N A Cox

Summary

Affiliation: Agricultural Research Service
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Sampling naturally contaminated broiler carcasses for Salmonella by three different methods
    N A Cox
    U S Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Russell Research Center, 950 College Station Road, Athens, Georgia 30605, USA
    J Food Prot 77:493-5. 2014
  2. doi request reprint Evidence for horizontal and vertical transmission in Campylobacter passage from hen to her progeny
    N A Cox
    U S Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Russell Research Center, 950 College Station Road, Athens, Georgia 30605, USA
    J Food Prot 75:1896-902. 2012
  3. doi request reprint Minimization of Salmonella contamination on raw poultry
    N A Cox
    USDA Agricultural Research Service, Russell Research Center, Athens, Georgia 30605, USA
    Annu Rev Food Sci Technol 2:75-95. 2011
  4. doi request reprint Campylobacter species occurrence within internal organs and tissues of commercial caged Leghorn laying hens
    N A Cox
    USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Poultry Microbiological Safety Research Unit, GA, USA
    Poult Sci 88:2449-56. 2009
  5. ncbi request reprint Comparison of neck skin excision and whole carcass rinse sampling methods for microbiological evaluation of broiler carcasses before and after immersion chilling
    N A Cox
    U S Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Russell Research Center, Athens, Georgia 30605, USA
    J Food Prot 73:976-80. 2010
  6. ncbi request reprint Campylobacter coli naturally resistant to elevated levels of gentamicin as a marker strain in poultry research
    N A Cox
    U S Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Poultry Microbiology Safety Research Unit, Russell Research Center, 950 College Station Road, Athens, Georgia 30605, USA
    J Food Prot 72:1288-92. 2009
  7. ncbi request reprint Survey of shell egg processing plant sanitation programs: effects on non-egg-contact surfaces
    M T Musgrove
    Russell Research Center, US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Athens, Georgia 30605, USA
    J Food Prot 67:2801-4. 2004
  8. ncbi request reprint Distribution of Campylobacter spp. in selected U.S. poultry production and processing operations
    N J Stern
    Richard B Russell Agricultural Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Athens, Georgia 30604 5677, USA
    J Food Prot 64:1705-10. 2001
  9. ncbi request reprint Recovery of Campylobacter jejuni in feces and semen of caged broiler breeder roosters following three routes of inoculation
    R J Buhr
    Poultry Microbiological Safety Research Unit, USDA, ARS, Richard B Russell Agricultural Research Center, Athens, GA 30604 5677, USA
    Avian Dis 49:577-81. 2005
  10. ncbi request reprint Effect of prechill fecal contamination on numbers of bacteria recovered from broiler chicken carcasses before and after immersion chilling
    J A Cason
    US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Russell Research Center, Athens, Georgia 30604 5677, USA
    J Food Prot 67:1829-33. 2004

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications56

  1. ncbi request reprint Sampling naturally contaminated broiler carcasses for Salmonella by three different methods
    N A Cox
    U S Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Russell Research Center, 950 College Station Road, Athens, Georgia 30605, USA
    J Food Prot 77:493-5. 2014
    ..This study demonstrates significant differences in the results for Salmonella prevalence among sampling methods both before and after immersion chilling, as well as between processing plants on days that samples were taken. ..
  2. doi request reprint Evidence for horizontal and vertical transmission in Campylobacter passage from hen to her progeny
    N A Cox
    U S Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Russell Research Center, 950 College Station Road, Athens, Georgia 30605, USA
    J Food Prot 75:1896-902. 2012
    ....
  3. doi request reprint Minimization of Salmonella contamination on raw poultry
    N A Cox
    USDA Agricultural Research Service, Russell Research Center, Athens, Georgia 30605, USA
    Annu Rev Food Sci Technol 2:75-95. 2011
    ..Minimizing Salmonella contamination of poultry is not likely to reduce human salmonellosis acquired from exposure to contaminated chicken until these issues are confronted more systematically...
