer
    Environmental Microbial Safety Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Building 173, BARC East, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    Vet Parasitol 135:105-12. 2006
    ..Consequently, the risk of humans acquiring infection with C. parvum from exposure to feces from yearling and older cattle appears much lower than from exposure to pre-weaned calves...
  4. ncbi request reprint Prevalence of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in mature dairy cattle on farms in eastern United States compared with younger cattle from the same locations
    Ronald Fayer
    Environmental Microbial Safety Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, BARC East, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA
    Vet Parasitol 145:260-6. 2007
    ..The very low level of infection with C. parvum, the major species pathogenic to both cattle and humans, suggests that mature dairy cattle are a relatively low risk source of infection for humans...
  5. ncbi request reprint Cryptosporidium bovis n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) in cattle (Bos taurus)
    Ronald Fayer
    Environmental Microbial Safety Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA
    J Parasitol 91:624-9. 2005
    ..Based on these biological and molecular data, we consider this highly prevalent Cryptosporidium that infects primarily postweaned calves to be a new species and propose the name Cryptosporidium bovis n. sp. for this parasite...
  6. ncbi request reprint Cryptosporidium: a water-borne zoonotic parasite
    Ronald Fayer
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    Vet Parasitol 126:37-56. 2004
    ..Numerous reports of outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis related to drinking water in North America, the UK, and Japan, where detection methods are in place, indicate that water is a major vehicle for transmission of cryptosporidiosis...
  7. pmc Sarcocystis spp. in human infections
    Ronald Fayer
    U S Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Environmental Microbial Safety Laboratory, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 17:894-902, table of contents. 2004
    ..This review provides a summary of Sarcocystis biology, including its morphology, life cycle, host specificity, prevalence, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention strategies, for human and food animal infections...
  8. ncbi request reprint Enterocytozoon bieneusi in mature dairy cattle on farms in the eastern United States
    R Fayer
    Environmental Microbial Safety Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Building 173, BARC East, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    Parasitol Res 102:15-20. 2007
    ..bieneusi. Five genotypes were identified. Three were identified as cattle-specific genotypes previously reported as BEB1, BEB2, and BEB4, and two new genotypes, BEB 6 and BEB7, were found. None have been reported to infect humans...
  9. ncbi request reprint Detection of Cryptosporidium felis and Giardia duodenalis Assemblage F in a cat colony
    Ronald Fayer
    Environmental Microbial Safety Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    Vet Parasitol 140:44-53. 2006
    ..Because C. felis is zoonotic these findings suggest that care should be taken by veterinary health care providers and others in close contact with cats, even when cats appear healthy and asymptomatic...
  10. ncbi request reprint Infectivity of microsporidia spores stored in seawater at environmental temperatures
    R Fayer
    Environmental Microbial Safety Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 2350, USA
    J Parasitol 90:654-7. 2004
    ....
  11. doi request reprint Cryptosporidium ryanae n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) in cattle (Bos taurus)
    Ronald Fayer
    Environmental Microbial Safety Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Building 173, BARC East, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    Vet Parasitol 156:191-8. 2008
    ..Based on morphological, molecular and biological data, this geographically widespread parasite found only in Bos taurus calves is recognized as a new species and is named C. ryanae...
  12. ncbi request reprint Zoonotic protozoa: from land to sea
    Ronald Fayer
    Environmental Microbial Safety Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    Trends Parasitol 20:531-6. 2004
    ..This review addresses the extent of contamination and the animals affected by three genera of important zoonotic protozoa: Giardia, Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma...
  13. ncbi request reprint First detection of microsporidia in dairy calves in North America
    R Fayer
    Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Agricultural Research Service, Environmental Microbial Safety Laboratory, United States Department of Agriculture, MD 20705, Beltsville, USA
    Parasitol Res 90:383-6. 2003
    ..DNA sequencing analysis of the 13 E. bieneusi-positive specimens confirmed the PCR results and indicated 96.8-99.8% similarity with E. bieneusi sequences in GenBank. This is the first report of E. bieneusi in cattle in North America...
  14. pmc Cloning and expression of a DNA sequence encoding a 41-kilodalton Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst wall protein
    M C Jenkins
    Immunology and Disease Resistance Laboratory, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U S Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 6:912-20. 1999
    ..parvum infections. These results indicate that recombinant CP41 antigen may have potential in the immunodiagnosis of cryptosporidiosis...
