J P Dubey

Summary

Affiliation: Agricultural Research Service
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi A review of Neospora caninum and neosporosis
    J P Dubey
    Parasite Biology and Epidemiology Laboratory, US Department of Agriculture, BARC East, Beltsville, MD 20705 2350, USA
    Vet Parasitol 67:1-59. 1996
  2. ncbi Canine neosporosis: clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment and isolation of Neospora caninum in mice and cell culture
    J P Dubey
    U S Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, MD 20705 2350, USA
    Int J Parasitol 28:1293-304. 1998
  3. ncbi Toxoplasmosis of rats: a review, with considerations of their value as an animal model and their possible role in epidemiology
    J P Dubey
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Parasite Biology and Epidemiology Laboratory, Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, MD 20705 2350, USA
    Vet Parasitol 77:1-32. 1998
  4. pmc Structures of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites, bradyzoites, and sporozoites and biology and development of tissue cysts
    J P Dubey
    Parasite Biology and Epidemiology Laboratory, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 2350, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 11:267-99. 1998
  5. ncbi Seroprevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from Egypt
    J P Dubey
    U S Department of Agriculture, Livestock and Poultry Sciences Institute, Parasite Biology and Epidemiology Laboratory, Beltsville, MD 20705 2350, USA
    Int J Parasitol 28:527-9. 1998
  6. ncbi Effect of gamma irradiation on unsporulated and sporulated Toxoplasma gondii oocysts
    J P Dubey
    U S Department of Agriculture, Beltsville Agriculture Research Center, MD 20705 2350, USA
    Int J Parasitol 28:369-75. 1998
  7. ncbi Refinement of pepsin digestion method for isolation of Toxoplasma gondii from infected tissues
    J P Dubey
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Livestock and Poultry Sciences Institute, Parasite Biology and Epidemiology Lab, Beltsville, MD 20705 2350, USA
    Vet Parasitol 74:75-7. 1998
  8. ncbi Re-examination of resistance of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites and bradyzoites to pepsin and trypsin digestion
    J P Dubey
    United States Department of Agriculture, Parasite Biology and Epidemiology Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 2350, USA
    Parasitology 116:43-50. 1998
  9. ncbi Bradyzoite-induced murine toxoplasmosis: stage conversion, pathogenesis, and tissue cyst formation in mice fed bradyzoites of different strains of Toxoplasma gondii
    J P Dubey
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 2350, USA
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 44:592-602. 1997
  10. ncbi Validation of the specificity of the modified agglutination test for toxoplasmosis in pigs
    J P Dubey
    Parasite Biology and Epidemiology Laboratory, US Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD 20705 2350, USA
    Vet Parasitol 71:307-10. 1997

Detail Information

Publications92

  1. ncbi A review of Neospora caninum and neosporosis
    J P Dubey
    Parasite Biology and Epidemiology Laboratory, US Department of Agriculture, BARC East, Beltsville, MD 20705 2350, USA
    Vet Parasitol 67:1-59. 1996
    ..It is also an important cause of neuromuscular paralysis in dogs. This paper reviews information on parasite structure, life cycle, biology, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment and control...
  2. ncbi Canine neosporosis: clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment and isolation of Neospora caninum in mice and cell culture
    J P Dubey
    U S Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, MD 20705 2350, USA
    Int J Parasitol 28:1293-304. 1998
    ..caninum. Furthermore, N. caninum (isolates NC-4, NC-5) was isolated in mice and in cell cultures inoculated with neural tissues of these two dogs. Serological diagnosis of neosporosis using a variety of tests is discussed...
  3. ncbi Toxoplasmosis of rats: a review, with considerations of their value as an animal model and their possible role in epidemiology
    J P Dubey
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Parasite Biology and Epidemiology Laboratory, Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, MD 20705 2350, USA
    Vet Parasitol 77:1-32. 1998
    ..gondii by bioassay is the only reliable means to determine persistence of chronic T. gondii infection in feral rats. No evidence was found for maintenance of T. gondii in rats by vertical transmission in the absence of cats...
  4. pmc Structures of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites, bradyzoites, and sporozoites and biology and development of tissue cysts
    J P Dubey
    Parasite Biology and Epidemiology Laboratory, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 2350, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 11:267-99. 1998
    ..The mechanism of in vivo and in vitro stage conversion from sporozoites to tachyzoites to bradyzoites and from bradyzoites to tachyzoites to bradyzoites is also discussed...
  5. ncbi Seroprevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from Egypt
    J P Dubey
    U S Department of Agriculture, Livestock and Poultry Sciences Institute, Parasite Biology and Epidemiology Laboratory, Beltsville, MD 20705 2350, USA
    Int J Parasitol 28:527-9. 1998
    ..gondii as antigen, indicating specificity in the detection of antibodies to N. caninum. This is the first report of N. caninum prevalence in water buffaloes, which are economically very important domestic animals in developing countries...