  4. doi request reprint Campylobacter species occurrence within internal organs and tissues of commercial caged Leghorn laying hens
    N A Cox
    USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Poultry Microbiological Safety Research Unit, GA, USA
    Poult Sci 88:2449-56. 2009
    ..Commercial table egg laying hens housed in colony cages on wire floors had diverse Campylobacter spp. recovered from different tissues and these isolates were not resistant to a broad range of antimicrobials...
  5. ncbi request reprint Comparison of neck skin excision and whole carcass rinse sampling methods for microbiological evaluation of broiler carcasses before and after immersion chilling
    N A Cox
    U S Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Russell Research Center, Athens, Georgia 30605, USA
    J Food Prot 73:976-80. 2010
    ..Prechill, E. coli plus coliform counts were 3.0 and 2.6 log CFU/ml by the WCR and NS methods, respectively. Postchill, E. coli plus coliform counts were 1.7 and 1.4 log CFU/ml by the WCR and NS methods, respectively...
  6. ncbi request reprint Campylobacter coli naturally resistant to elevated levels of gentamicin as a marker strain in poultry research
    N A Cox
    U S Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Poultry Microbiology Safety Research Unit, Russell Research Center, 950 College Station Road, Athens, Georgia 30605, USA
    J Food Prot 72:1288-92. 2009
    ..The C. coli strain's unique characteristic, being resistant to high levels of gentamicin, allows for a marker that can be used in a wide range of Campylobacter research projects...
  7. ncbi request reprint Survey of shell egg processing plant sanitation programs: effects on non-egg-contact surfaces
    M T Musgrove
    Russell Research Center, US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Athens, Georgia 30605, USA
    J Food Prot 67:2801-4. 2004
    ..These data suggest that traffic patterns for the movement of eggs and materials through the plant should be reevaluated so that cross-contamination is reduced...
  8. ncbi request reprint Distribution of Campylobacter spp. in selected U.S. poultry production and processing operations
    N J Stern
    Richard B Russell Agricultural Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Athens, Georgia 30604 5677, USA
    J Food Prot 64:1705-10. 2001
    ..After chilling, the proportions of Campylobacter-positive carcasses from different producers ranged from 21.0 to 40.9%, which is lower than in other studies, and possible reasons are considered...
  9. ncbi request reprint Recovery of Campylobacter jejuni in feces and semen of caged broiler breeder roosters following three routes of inoculation
    R J Buhr
    Poultry Microbiological Safety Research Unit, USDA, ARS, Richard B Russell Agricultural Research Center, Athens, GA 30604 5677, USA
    Avian Dis 49:577-81. 2005
    ..The production of Campylobacter-positive semen could provide a route in addition to fecal-oral for the horizontal transmission of Campylobacter from the rooster to the reproductive tract of the hen...
  10. ncbi request reprint Effect of prechill fecal contamination on numbers of bacteria recovered from broiler chicken carcasses before and after immersion chilling
    J A Cason
    US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Russell Research Center, Athens, Georgia 30604 5677, USA
    J Food Prot 67:1829-33. 2004
    ..Bacterial counts in postchill carcass rinses did not indicate that fecal contamination occurred before chilling...
  11. ncbi request reprint Shell rinse and shell crush methods for the recovery of aerobic microorganisms and enterobacteriaceae from shell eggs
    M T Musgrove
    Russell Research Center, US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Athens, Georgia 30605, USA
    J Food Prot 68:2144-8. 2005
    ..However, the CR technique was more efficient for recovery of Enterobacteriaceae from postprocess eggs. Stage of shell egg processing may be an important consideration when choosing egg sampling methods...
  12. ncbi request reprint Sources and movement of Salmonella through integrated poultry operations: a multistate epidemiological investigation
    J S Bailey
    Richard B Russell Agricultural Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Athens, Georgia 30604 5677, USA
    J Food Prot 64:1690-7. 2001
    ..Determining critical contaminating sources and following the movement of Salmonella through integrated poultry operations will help researchers and the industry develop practical intervention strategies...
  13. doi request reprint Comparison of shell bacteria from unwashed and washed table eggs harvested from caged laying hens and cage-free floor-housed laying hens
    J F Hannah
    Department of Poultry Science, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA
    Poult Sci 90:1586-93. 2011
    ..However, housing hens in cages with manure removal belts resulted in lower APC for both unwashed and washed eggs (compared with eggs from hens housed in a room with shavings, slats, and cages)...