  15. ncbi request reprint Fecundity of Cryptosporidium parvum is correlated with intracellular levels of the viral symbiont CPV
    M C Jenkins
    Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, ARS, USDA, Beltsville, MD, USA
    Int J Parasitol 38:1051-5. 2008
    ..parvum-B compared with C. parvum-I oocysts. These findings may indicate a role for CPV in fecundity and possibly virulence of C. parvum...
  16. ncbi request reprint Real-time PCR for the detection of Cryptosporidium parvum
    J A Higgins
    USDA ARS, Rm 202, Bldg 173, 10300 Baltimore Blvd, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    J Microbiol Methods 47:323-37. 2001
    ..For samples with few oocysts and high concentrations of PCR inhibitor(s), such as manure, nested PCR is necessary for detection...
  17. doi request reprint Detection and comparison of Giardia virus (GLV) from different assemblages of Giardia duodenalis
    K B Miska
    USDA ARS, Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA
    J Parasitol 95:1197-200. 2009
    ..Because many of the specimens that contained cysts were found to be negative for GLV, it appears that this test for capsid protein is of limited value for the purposes of detecting G. lamblia...
  18. ncbi request reprint Prevalence of Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Eimeria infections in post-weaned and adult cattle on three Maryland farms
    R Fayer
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Building 1040, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    Vet Parasitol 93:103-12. 2000
    ....
  19. ncbi request reprint Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in cats from Bogota (Colombia) and genotyping of isolates
    Monica Santin
    Environmental Microbial Safety Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Building 173, BARC East, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    Vet Parasitol 141:334-9. 2006
    ..bieneusi: genotype D-like (9%), K (4%), Peru 10 (2%), and Peru 5 (2%). This is the first report on the presence of zoonotic species/genotypes of Cryptosporidium and E. bieneusi in cats in Colombia...
  20. doi request reprint Examination of naturally exposed bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) for Microsporidia, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia
    R Fayer
    Environmental Microbial Safety Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 2350, USA
    J Parasitol 94:143-7. 2008
    ..There were neither clinical signs nor age- or gender-related patterns apparent with the presence of these organisms...
  21. doi request reprint A longitudinal study of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in dairy cattle
    Monica Santin
    Animal and Natural Resources Institute, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    Parasitol Res 105:141-4. 2009
    ..These genotypes appear to be cattle specific and have not been found in humans or other animals...
  22. pmc Cryptosporidium parvum in oysters from commercial harvesting sites in the Chesapeake Bay
    R Fayer
    U S Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 5:706-10. 1999
    ..We identified oocysts of C. parvum in oysters from seven sites in the Chesapeake Bay area. These findings document the presence of C. parvum infectious for humans in oysters intended for human consumption...
  23. ncbi request reprint Prevalence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in post-weaned dairy calves in the eastern United States
    Monica Santin
    Environmental Microbial Safety Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Building 173, MD 20705, Beltsville, USA
    Parasitol Res 93:287-9. 2004
    ..However, compared with previous reports, the prevalence of E. bieneusi was significantly higher in post-weaned than in pre-weaned calves from many of the same farms...
  24. ncbi request reprint Prevalence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia species and genotypes in sheep in Maryland
    Monica Santin
    Environmental Microbial Safety Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Building 173, BARC East, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    Vet Parasitol 146:17-24. 2007
    ..duodenalis Assemblage A suggests a low prevalence of these zoonoses. However, the high prevalence of the zoonotic cervine genotype indicates that sheep should be considered a potential environmental source of this human pathogen...
  25. ncbi request reprint Prevalence and age-related variation of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in dairy calves
    Monica Santin
    Environmental Microbial Safety Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Building 173, BARC East, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    Vet Parasitol 122:103-17. 2004
    ..This finding also indicates that persons handling or otherwise exposed to calves under 2 months of age are at greater risk of zoonotic infection from Cryptosporidium than the risk of infection from exposure to older calves...
  26. ncbi request reprint Prevalence of Microsporidia, Cryptosporidium spp., and Giardia spp. in beavers (Castor canadensis) in Massachusetts
    Ronald Fayer
    Environmental Microbial Safety Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA
    J Zoo Wildl Med 37:492-7. 2006
    ..deposited in GenBank) indicated that the four beavers were excreting Giardia duodenalis Assemblage B, the zoonotic genotype representing a potential source of waterborne Giardia spp. cysts...