  6. ncbi Effect of gamma irradiation on unsporulated and sporulated Toxoplasma gondii oocysts
    J P Dubey
    U S Department of Agriculture, Beltsville Agriculture Research Center, MD 20705 2350, USA
    Int J Parasitol 28:369-75. 1998
    ..Raspberries inoculated with sporulated T. gondii oocysts were rendered innocuous after irradiation at 0.4 kGy. Results indicate that irradiation at 0.5 kGy is effective in "killing" coccidian oocysts on fruits and vegetables...
  7. ncbi Refinement of pepsin digestion method for isolation of Toxoplasma gondii from infected tissues
    J P Dubey
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Livestock and Poultry Sciences Institute, Parasite Biology and Epidemiology Lab, Beltsville, MD 20705 2350, USA
    Vet Parasitol 74:75-7. 1998
    ..Muscles were incubated for 60 min instead of 90 min and acid was neutralized with 1.2% (w/v) sodium bicarbonate instead by repeated washings and centrifugations...
  8. ncbi Re-examination of resistance of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites and bradyzoites to pepsin and trypsin digestion
    J P Dubey
    United States Department of Agriculture, Parasite Biology and Epidemiology Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 2350, USA
    Parasitology 116:43-50. 1998
    ..5% trypsin solution was better than in acid pepsin solution. The resistance to digestion in acid pepsin solution is not a reliable method to distinguish tachyzoites from bradyzoites...
  9. ncbi Bradyzoite-induced murine toxoplasmosis: stage conversion, pathogenesis, and tissue cyst formation in mice fed bradyzoites of different strains of Toxoplasma gondii
    J P Dubey
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 2350, USA
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 44:592-602. 1997
    ..gondii was first detected in peripheral blood at 24 HAI and more consistently at 48 HAI. Using a pepsin-digestion procedure and mouse bioassay, organisms were demonstrated in many tissues of mice 15 and 49 DAI...
  10. ncbi Validation of the specificity of the modified agglutination test for toxoplasmosis in pigs
    J P Dubey
    Parasite Biology and Epidemiology Laboratory, US Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD 20705 2350, USA
    Vet Parasitol 71:307-10. 1997
    ..Antibodies were also not found in 1:25 dilution of sera from 200 naturally aborted fetal pigs. Thus, evidence for cross reactivity to T. gondii with unrelated or related organisms using the MAT was not found...
  11. ncbi Tissue cyst tropism in Toxoplasma gondii: a comparison of tissue cyst formation in organs of cats, and rodents fed oocysts
    J P Dubey
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville MD 20705 2350, USA
    Parasitology 115:15-20. 1997
    ..Thus, in rats and mice, most tissue cysts were found in the brain and rarely in the tongue. This was in marked contrast to the distribution of tissue cysts in cats...
  12. ncbi Toxoplasmosis in rats (Rattus norvegicus): congenital transmission to first and second generation offspring and isolation of Toxoplasma gondii from seronegative rats
    J P Dubey
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, MD 20705 2350, USA
    Parasitology 115:9-14. 1997
    ....
  13. ncbi Toxoplasma gondii infections in cats from Paraná, Brazil: seroprevalence, tissue distribution, and biologic and genetic characterization of isolates
    J P Dubey
    Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, BARC East, Building 1001, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 2350, USA
    J Parasitol 90:721-6. 2004
    ..These findings support the view that Brazilian and North American T. gondii isolates are genetically distinct. This is the first report of genotyping of T. gondii isolates from the domestic cat...
  14. ncbi Isolation and genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii from free-ranging chickens from Argentina
    J P Dubey
    Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Building 1001, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 2350, USA
    J Parasitol 89:1063-4. 2003
    ..Genotyping of chicken isolates of T. gondii using the SAG2 locus indicated that 1 was type I, 1 was type II, and 7 were type III. This is the first report of isolation of T. gondii from chickens from Argentina...
  15. ncbi First biologic and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from chickens from Africa (Democratic Republic of Congo, Mali, Burkina Faso, and Kenya)
    J P Dubey
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Building 1001, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 2350, USA
    J Parasitol 91:69-72. 2005
    ..gondii was isolated from the brain of 1 of 4 seropositive chickens; this strain was avirulent for mice and was type II. This is the first report on isolation and genotyping of T. gondii from any source from these 4 countries in Africa...
  16. doi Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from raccoons (Procyon lotor), coyotes (Canis latrans), and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) in Wisconsin identified several atypical genotypes
    J P Dubey
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Building 1001, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA
    J Parasitol 93:1524-7. 2007
    ..The results indicate the prevalence of T. gondii in wildlife mammals is high and that these animals may serve as an important reservoir for transmission of T. gondii...