  14. ncbi request reprint Comparison of mucosal competitive exclusion and competitive exclusion treatment to reduce Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. colonization in broiler chickens
    N J Stern
    United States Department of Agriculture, Poultry Microbiological Safety Research Unit, Richard B Russell Agricultural Research Center, Athens, Georgia 30605, USA
    Poult Sci 80:156-60. 2001
    ..96 log 10 cfu/g cecal contents vs. 5.03 log 10 cfu/g cecal contents). These results can be useful in developing intervention strategies to reduce chicken colonization by Salmonella and Campylobacter...
  15. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of TECRA broth, Bolton broth, and direct plating for recovery of Campylobacter spp, from broiler carcass rinsates from commercial processing plants
    L J Richardson
    U S Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Poultry Microbiological Safety Research Unit, Russell Research Center, Athens, Georgia 30605, USA
    J Food Prot 72:972-7. 2009
    ..The high number of Campylobacter-positive samples obtained with all procedures indicated that 99% of the carcass rinsates obtained at rehang and 84% obtained at postchill contained Campylobacter spp...
  16. ncbi request reprint Incidence of Clostridium perfringens in broiler chickens and their environment during production and processing
    S E Craven
    Richard B. Russell Agricultural Research Center, Poultry Microbiological Safety Research Unit, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Athens, GA 30605, USA
    Avian Dis 45:887-96. 2001
    ..Clostridium perfringens was recovered from broiler carcasses after chilling in 13 (81%) of the 16 flocks. The proportion of C. perfringens-positive carcasses for the contaminated flocks ranged from 8% to 68% with a mean of 30%...
  17. ncbi request reprint Partitioning of external and internal bacteria carried by broiler chickens before processing
    J A Cason
    U S Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Russell Research Center, P O Box 5677, Athens, Georgia 30604 5677, USA
    J Food Prot 70:2056-62. 2007
    ..The pattern of bacterial contamination before processing is complex and highly variable...
  18. ncbi request reprint Detection of Campylobacter jejuni in various lymphoid organs of broiler breeder hens after oral or intravaginal inoculation
    N A Cox
    USDA, ARS, Russell Research Center, Athens, GA 30605 USA
    Poult Sci 85:1378-82. 2006
    ..This study provides evidence that C. jejuni can reside in the internal organs of broiler breeder hens following oral or intravaginal inoculation...
  19. ncbi request reprint Effect of yeast-supplemented feed on Salmonella and Campylobacter populations in broilers
    J E Line
    USDA ARS, Russell Research Center, Athens, Georgia 30604 5677, USA
    Poult Sci 77:405-10. 1998
    ..15, respectively, for the control, 1x, and 100x yeast-treated birds. Campylobacter colonization was not significantly affected by yeast treatment. Similar results were obtained from a second trial conducted in larger isolation floor pens...
  20. ncbi request reprint Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella and Escherichia coli isolated from commercial shell eggs
    M T Musgrove
    Egg Safety and Quality Research Unit, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Athens, GA 30604, USA
    Poult Sci 85:1665-9. 2006
    ..1%). Only 1% of the E. coli isolates were resistant to 4 antimicrobial agents. These data indicate that shell eggs can harbor resistant foodborne and commensal bacteria; among Salmonella isolates, resistance was serotype-dependent...
  21. ncbi request reprint Presence of naturally occurring Campylobacter and Salmonella in the mature and immature ovarian follicles of late-life broiler breeder hens
    N A Cox
    USDA ARS, PMSRU, Russell Research Center, 950 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605, USA
    Avian Dis 49:285-7. 2005
    ....
  22. ncbi request reprint Recovery of Salmonella from commercial shell eggs by shell rinse and shell crush methodologies
    M T Musgrove
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Richard B Russell Agricultural Research Center, 950 College Station Road, Athens, Georgia 30605, USA
    Poult Sci 84:1955-8. 2005
    ..3%). For some eggs, Salmonella was only recovered by one of the methods. Use of both approaches in the same experiment increased sampling sensitivity, although in most cases, crushing provided more sensitive Salmonella recovery...