  27. ncbi request reprint Intragenotypic variations in the Cryptosporidium sp. cervine genotype from sheep with implications for public health
    Monica Santin
    Environmental Microbial Safety Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Building 173, BARC East, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA
    J Parasitol 93:668-72. 2007
    ..cervine genotype with 3 different subtypes (cervine 1-3). No sequence variation at HSP-70 and COWP genes were observed. Sheep should be considered as an important reservoir for this zoonotic genotype of Cryptosporidium sp...
  28. ncbi request reprint Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes in dairy cattle in the eastern United States
    M Santin
    Environmental Microbial Safety Laboratory, United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Natural Resources Institute Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    Parasitol Res 97:535-8. 2005
    ..bienesusi reported as the human pathogens Peru 6 and Peru 9 (or D) genotypes. Although our data demonstrate the presence of zoonotic genotypes in cattle, most genotypes found in cattle were host specific...
  29. ncbi request reprint Identification of assemblage A Giardia in white-tailed deer
    J M Trout
    Environmental Microbial Safety Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA
    J Parasitol 89:1254-5. 2003
    ..This is the first report of assemblage A Giardia sp. in deer and suggests that deer could be a potential source of infectious cysts for humans and cattle...
  30. pmc Survival of infectious Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in seawater and eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) in the Chesapeake Bay
    R Fayer
    Immunology and Disease Resistance Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, U S Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 2350, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 64:1070-4. 1998
    ..parvum. These findings demonstrate for the first time that oysters in natural waters harbor infectious C. parvum oocysts and can serve as mechanical vectors of this pathogen...
  31. ncbi request reprint Cryptosporidium canis n. sp. from domestic dogs
    R Fayer
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Beltsville, Maryland 20705-2350, USA
    J Parasitol 87:1415-22. 2001
    ..The differences in genetics and host specificity clearly differentiate C. canis as a new species...
  32. ncbi request reprint Infectivity of microsporidia spores stored in water at environmental temperatures
    X Li
    Animal Waste Pathogen Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 2350, USA
    J Parasitol 89:185-8. 2003
    ....
  33. ncbi request reprint Giardia and Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in coyotes (Canis latrans)
    James M Trout
    Environmental Microbial Safety Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Agricultural Research Service, U S Department of Agriculture, Building 173, BARC East, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, Maryland, USA, 20705
    J Zoo Wildl Med 37:141-4. 2006
    ..muris, whereas five others (23%) shared 100% homology with C. canis, coyote genotype. This is the first report on multiple genotypes of Giardia spp. in coyotes and on the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. genotypes in coyotes...
  34. doi request reprint Glucagon-like peptide 2 therapy reduces negative effects of diarrhea on calf gut
    E E Connor
    Bovine Functional Genomics Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    J Dairy Sci 96:1793-802. 2013
    ..Treatment with GLP-2 promotes intestinal growth in neonatal calves and reduces the detrimental effects of nitro-oxidative stress in the ileocecum of calves with coccidiosis...
  35. ncbi request reprint Underlying disease stress augments plasma and tissue adrenomedullin (AM) responses to endotoxin: colocalized increases in AM and inducible nitric oxide synthase within pancreatic islets
    T H Elsasser
    U S Department of Argiculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA
    Endocrinology 140:5402-11. 1999
    ..The pancreatic responses in AM and iNOS may play a major role in mediating prolonged disturbances in nutrient use by tissues through their influences on temporal patterns of pancreatic hormone secretion during chronic illness...
  36. ncbi request reprint Comparison of tests for viable and infectious Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts
    M Jenkins
    Animal Waste Pathogen Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    Parasitol Res 89:1-5. 2003
    ....
  37. ncbi request reprint Characterization and potential use of a Cryptosporidium parvum virus (CPV) antigen for detecting C. parvum oocysts
    K E Kniel
    Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, USDA ARS, Building 1040, Room 100, BARC East, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    J Microbiol Methods 58:189-95. 2004
    ..This study indicates that CPV is an excellent target for sensitive detection of C. parvum oocysts in water, but may persist for an indefinite time after oocysts become non-infectious...