  17. ncbi Biologic and genetic characteristics of Toxoplasma gondii isolates in free-range chickens from Nicaragua, Central America
    J P Dubey
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Building 1001, Beltsville, MD 20705 2350, USA
    Vet Parasitol 142:47-53. 2006
    ..This is the first report of genetic characterization of T. gondii isolates from Nicragua, Central America...
  18. doi Isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from raccoons (Procyon lotor), cats (Felis domesticus), striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), black bear (Ursus americanus), and cougar (Puma concolor) from Canada
    J P Dubey
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Building 1001, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 2350, USA
    J Parasitol 94:42-5. 2008
    ..These results are in contrast with the Type II genotype that is widespread in domestic animals and humans throughout the United States and Europe. This is the first genotyping of T. gondii isolates from this part of North America...
  19. doi Isolation of Toxoplasma gondii from animals in Durango, Mexico
    J P Dubey
    Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 2350, USA
    J Parasitol 95:319-22. 2009
    ..One genotype (the 4 chicken isolates) belongs to the clonal Type III lineage, three genotypes were reported in previous reports, and 1 genotype is unique...
  20. ncbi Besnoitia oryctofelisi n. sp. (Protozoa: Apicomplexa) from domestic rabbits
    J P Dubey
    USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Parasite Biology, Epidemiology and Systematics Laboratory, Beltsville, MD 20705 2350, USA
    Parasitology 126:521-39. 2003
    ..Based on biological, serological, antigenic, and molecular differences between the rabbit and the opossum Besnoitia, a new name, B. oryctofelisi is proposed for the parasite from domestic rabbits from Argentina...
  21. ncbi Genetic and biologic characteristics of Toxoplasma gondii isolates in free-range chickens from Colombia, South America
    J P Dubey
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Beltsville, MD 20705 2350, USA
    Vet Parasitol 134:67-72. 2005
    ..gondii isolates from Colombia and Brazil was SAG2 Type II, whereas most isolates from chickens from North America were Type II. This is the first report of genetic characterization of T. gondii isolates from Colombia, South America...
  22. ncbi Biologic and genetic characteristics of Toxoplasma gondii isolates in free-range chickens from Costa Rica, Central America
    J P Dubey
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Building 1001, Beltsville, MD 20705 2350, USA
    Vet Parasitol 139:29-36. 2006
    ..None was found to have genotype II alleles at all five loci. This is the first report of genetic characterization of T. gondii isolates from Costa Rica, Central America...
  23. ncbi Tissue distribution and molecular characterization of chicken isolates of Toxoplasma gondii from Peru
    J P Dubey
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 2350, USA
    J Parasitol 90:1015-8. 2004
    ..The T. gondii isolates were from chickens from different properties that were at least 200 m apart. Thus, each isolate is likely to be different. This is the first report of isolation of T. gondii from chickens from Peru...
  24. ncbi Biologic and molecular characteristics of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), Canada goose (Branta canadensis), black-winged lory (Eos cyanogenia), and cats (Felis catus)
    J P Dubey
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 2350, USA
    J Parasitol 90:1171-4. 2004
    ..Genotypes of T. gondii isolates were Type III (all skunks, lories, and the goose) and Type II (both cats). All 5 Type III isolates from birds and 2 of the 3 isolates from skunks were mouse virulent...
  25. ncbi High prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in a commercial flock of chickens in Israel, and public health implications of free-range farming
    J P Dubey
    Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, BARC East, Beltsville, MD 20705 2350, USA
    Vet Parasitol 121:317-22. 2004
    ..Seventeen of the 19 isolates genotyped were found to be type II, and 2 were type III. Understanding of the sources of infection on such farms could be the key to the development of better prevention strategies...
  26. ncbi Prevalence of viable Toxoplasma gondii in beef, chicken, and pork from retail meat stores in the United States: risk assessment to consumers
    J P Dubey
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 2350, USA
    J Parasitol 91:1082-93. 2005
    ..Nevertheless, consumers, especially pregnant women, should be aware that they can acquire T. gondii infection from ingestion of undercooked meat, and in particular, pork. Cooking meat to an internal temperature of 66 C kills T. gondii...
  27. ncbi Toxoplasma gondii isolates of free-ranging chickens from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: mouse mortality, genotype, and oocyst shedding by cats
    J P Dubey
    Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Building 1001, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA
    J Parasitol 89:851-3. 2003
    ..Cats fed mice infected with 11 type I strains shed 19-535 million oocysts in their feces, indicating that type I isolates can circulate in the environment...
  28. doi A new atypical highly mouse virulent Toxoplasma gondii genotype isolated from a wild black bear in Alaska
    J P Dubey
    Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD 20705 2350, USA
    J Parasitol 96:713-6. 2010
    ..DNA sequencing at intron loci EF1, HP2, and UPRT1 revealed that the TgBbUS1 is a divergent T. gondii strain. These results indicate that mouse-virulent atypical T. gondii genotypes are also circulating in wildlife in North America...