  23. ncbi request reprint Horizontal transmission of Salmonella and Campylobacter among caged and cage-free laying hens
    J F Hannah
    Department of Poultry Science, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
    Avian Dis 55:580-7. 2011
    ..The overall results of this study indicate that the caged housing system provided the lowest horizontal transmission level of Salmonella and Campylobacter among egg-laying hens...
  24. doi request reprint Effect of stomaching on numbers of bacteria recovered from chicken skin
    J F Hannah
    Department of Poultry Science University of Georgia, Athens 30602, GA, USA
    Poult Sci 90:491-3. 2011
    ..05) after stomaching. Numbers of inoculated Salmonella did not decrease. Breaking up the skin into smaller pieces by stomaching did not reduce the number of inoculated bacteria suspended in the rinsate...
  25. ncbi request reprint Efficacy of an herbal extract on the microbiological quality of broiler carcasses during a simulated chill
    J A Dickens
    Poultry Processing and Meat Quality Research Unit, USDA, Agricultural Research Service, South Atlantic Area, Russell Research Center, Athens, Georgia 30604 5677, USA
    Poult Sci 79:1200-3. 2000
    ..coli, coliforms, and total counts and 10 cells/mL (log10 1) for the Campylobacter. Microbial counts for carcasses treated with Protecta II would be considered too low to be detected (<1 cell/mL)...
  26. ncbi request reprint Serotype tracking of Salmonella through integrated broiler chicken operations
    J S Bailey
    U S Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Athens, Georgia 30604, USA
    J Food Prot 65:742-5. 2002
    ..This study confirms that a successful intervention program for broiler production operations must be multifaceted, with one component being disinfection in the hatchery...
  27. ncbi request reprint Detection of Campylobacter spp. in ceca and crops with and without enrichment
    M T Musgrove
    Poultry Microbiological Safety Research Unit, Russell Research Center, Athens, Georgia 30605, USA
    Poult Sci 80:825-8. 2001
    ..The large numbers of non-Campylobacter species that inhabit the intestinal tract may out-compete Campylobacter during enrichment, confounding detection...
  28. ncbi request reprint Isolation of Campylobacter from circulating blood of commercial broilers
    L J Richardson
    U S Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Russell Research Center, Athens, GA 30605, USA
    Avian Dis 55:375-8. 2011
    ..From a processing viewpoint, Campylobacter presence in circulating blood of market-age broilers may increase the likelihood of cross-contamination between birds during slaughter...
  29. ncbi request reprint Prevalence of Clostridium perfringens in commercial broiler hatcheries
    S E Craven
    USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Russell Research Center, Athens, GA 30605, USA
    Avian Dis 45:1050-3. 2001
    ..e., detected on each of the nine sampling days (three sampling days for each of three hatcheries). These results suggest that the hatchery is a potential source/reservoir for C. perfringens in the integrated poultry operation...
  30. doi request reprint Comparison of the statistics of Salmonella testing of chilled broiler chicken carcasses by whole-carcass rinse and neck skin excision
    J A Cason
    USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Russell Research Center, PO Box 5677, Athens, GA 30604 5677, USA
    Poult Sci 89:2038-40. 2010
    ..96%. Sampling and culturing methods must also be considered in comparing the different standards for Salmonella...
  31. ncbi request reprint Survey of shell egg processing plant sanitation programs: effects on egg contact surfaces
    D R Jones
    Russell Research Center, U S Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service, Athens, Georgia 30605, USA
    J Food Prot 66:1486-9. 2003
    ..At this point, it is difficult to draw definitive conclusions about how rigid SSOPs should be for the shell egg processing industry...
  32. ncbi request reprint Presence of Campylobacter jejuni in various organs one hour, one day, and one week following oral or intracloacal inoculations of broiler chicks
    N A Cox
    AUSDA, ARS, Russell Research Center, Athens, GA 30604, USA
    Avian Dis 49:155-8. 2005
    ..The rapid movement of Campylobacter to internal organs following both oral and intracloacal inoculation may be significant, particularly if it persists in these organs as reservoirs throughout the 65-wk life cycle of breeding birds...