  38. pmc Chlorine disinfection of recreational water for Cryptosporidium parvum
    C Carpenter
    U S Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 5:579-84. 1999
    ..We found that fecal material may alter the Ct values (chlorine concentration in mg/L, multiplied by time in minutes) needed to disinfect swimming pools or other recreational water for Cryptosporidium parvum...
  39. ncbi request reprint Cryptosporidium parvum infection in bovine neonates: dynamic clinical, parasitic and immunologic patterns
    R Fayer
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Immunology and Disease Resistance Laboratory, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    Int J Parasitol 28:49-56. 1998
    ..No differences were detected in mRNA levels for cytokines from lymph node lymphocytes...
  40. doi request reprint Analysis of giardin expression during encystation of Giardia lamblia
    M C Jenkins
    Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA
    J Parasitol 98:1266-70. 2012
    ..These findings represent the first analysis of giardin transcription in separate populations of trophozoites and cysts during encystation and indicate differential regulation of giardin mRNA expression by these developmental stages...
  41. pmc Rapid extraction of DNA From Escherichia coli and Cryptosporidium parvum for use in PCR
    J A Higgins
    U S Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 67:5321-4. 2001
    ..All methods provided satisfactory DNA from E. coli, and the Xtra Amp and Instagene reagents provided satisfactory DNA from C. parvum...
  42. ncbi request reprint Hyperimmune bovine colostrum specific for recombinant Cryptosporidium parvum antigen confers partial protection against cryptosporidiosis in immunosuppressed adult mice
    M C Jenkins
    Immunology and Disease Resistance Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    Vaccine 17:2453-60. 1999
    ..parvum infection...
  43. ncbi request reprint Infectivity of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts after storage of experimentally contaminated apples
    Dumitru Macarisin
    U S Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Building 173, BARC East, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA
    J Food Prot 73:1824-9. 2010
    ..Some oocysts were closely associated with what appeared to be an amorphous substance with which they might have been attached to the apple surface...
  44. ncbi request reprint Epidemiology of Cryptosporidium: transmission, detection and identification
    R Fayer
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Institute, LPSI, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    Int J Parasitol 30:1305-22. 2000
    ..parvum; and the microscopic, immunological, and molecular methods used to detect and identify species and genotypes...
  45. ncbi request reprint Effect of progressive cachectic parasitism and growth hormone treatment on hepatic 5'-deiodinase activity in calves
    Stanislaw Kahl
    Growth Biology Laboratory, US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Building 200, Room 211E, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    Domest Anim Endocrinol 22:211-21. 2002
    ..After recovery from the APR, thyroidal secretion returns to normal but basal and bGH-stimulated generation of T(3) in liver remains impaired...
  46. ncbi request reprint Rotifers ingest oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum
    R Fayer
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 47:161-3. 2000
    ..Euchlanis and Epiphanes were observed excreting boluses containing up to eight oocysts. It was not determined whether rotifers digested or otherwise rendered oocysts nonviable...
  47. ncbi request reprint Effects of gamma radiation on viability of Encephalitozoon spores
    X Li
    Animal Waste Pathogen Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 2350, USA
    J Parasitol 88:812-3. 2002
    ..0 kGy, complete inhibition was not obtained. These findings provide a baseline for investigating the dose levels required to render food products safe when kept under varying temperature, moisture, and other storage conditions...
  48. ncbi request reprint Rotifers ingest Giardia cysts
    J M Trout
    Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA
    J Parasitol 88:1038-40. 2002
    ..Rotifer ingestion of Giardia cysts may represent a means of reducing water contamination...
  49. doi request reprint Species of Cryptosporidium detected in weaned cattle on cow-calf operations in the United States
    Ronald Fayer
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Environmental Microbial Food Safety Laboratory, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    Vet Parasitol 170:187-92. 2010
    ..The zoonotic species, C. parvum, was not detected in any samples from 6- to 18-month-old cattle, a finding that parallels reports for dairy cattle of similar age in which less than 1% were found to harbor this species...
  50. doi request reprint Taxonomy and species delimitation in Cryptosporidium
    Ronald Fayer
    Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    Exp Parasitol 124:90-7. 2010
    ..The rapidly evolving taxonomic status of Cryptosporidium sp. reflects these considerations...