  29. doi Mouse-virulent Toxoplasma gondii isolated from feral cats on Mona Island, Puerto Rico
    J P Dubey
    U S Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Building 1001, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA
    J Parasitol 93:1365-9. 2007
    ..The latter isolates of T. gondii were different biologically and phenotypically from the feline isolates from the rest of the Americas. One isolate (TgCatPr 12) was a mixed infection with 2 genotypes...
  30. doi Molecular and biological characterization of first isolates of Hammondia hammondi from cats from Ethiopia
    J P Dubey
    US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 2350, USA
    J Parasitol 99:614-8. 2013
    ..hammondi-specific primers, and sequences were deposited in GenBank (accession nos. JX477424, and KC223619). This is the first report of isolation of H. hammondi from cats from the African continent...
  31. doi Endemic toxoplasmosis in pigs on a farm in Maryland: isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii
    J P Dubey
    U S Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Building 1001, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 2350, USA
    J Parasitol 94:36-41. 2008
    ..Both genotypes 1 and 2 are considered to belong to the clonal type II lineages. Genotype 3 and 4 are nonclonal isolates. Results document high prevalence of T. gondii in pigs on a farm in Maryland...
  32. ncbi Isolation and molecular characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from chickens and ducks from Egypt
    J P Dubey
    Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, BARC East, Beltsville, MD 20705 2350, USA
    Vet Parasitol 114:89-95. 2003
    ..gondii from chickens and ducks remained asymptomatic, indicating that phenotypically they were not type I because type I strains are lethal for mice. Infections with mixed genotypes were not found...
  33. ncbi Molecular and biological characterization of Hammondia heydorni-like oocysts from a dog fed hearts from naturally infected white-tailed deer (Odocoileus Virginianus)
    J P Dubey
    Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    J Parasitol 90:1174-6. 2004
    ..heydorni DNA in the samples. The oocysts were considered to be H. heydorni on the basis of their morphology, biology, and molecular characteristics. This is the first record of a H. heydorni-like parasite in the white-tailed deer...
  34. ncbi Biologic, morphologic, and molecular characterisation of Neospora caninum isolates from littermate dogs
    J P Dubey
    US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, BARC East, Building 1040, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705 2350, USA
    Int J Parasitol 34:1157-67. 2004
    ..caninum tissue cysts from the brain of one dog. Tissue cysts were infective orally to mice and gerbils, but not to cats and dogs. The isolates were also identified as N. caninum by PCR and sequence analysis...
  35. doi Seroprevalence and isolation of Toxoplasma gondii from free-range chickens in Ghana, Indonesia, Italy, Poland, and Vietnam
    J P Dubey
    U S Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Building 1001, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 2350, USA
    J Parasitol 94:68-71. 2008
    ..This is the first report of genetic characterization of T. gondii isolates from animals from these countries...
  36. ncbi Hammondia heydorni: evidence of genetic diversity among isolates from dogs
    C Sreekumar
    Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    Exp Parasitol 107:65-71. 2004
    ..heydorni. This diversity should be taken into consideration while attempting to elucidate the systematics, diagnostics, and biology of H. heydorni in relation to N. caninum...
  37. ncbi A review of Sarcocystis neurona and equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM)
    J P Dubey
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, MD 20705 2350, USA
    Vet Parasitol 95:89-131. 2001
    ..This paper reviews information on the history, structure, life cycle, biology, pathogenesis, induction of disease in animals, clinical signs, diagnosis, pathology, epidemiology, and treatment of EPM caused by S. neurona...
  38. ncbi First isolation of Sarcocystis neurona from the South American opossum, Didelphis albiventris, from Brazil
    J P Dubey
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Building 1040, MD 20705 2350, USA
    Vet Parasitol 95:295-304. 2001
    ..The parasite was cultivated in cell culture and S. neurona DNA was isolated from cultured merozoites. This is the first report of isolation of S. neurona from Brazil and the first report from its new host, D. albiventris...
  39. ncbi Diverse and atypical genotypes identified in Toxoplasma gondii from dogs in São Paulo, Brazil
    J P Dubey
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Building 1001, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 2350, USA
    J Parasitol 93:60-4. 2007
    ..The absence of Type II in Brazil was confirmed. The result supports previous findings that T. gondii population genetics is highly diverse in Brazil...
  40. ncbi Genetic and biologic characteristics of Toxoplasma gondii infections in free-range chickens from Austria
    J P Dubey
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Building 1001, Beltsville, MD 20705 2350, USA
    Vet Parasitol 133:299-306. 2005
    ..Phenotypically and genetically these isolates were different from T. gondii isolates from Brazil. None of the isolates was virulent for mice. This is the first report of isolation of T. gondii from chickens from Austria...