  33. doi request reprint Transmission of Salmonella to broilers by contaminated larval and adult lesser mealworms, Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)
    A J Roche
    Department of Entomology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
    Poult Sci 88:44-8. 2009
    ..These results demonstrated that ingestion of larval or adult beetles contaminated with a marker Salmonella could be a significant vector for transmission to broilers...
  34. doi request reprint Enterobacteriaceae and related organisms isolated from shell eggs collected during commercial processing
    M T Musgrove
    Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Richard B Russell Agricultural Research Center, Athens, GA 30605, USA
    Poult Sci 87:1211-8. 2008
    ..All of the genera and species were recovered less frequently from fully processed eggs than from unwashed eggs, indicating that shell eggs are less contaminated with bacteria as a result of commercial washing procedures...
  35. ncbi request reprint Natural presence of Campylobacter spp. in various internal organs of commercial broiler breeder hens
    N A Cox
    U S Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Poultry Microbiological Safety Research Unit, Russell Research Center, Athens, GA 30605, USA
    Avian Dis 50:450-3. 2006
    ..Overall, 28 of 53 isolates from the above samples were Campylobacter coli and 25 of 53 isolates were found to be Campylobacter jejuni...
  36. ncbi request reprint Mucosal competitive exclusion to reduce Salmonella in swine
    P J Fedorka-Cray
    U S Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Animal Disease Center, Ames, Iowa 50010, USA
    J Food Prot 62:1376-80. 1999
    ..These data indicate that use of MCES may be a useful approach for control of Salmonella...
  37. ncbi request reprint Serotyping and ribotyping of Salmonella using restriction enzyme PvuII
    J S Bailey
    U S Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Athens, Georgia 30604 5677, USA
    J Food Prot 65:1005-7. 2002
    ....
  38. ncbi request reprint Isolation of Campylobacter spp. from semen samples of commercial broiler breeder roosters
    N A Cox
    Poultry Microbiological Safety Research Unit, United States Department of Agriculture, Richard B Russell Research Center, Athens, GA 30605, USA
    Avian Dis 46:717-20. 2002
    ..These data suggest that rooster semen may serve as a vehicle for transmission of Campylobacter to the reproductive tract of the hen and subsequently to the fertile egg...
  39. ncbi request reprint Recovery of Campylobacter from segments of the reproductive tract of broiler breeder hens
    R J Buhr
    Poultry Processing and Meat Quality Research Unit, USDA, ARS, Russell Research Center, PO Box 5677, Athens, GA 30604 5677, USA
    Avian Dis 46:919-24. 2002
    ..Campylobacter colonization of the reproductive tract of the hen could enable vertical transmission of Campylobacter from the hen to the chick...
  40. ncbi request reprint Comparison of four sampling methods for the detection of Salmonella in broiler litter
    R J Buhr
    Poultry Microbiological Safety and Poultry Processing Research Units, Richard B Russell Agricultural Research Center, USDA ARS, PO Box 5677, Athens, GA 30604 5677, USA
    Poult Sci 86:21-5. 2007
    ..Litter sampling methods that incorporate stepping on the sample material while in contact with the litter appear to detect Salmonella in greater incidence than traditional sampling methods of dragging swabs over the litter surface...
  41. ncbi request reprint Salmonella penetration of egg shells and proliferation in broiler hatching eggs--a review
    N A Cox
    USDA, Agricultural Research Service Russell Research Center, Athens, Georgia 30604 5677, USA
    Poult Sci 79:1571-4. 2000
    ....
  42. ncbi request reprint Colonization of a marker and field strain of Salmonella enteritidis and a marker strain of Salmonella typhimurium in vancomycin-pretreated and nonpretreated laying hens
    J F Hannah
    Department of Poultry Science, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
    Avian Dis 55:588-92. 2011
    ..Overall prevalence of Salmonella in the reproductive tracts of challenged hens was relatively low, ranging from 4% to 30%...