  51. ncbi request reprint Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes in dogs in Bogota, Colombia
    Monica Santin
    Environmental Microbial Safety Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 79:215-7. 2008
    ..This is the first time that Peru 5 and K genotypes have been identified in dogs. This study confirms that dogs are infected with both human pathogenic and host-specific genotypes...
  52. ncbi request reprint Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis genotypes in adult dairy cows
    James M Trout
    Environmental Microbial Safety Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Agricultural Research Service, U S Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    Vet Parasitol 147:205-9. 2007
    ..duodenalis. Therefore, although adult cows do not appear to be a significant source of human infectious cysts in the environment, the risk from this age group should not entirely be discounted...
  53. doi request reprint A longitudinal study of Giardia duodenalis genotypes in dairy cows from birth to 2 years of age
    Monica Santin
    Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, MD 20705, USA
    Vet Parasitol 162:40-5. 2009
    ..duodenalis are more common than previously reported. Thus, calves appear to be a more significant reservoir of human infectious G. duodenalis than previous data have suggested...
  54. doi request reprint Cryptosporidium ubiquitum n. sp. in animals and humans
    Ronald Fayer
    Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    Vet Parasitol 172:23-32. 2010
    ..Based on morphological, molecular and biological data, this geographically widespread parasite infectious for a wide range of mammalian hosts is recognized as a new species and is named C. ubiquitum...
  55. doi request reprint A zoonotic genotype of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in horses
    Monica Santin
    Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA
    J Parasitol 96:157-61. 2010
    ..bieneusi zoonotic genotypes. Our findings indicate that E. bieneusi from horses can be a potential source of infection for humans...
  56. doi request reprint Virulence factor activity relationships for hepatitis E and Cryptosporidium
    Ronald Fayer
    United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Environmental Microbial Safety Laboratory, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    J Water Health 7:S55-63. 2009
    ..Putative virulence factors for Cryptosporidium might be found in recently recognized genes involved in processes such as excystation, adherence to host cells, invasion, intracellular maintenance and host cell destruction...
  57. doi request reprint Cryptosporidium xiaoi n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) in sheep (Ovis aries)
    Ronald Fayer
    Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Building 173, BARC East, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    Vet Parasitol 164:192-200. 2009
    ..Based on morphological, molecular and biological data, this geographically widespread parasite found in Ovis aries is recognized as a new species and is named C. xiaoi...
  58. doi request reprint Detection of Assemblage A, Giardia duodenalis and Eimeria spp. in alpacas on two Maryland farms
    James M Trout
    Environmental Microbial Safety Laboratory, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, MD, USA
    Vet Parasitol 153:203-8. 2008
    ..were not detected on either farm. Although the prevalence on these two farms was low, alpacas can harbor zoonotic G. duodenalis, and this should be borne in mind by persons interacting with the animals...
  59. doi request reprint A longitudinal study of cryptosporidiosis in dairy cattle from birth to 2 years of age
    Monica Santin
    Environmental Microbial Safety Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    Vet Parasitol 155:15-23. 2008
    ..3%, respectively. C. parvum constituted 97% of infections in pre-weaned calves but only 4% and 0% of infections in post-weaned calves and heifers, respectively. All C. parvum GP60 nucleotide sequences were subtype IIaA15G2R1...
  60. ncbi request reprint Prevalence and genotypes of Giardia duodenalis in post-weaned dairy calves
    James M Trout
    Environmental Microbial Safety Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Agricultural Research Service, U S Department of Agriculture, Building 173, BARC East, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    Vet Parasitol 130:177-83. 2005
    ..Therefore calves should be considered as a potential source of human infectious cysts in the environment, with some farms representing a much higher risk than others...
  61. ncbi request reprint Detection of Encephalitozoon hellem in feces of experimentally infected chickens
    Ronald Fayer
    USDA, ARS, Environmental Safety Laboratory, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 50:574-5. 2003
  62. ncbi request reprint Prevalence and genotypes of Giardia duodenalis in 1-2 year old dairy cattle
    James M Trout
    Environmental Microbial Safety Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    Vet Parasitol 140:217-22. 2006
    ..Therefore, heifers cannot be overlooked as a potential source of human infectious cysts in the environment, with some farms representing a much higher risk than others...