  41. ncbi Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from free range chickens from Paraná, Brazil
    J P Dubey
    Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, United States Department of Agriculture ARS, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, BARC East, Building 1001, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705 2350, USA
    Vet Parasitol 117:229-34. 2003
    ..The isolate from the feces of the cat fed chicken tissues was type I...
  42. ncbi Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates in free-range chickens from Portugal
    J P Dubey
    U S Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Building 1001, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 2350, USA
    J Parasitol 92:184-6. 2006
    ..None of the isolates was lethal for mice. Phenotypically, T. gondii isolates from chickens from Portugal were different from those of T. gondii isolates from chickens from Brazil...
  43. doi Occurrence, isolation, and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in New Jersey
    J P Dubey
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Building 1001, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 2350
    J Parasitol 99:763-9. 2013
    ..3 (Type II variant), no. 4 (Type 12), no. 216, no. 220, and no. 221. The last 2 were new genotypes that were reported for the first time. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in deer from this region of the United States...
  44. ncbi Isolation and molecular characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from chickens from Sri Lanka
    J P Dubey
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 2350, USA
    J Parasitol 91:1480-2. 2005
    ..gondii isolates were avirulent for mice. Genotyping of 12 isolates using the SAG2 locus indicated that 6 were type III, and 6 were type II. This is the first report of genetic characterization of T. gondii from any host in Sri Lanka...
  45. doi High prevalence and abundant atypical genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii isolated from lambs destined for human consumption in the USA
    J P Dubey
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Beltsville, MD 20705 2350, USA
    Int J Parasitol 38:999-1006. 2008
    ..gondii in lambs, which has important implications in public health. We believe this is the first in-depth genetic analysis of T. gondii isolates from sheep in the USA...
  46. doi Modest genetic differentiation among North American populations of Sarcocystis neurona may reflect expansion in its geographic range
    N Sundar
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal Natural Resources Institute, Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Beltsville, MD 20705 2350, USA
    Vet Parasitol 152:8-15. 2008
    ..Moreover, our study confirms that diverse intermediate hosts share a common infection source, the opossum (Didelphis virginiana)...
  47. doi Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and concurrent Bartonella spp., feline immunodeficiency virus, and feline leukemia virus infections in cats from Grenada, West Indies
    J P Dubey
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 2350, USA
    J Parasitol 95:1129-33. 2009
    ..4% of 101 feral cats. Antibodies to FIV were found in 6 domestic and 22 feral cats. None of the 176 cats was positive for FeLv antigen. There was no correlation among T. gondii, Bartonella spp., and FIV seropositivity...
  48. doi Isolation of Toxoplasma gondii from the keel-billed toucan (Ramphastos sulfuratus) from Costa Rica
    J P Dubey
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Building 1001, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 2350, USA
    J Parasitol 95:467-8. 2009
    ..The isolate designated TgRsCrl was found to be non-clonal with Type I, II, and III alleles at different loci. This is the first isolation of T. gondii from this host...
  49. ncbi Prevalence of Sarcocystis neurona sporocysts in opossums (Didelphis virginiana) from rural Mississippi
    J P Dubey
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Building 1040, MD 20705 2350, USA
    Vet Parasitol 95:283-93. 2001
    ..neurona isolates from horses. The high prevalence of S. neurona sparocysts in D. virginiana suggests that this opossum constitutes an ample reservoir of infection in the southern United States...
  50. ncbi Toxoplasma gondii isolates from free-ranging chickens from the United States
    J P Dubey
    Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Building 1001, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 3250, USA
    J Parasitol 89:1060-2. 2003
    ..Tachyzoites of 19 isolates of T. gondii from Ohio and Massachusetts were considered avirulent for mice. Of 19 isolates genotyped, 5 isolates were type II and 14 were type III; mixed types and type I isolates were not found...
  51. ncbi Comparison of detection methods for Toxoplasma gondii in naturally and experimentally infected swine
    Dolores E Hill
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, BARC East Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    Vet Parasitol 141:9-17. 2006
    ..gondii infection in tissues from naturally and experimentally infected pigs. The results indicate that a serum-based ELISA is the most sensitive method, of those tested, for detection of T. gondii infected swine...
  52. doi Isolation of viable Toxoplasma gondii from tissues and feces of cats from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
    J P Dubey
    U S Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Building 1001, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 2350, USA
    J Parasitol 99:56-8. 2013
    ..The high prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in feces of 8 (19.4%) of 36 cats is of high epidemiologic significance. This is the first report of isolation of viable T. gondii from any host in Ethiopia...
  53. ncbi Prevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum and Sarcocystis neurona in sera of domestic cats from Brazil
    J P Dubey
    Parasite Biology, Epidemiology and Systematics Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Building 1001, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 2350, USA
    J Parasitol 88:1251-2. 2002
    ..caninum-specific antibodies confirmed by 2 tests. This is the first documentation of natural exposure of cats to N. caninum...