  63. ncbi request reprint An improved electron microscopic technique for the immunolabeling of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts
    Mark C Jenkins
    Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA
    J Parasitol 92:403-5. 2006
    ..The improved fixation and embedding method permits efficient immunolabeling of both nonexcysted and excysted C. parvum oocysts and may be applicable to other oocyst- and cyst-forming protozoa...
  64. ncbi request reprint Recovery and detection of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts from water samples using continuous flow centrifugation
    James A Higgins
    USDA ARS, Rm 202, Bldg 173, 10300 Baltimore Blvd, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    Water Res 37:3551-60. 2003
    ..e., US EPA methods 1622/1623), CFC and IMS may provide a more rapid and economical alternative for isolation of C. parvum oocysts from highly turbid water samples containing small quantities of oocysts...
  65. ncbi request reprint Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis genotypes in pre-weaned dairy calves
    James M Trout
    Environmental Microbial Safety Laboratory, U S Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Building 173, BARC East, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    Vet Parasitol 124:179-86. 2004
    ..Calves should be considered as a potential source of human infectious cysts in the environment...
  66. ncbi request reprint Effect of organic acids and hydrogen peroxide on Cryptosporidium parvum viability in fruit juices
    Kalmia E Kniel
    Department of Food Science and Technology, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA
    J Food Prot 66:1650-7. 2003
    ..The addition of low concentrations of H2O2 can represent a valuable alternative to pasteurization...
  67. ncbi request reprint Comparison of microscopy and PCR for detection of three species of Encephalitozoon in feces
    Ronald Fayer
    USDA, ARS, Environmental Microbial Safety Laboratory, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 50:572-3. 2003
  68. ncbi request reprint First report of Giardia in coyotes (Canis latrans)
    Monica Santin
    USDA, ARS, Environmental Microbial Safety Laboratory, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 50:709. 2003
  69. pmc Spinacia oleracea L. leaf stomata harboring Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts: a potential threat to food safety
    Dumitru Macarisin
    United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service USDA ARS, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center BARC, Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Bldg 173, BARC East, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 76:555-9. 2010
    ..These findings and the fact that this pathogenic parasite resists washing and disinfection raise concerns regarding food safety...
  70. doi request reprint Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotype nomenclature based on the internal transcribed spacer sequence: a consensus
    Monica Santin
    Environmental Microbial Safety Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 56:34-8. 2009
    ..In those publications the names and GenBank numbers that were submitted at later dates should also be provided by the authors as synonyms to aid readers and reviewers...
  71. pmc Bovine enteroviruses as indicators of fecal contamination
    Victoria Ley
    Animal Waste Pathogen Laboratory, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 68:3455-61. 2002
    ....
  72. ncbi request reprint A comparison of several serologic tests to detect antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in naturally exposed bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)
    J R P Dubey
    Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, US Department of Agriculture, Maryland 20705 2350, USA
    J Parasitol 91:1074-81. 2005
    ..gondii oocysts, serologically positive infections need to be validated by the detection of T. gondii organisms in the tissues of seropositive animals...
  73. ncbi request reprint The effect of high-pressure processing on infectivity of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts recovered from experimentally exposed Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica)
    Marina V Collins
    Department of Food Science and Technology, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, 24061, USA
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 52:500-4. 2005
    ..This non-thermal processing treatment shows promise for commercial applications to improve safety of seafood and reduce public health risks from cryptosporidiosis...
  74. ncbi request reprint Response to the newly proposed species Cryptosporidium pestis
    Lihua Xiao
    Trends Parasitol 23:41-2; author reply 42-3. 2007
  75. pmc Triosephosphate isomerase gene characterization and potential zoonotic transmission of Giardia duodenalis
    Irshad M Sulaiman
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341 3717, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 9:1444-52. 2003
    ..These data confirm that G. duodenalis from certain animals can potentially infect humans and should be useful in the detection, differentiation, and taxonomy of Giardia spp...
  76. ncbi request reprint Distribution of Cryptosporidium parvum subtypes in calves in eastern United States
    Lihua Xiao
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Parasitol Res 100:701-6. 2007
    ....
  77. ncbi request reprint Heavy cryptosporidial infections in children in northeast Brazil: comparison of Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum
    Oluma Y Bushen
    Center for Global Health, Division of Infectious Diseases and International Health, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA, USA
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 101:378-84. 2007
    ..01). Cryptosporidium hominis is more common than C. parvum in favela children and is associated with heavier infections and greater growth shortfalls, even in the absence of symptoms...