  54. doi New Toxoplasma gondii genotypes isolated from free-range chickens from the Fernando de Noronha, Brazil: unexpected findings
    J P Dubey
    Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD 20705 2350, USA
    J Parasitol 96:709-12. 2010
    ..Results in this study indicate that T. gondii on this island consists of unique genotypes as well as clonal genotypes that are dominant in Europe and North America...
  55. ncbi Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in cats from Colombia, South America and genetic characterization of T. gondii isolates
    J P Dubey
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Beltsville, MD 20705 2350, USA
    Vet Parasitol 141:42-7. 2006
    ....
  56. ncbi Isolation, tissue distribution, and molecular characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from free-range chickens from Guatemala
    J P Dubey
    U S Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Building 1001, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 2350, USA
    J Parasitol 91:955-7. 2005
    ..Genotyping of these 8 isolates with the SAG2 locus indicated that 5 were type III and 3 were type 1. This is the first report of isolation of T. gondii from chickens from Guatemala...
  57. ncbi Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates in free-range chickens from Amazon, Brazil
    J P Dubey
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Building 1001, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 2350, USA
    J Parasitol 92:36-40. 2006
    ..Fifty percent of the infected mice died of toxoplasmosis, irrespective of the genotype...
  58. ncbi Serological investigation of an outbreak of Neospora caninum-associated abortion in a dairy herd in southeastern United States
    M C Jenkins
    US Department of Agriculture, ARS LPSI, Immunology and Disease Resistance Laboratory, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    Vet Parasitol 94:17-26. 2000
    ..caninum infection. Of the cows at risk for abortion, the mean serological AI of aborting cows was significantly lower (P<0.05) than mean serological AI of non-aborting cows...
  59. ncbi Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates in free-range chickens from Chile, South America
    J P Dubey
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Beltsville, MD 20705 2350, USA
    Vet Parasitol 140:76-82. 2006
    ..One isolate contained the combination of type I and III alleles. This is the first report of genetic characterization of T. gondii isolates from Chile, South America...
  60. ncbi Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from chickens from India
    C Sreekumar
    United States Department of Agriculture, Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, MD 20705 2350, USA
    Vet Parasitol 118:187-94. 2003
    ..Microsatellite analysis revealed allelic differences between and within the lineages. This is the first report of genetic characterization of any T. gondii isolate from India...
  61. doi High prevalence and genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii isolated from goats, from a retail meat store, destined for human consumption in the USA
    J P Dubey
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Building 1001, Beltsville, MD 20705 2350, USA
    Int J Parasitol 41:827-33. 2011
    ..gondii in goats, which have important implications in public health. We believe this is the first genetic analysis of T. gondii isolates from goats in the USA...
  62. ncbi High prevalence of viable Toxoplasma gondii infection in market weight pigs from a farm in Massachusetts
    J P Dubey
    Parasite Biology, Epidemiology and Systematics Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center East, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA
    J Parasitol 88:1234-8. 2002
    ..Results indicate that until examination of meat for T. gondii infection is implemented in slaughterhouses, all meat should be cooked according to industry guidelines before human consumption...
  63. ncbi Characterization of a Sarcocystis neurona isolate (SN6) from a naturally infected horse from Oregon
    J P Dubey
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Maryland 20705 2350, USA
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 46:500-6. 1999
    ..neurona schizonts and merozoites were found in encephalitic lesions. The parasite in tissue sections of mice reacted with S. neurona-specific antibodies and S. neurona was reisolated from the brain of knockout mice...
  64. ncbi Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates in free-range chickens from Argentina
    J P Dubey
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 2350, USA
    J Parasitol 91:1335-9. 2005
    ..Prevalence of T. gondii antibodies in chickens varied among regions, being 3 times greater in the humid Pampeana region (61.2%) than in the semiarid plain of Santiago del Estero (20%)...
  65. ncbi Isolate designation and characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from pigs in the United States
    G V Velmurugan
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 2350, USA
    J Parasitol 95:95-9. 2009
    ..In conclusion, along with the predominance of clonal Type II and III strains, a few diverse, previously unrecognized T. gondii lineages were found circulating in domestic pigs used for human consumption...
  66. ncbi Localization of a 56-kDa antigen that is present in multiple developmental stages of Neospora caninum
    Mark Jenkins
    Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA
    J Parasitol 90:660-3. 2004
    ..Immunoelectron microscopy revealed the 56-kDa antigen to be present in the apical end of both tachyzoites and bradyzoites and possibly extracellularly secreted by tachyzoites...