  78. ncbi request reprint Wide geographic distribution of Cryptosporidium bovis and the deer-like genotype in bovines
    Yaoyu Feng
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Vet Parasitol 144:1-9. 2007
    ..Thus, both C. bovis and the deer-like genotype are found in all age groups of cattle in diverse geographic areas and host adaptation of C. bovis might have occurred in yaks...
  79. ncbi request reprint Real-time PCR detection and speciation of Cryptosporidium infection using Scorpion probes
    Suzanne E Stroup
    Division of Infectious Diseases and International Health, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA, and Department of Gastrointestinal Sciences and Haematology, Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, India
    J Med Microbiol 55:1217-22. 2006
    ..These Scorpion probe qPCR assays are simpler to perform than existing nested PCR and RFLP methods for diagnosis and epidemiological investigation of cryptosporidiosis...
  80. pmc Genotypes of Cryptosporidium species infecting fur-bearing mammals differ from those of species infecting humans
    Ling Zhou
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Building 22, Mail Stop F 12, 4770 Buford Highway, Atlanta, GA 30341 3717, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 70:7574-7. 2004
    ..Thus, fur-bearing mammals in watersheds excreted host-adapted Cryptosporidium oocysts that are not known to be of significant public health importance...
  81. ncbi request reprint Cryptosporidium hominis n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) from Homo sapiens
    Una M Morgan-Ryan
    Division of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia 6150
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 49:433-40. 2002
    ..Based on biological and molecular data, this Cryptosporidium infecting the intestine of humans is proposed to be a new species Cryptosporidium hominis n. sp...
  82. pmc Molecular characterization of microsporidia indicates that wild mammals Harbor host-adapted Enterocytozoon spp. as well as human-pathogenic Enterocytozoon bieneusi
    Irshad M Sulaiman
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 69:4495-501. 2003
    ..However, there are also host-adapted Enterocytozoon genotypes in wildlife, which may represent species different from E. bieneusi and have no apparent public health significance. This is the first report of E. bieneusi in wildlife...
  83. ncbi request reprint Recombinant bovine interleukin-12 stimulates a gut immune response but does not provide resistance to Cryptosporidium parvum infection in neonatal calves
    Paolo Pasquali
    Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Department of Food Safety and Veterinary Public Health, Rome, Italy
    Vet Parasitol 135:259-68. 2006
    ..These data indicate that although rBoIL-12 stimulated a strong immune response in the gut of neonatal calves, the response was not able to provide protection from challenge inoculation with C. parvum oocysts...
  84. ncbi request reprint The effects of E-beam irradiation and microwave energy on Eastern Oysters (Crassostrea virginica) experimentally infected with Cryptosporidium parvum
    Marina V Collins
    Department of Food Science and Technology, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, 24061, USA
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 52:484-8. 2005
    ..Thus, because of lack of efficacy and unacceptable tissue changes, microwave treatment of oysters is not considered a viable food-processing method...
  85. ncbi request reprint Host adaptation and host-parasite co-evolution in Cryptosporidium: implications for taxonomy and public health
    Lihua Xiao
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Mail Stop F 12, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U S PHS DHHS, 4770 Buford Highway, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Int J Parasitol 32:1773-85. 2002
    ..Understanding the evolution of Cryptosporidium species is important not only for clarification of the taxonomy of the parasites but also for assessment of the public health significance of Cryptosporidium parasites from animals...
  86. ncbi request reprint Cryptosporidiosis associated with emaciation and proliferative gastritis in a laboratory-reared South African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
    Sherril L Green
    Department of Comparative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, RAF 1, Quad 7, Bldg 330, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Comp Med 53:81-4. 2003
    ..Some Cryptosporidium species are important zoonotic pathogens and, to our knowledge, this is the first report of disease associated with Cryptosporidium infection in a laboratory Xenopus laevis...
  87. pmc Cryptosporidium taxonomy: recent advances and implications for public health
    Lihua Xiao
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Chamblee, Georgia 30341, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 17:72-97. 2004
    ..assessing the public health significance of Cryptosporidium spp. in animals and the environment, characterizing transmission dynamics, and tracking infection and contamination sources...