  67. ncbi Comparison of a commercial ELISA with the modified agglutination test for detection of Toxoplasma infection in the domestic pig
    H R Gamble
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Building 1040, BARC East, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    Vet Parasitol 128:177-81. 2005
    ..0% specificity). Good correlation was seen between MAT and ELISA results. The results suggest that the ELISA may be a good tool for epidemiological studies of Toxoplasma infection on pig farms...
  68. ncbi History of the discovery of the life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii
    J P Dubey
    United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Beltsville, MD 20705 2350, USA
    Int J Parasitol 39:877-82. 2009
    ..The discovery of the environmentally resistant stage of the parasite, the oocyst, made it possible to explain its worldwide prevalence. In the present paper, events associated with the discovery of its life cycle are recalled...
  69. ncbi Experimental infection of sheep with Neospora caninum oocysts
    Ryan O'Handley
    Parasite Biology, Epidemiology and Systematics Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA
    J Parasitol 88:1120-3. 2002
    ..Antibodies were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Neospora agglutination test, or immunoblotting to either native or recombinant N. caninum antigens in sheep inoculated with oocysts...
  70. ncbi Recent advances in Neospora and neosporosis
    J P Dubey
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Livestock and Poultry Sciences Institute, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, MD 20705 2350, USA
    Vet Parasitol 84:349-67. 1999
    ..Progress made in serologic diagnosis of N. caninum infection is discussed. There is no vaccine for preventing Neospora-induced abortions in cattle or to prevent oocyst shedding in dogs...
  71. ncbi Clinical Sarcocystis neurona, Sarcocystis canis, Toxoplasma gondii, and Neospora caninum infections in dogs
    J P Dubey
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, MD 20705 2350, USA
    Vet Parasitol 137:36-49. 2006
    ..canis, which corresponds morphologically to infections reported from wide range of terrestrial and marine mammals...
  72. ncbi HPLC purification of recombinant NcGRA6 antigen improves enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serodiagnosis of bovine neosporosis
    M C Jenkins
    Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    Vet Parasitol 131:227-34. 2005
    ..coli proteins improves the performance of recombinant NcGRA6 ELISA in diagnosing bovine neosporosis, and may have applicability to the use of recombinant proteins in diagnosing other infectious agents...
  73. ncbi Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Grenada, West Indies
    J P Dubey
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Building 1001, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 2350, USA
    J Parasitol 92:1107-8. 2006
    ..gondii from the heart and the brain were identical and had genotype III by using the SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, and GRA6 gene markers. These data indicate that rats are not important in the natural history of T. gondii in Grenada...
  74. ncbi Oral infection of calves with Neospora caninum oocysts from dogs: humoral and cellular immune responses
    T De Marez
    US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Livestock and Poultry Sciences Institute, Immunology and Disease Resistance Laboratory, Beltsville, MD 20705 2350, USA
    Int J Parasitol 29:1647-57. 1999
    ..caninum oocysts collected from dogs, and that the animals were systematically sensitised by parasite antigen...
  75. ncbi A competitive PCR assay for quantitative detection of Neospora caninum
    S Liddell
    US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Livestock and Poultry Sciences Institute, Parasite Biology and Epidemiology Laboratory, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    Int J Parasitol 29:1583-7. 1999
    ..Incorporation of the competitor molecule in the detection assay also provides a control for PCR failure and facilitates identification of truly negative samples...
  76. ncbi Pathogenesis of bovine neosporosis
    J P Dubey
    Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, BARC East, Building 1001, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705 2350, USA
    J Comp Pathol 134:267-89. 2006
    ..Defining these immunological mechanisms will shed light on potential methods of control of bovine neosporosis and enrich our understanding of the continuity of mammalian and protozoal survival...
  77. doi Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum antibodies in dogs from Grenada, West Indies
    J P Dubey
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 2350, USA
    J Parasitol 94:750-1. 2008
    ..Two of the 107 dogs had N. caninum antibodies (IFAT titers 1:100 and 1:400); these dogs had T. gondii titers of 1:1,600 and 1:50, respectively. Results indicate that these 2 structurally similar protozoa are antigenically different...
  78. doi Isolation of Toxoplasma gondii from bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)
    J P Dubey
    Animal Parasitic Deseases Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA
    J Parasitol 94:821-3. 2008
    ..Two of the 3 isolates have Type II alleles at all loci and belong to the clonal Type II lineage. One isolate has a unique genotype. This is the first report of isolation of viable T. gondii from T. truncatus...
  79. ncbi Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans and animals in the United States
    J P Dubey
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Beltsville, MD 20705 2350, USA
    Int J Parasitol 38:1257-78. 2008
    ..Seroprevalence of T. gondii in humans and pigs is declining. Modes of transmission, epidemiology and environmental contamination with oocysts on land and sea are discussed...
  80. doi Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in dogs from Durango City, Mexico
    J P Dubey
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 2350, USA
    J Parasitol 93:1033-5. 2007
    ..The N. caninum antibody titers of the 2 dogs were: 1:400 by IFAT and 1:200 by NAT in 1, and 1:25 by NAT and IFAT in the other. Results indicate that these 2 structurally similar protozoans are antigenically different...
  81. pmc Epidemiology and control of neosporosis and Neospora caninum
    J P Dubey
    Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Agricultural Research Service, U S Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 20:323-67. 2007
    ..caninum in animals and humans are tabulated. The role of wildlife in the life cycle of N. caninum and strategies for the control of neosporosis in cattle are discussed...
  82. ncbi Redescription of Hammondia hammondi and its differentiation from Toxoplasma gondii
    J P Dubey
    United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Building 1001, BARC East, Beltsville, MD 20705 2350, USA
    Int J Parasitol 33:1437-53. 2003
    ..gondii. Hammondia hammondi was found to be structurally, biologically, and molecularly different from T. gondii...
  83. ncbi Isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) from Costa Rica
    J P Dubey
    Diseases Laboratory, U S Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, BARC East, Building 1001, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA
    J Parasitol 93:710-1. 2007
    ..Genomic DNA from tachyzoites of this isolate was used for genotyping at 10 genetic loci, including SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico, and this TgSdCo1 isolate was found to be Type II...
  84. ncbi Isolation of Neospora caninum from naturally infected white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)
    M C B Vianna
    United States Department of Agriculture, Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Building 1001, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    Vet Parasitol 129:253-7. 2005
    ..This is the first record of in vitro isolation of N. caninum from white-tailed deer and lends credence to the white-tailed deer as an intermediate host for this parasite...
  85. ncbi Neospora caninum antigens defined by antigen-dependent bovine CD4+ T cells
    Wenbin Tuo
    Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA
    J Parasitol 91:564-8. 2005
    ..This 16-kDa protein was absent in other fractions, and it may be a target of a T-cell response in cattle. Further identification of immunogenic proteins of N. caninum may facilitate development of subunit vaccines against neosporosis...
  86. ncbi Toxoplasma gondii infections in chickens from Venezuela: isolation, tissue distribution, and molecular characterization
    J P Dubey
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 2350, USA
    J Parasitol 91:1332-4. 2005
    ..Phenotypically and genetically these isolates were different from T. gondii isolates from North America and Brazil. This is the first report of isolation of T. gondii from chickens from Venezuela...
  87. ncbi Toxoplasma gondii: transmission, diagnosis and prevention
    D Hill
    Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 2350, USA
    Clin Microbiol Infect 8:634-40. 2002
    ..In most adults it does not cause serious illness, but it can cause blindness and mental retardation in congenitally infected children and devastating disease in immunocompromised individuals...
  88. ncbi Neospora caninum and Hammondia heydorni are separate species/organisms
    J P Dubey
    Parasite Biology, Epidemiology and Systematics Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Agriculture Research Service, United States Dept of Agriculture, Building 1001, Beltsville, MD 20705 2350, USA
    Trends Parasitol 18:66-9. 2002
    ..It was recently proposed that they are one species. In this paper, we review the biology and morphology of these parasites and present evidence that N. caninum and H. heydorni are separate species...
  89. ncbi Toxoplasmosis in captive dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and walrus (Odobenus rosmarus)
    J P Dubey
    Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 2350, USA
    J Parasitol 95:82-5. 2009
    ..1 and the walrus showed archetypal alleles consistent with infection by a Type II strain. No unique polymorphisms were detected. This is apparently the first report of isolation of T. gondii from a marine mammal in Canada...
  90. ncbi Isolation and genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii from free-ranging chickens from Mexico
    J P Dubey
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Building 1001, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 2350, USA
    J Parasitol 90:411-3. 2004
    ..All 6 isolates were avirulent for mice. Genotyping of chicken isolates of T. gondii using the SAG2 locus indicated that 5 were type III and 1 was type I. This is the first report of isolation of T. gondii from chickens from Mexico...
  91. ncbi Biological and genetic characterisation of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from chickens (Gallus domesticus) from São Paulo, Brazil: unexpected findings
    J P Dubey
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Parasite Biology, Epidemiology and Systematics Laboratory, Beltsville, MD 20705 2350, USA
    Int J Parasitol 32:99-105. 2002
    ..gondii isolates. This is the first report of isolation of predominantly type I strains of T. gondii from a food animal. Epidemiological implications of these findings are discussed...
  92. ncbi Evaluation of vaccination with Neospora caninum protein for prevention of fetal loss associated with experimentally induced neosporosis in sheep
    Mark C Jenkins
    Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    Am J Vet Res 65:1404-8. 2004
    ..To evaluate the immunologic response of a killed tachyzoite vaccine against Neospora caninum and its effectiveness in preventing fetal loss associated with experimentally induced neosporosis in sheep...