  43. ncbi request reprint Effect of Salmonella in young chicks on competitive exclusion treatment
    J S Bailey
    USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Russell Research Center, Athens, Georgia 30604 5677, USA
    Poult Sci 77:394-9. 1998
    ..These studies demonstrate that control of Salmonella in hatching cabinets is critically important for control of Salmonella in broilers...
  44. ncbi request reprint Presence of inoculated Campylobacter and Salmonella in unabsorbed yolks of male breeders raised as broilers
    N A Cox
    Russell Research Center, USDA ARS, Athens, GA, USA
    Avian Dis 50:430-3. 2006
    ..The next step will be to determine the incidence of unabsorbed yolks and presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in these bodies of commercial broilers at processing...
  45. ncbi request reprint Movement and persistence of Salmonella in broiler chickens following oral or intracloacal inoculation
    J S Bailey
    U S Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Russell Research Center, P O Box 5677, Athens, Georgia 30604, USA
    J Food Prot 68:2698-701. 2005
    ..Both the Salmonella Typhimurium (serogroup B) and the Salmonella Montevideo (serogroup C1) were recovered extensively throughout the study...
  46. ncbi request reprint Effect of broiler age, feed withdrawal, and transportation on levels of coliforms, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli and Salmonella on carcasses before and after immersion chilling
    J K Northcutt
    USDA Agricultural Research Service, Russell Research Center, PO Box 5677, Athens, Georgia 30604 5677, USA
    Poult Sci 82:169-73. 2003
    ..FW may increase prechill carcass counts for E. coli and Campylobacter, but it appears to have no effect on postchill carcass counts when sodium hypochlorite is used in the chilling operation...
  47. ncbi request reprint Incidence and tracking of Clostridium perfringens through an integrated broiler chicken operation
    S E Craven
    Richard B Russell Agricultural Research Center, Poultry Microbiological Safety Research Unit, Agricultural Research Service, U S Department of Agriculture, 950 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605, USA
    Avian Dis 47:707-11. 2003
    ..The genetic relatedness of the isolated strains as determined by ribotyping suggests that C. perfringens may be transmitted between facilities within the integrated broiler chicken operation...
  48. ncbi request reprint Eggshell membrane structure and penetration by Salmonella typhimurium
    M E Berrang
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Russell Research Center, Athens, Georgia 30604 5677, USA
    J Food Prot 62:73-6. 1999
    ....
  49. ncbi request reprint Commercial field trial evaluation of mucosal starter culture to reduce Salmonella incidence in processed broiler carcasses
    J S Bailey
    U S Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Russell Research Center, Athens, Georgia 30604, USA
    J Food Prot 63:867-70. 2000
    ....
  50. ncbi request reprint Difficulty in recovering inoculated Campylobacter jejuni from dry poultry-associated samples
    N A Cox
    Poultry Microbiological Safety Research Unit, US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Russell Research Center, Athens, Georgia 30604 5677, USA
    J Food Prot 64:252-4. 2001
    ..The current cultural methods may not be adequate for recovering low numbers of Campylobacter from dry samples. Campylobacter may be present but culturally undetectable in the commercial hatchery and hatchery environment...
  51. doi request reprint Comparison between rinse and crush-and-rub sampling for aerobic bacteria recovery from broiler hatching eggs after sanitization
    J L Spickler
    Department of Poultry Science, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA
    Poult Sci 90:1609-15. 2011
    ..9) was not significantly different from levels for the rinse method. Therefore, either the rinse or crush-and-rub sampling methods can be used to recover similar levels of eggshell aerobic bacteria...
  52. doi request reprint Polymerase chain reaction detection of naturally occurring Campylobacter in commercial broiler chicken embryos
    K L Hiett
    USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Richard B Russell Research Center, Athens, GA, USA
    Poult Sci 92:1134-7. 2013
    ....
  53. ncbi request reprint Reducing airborne pathogens, dust and Salmonella transmission in experimental hatching cabinets using an electrostatic space charge system
    B W Mitchell
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Athens, Georgia 30605, USA
    Poult Sci 81:49-55. 2002
    ..001) reduced by an average log10 3.4 cfu/g. This ionization technology is relatively inexpensive and could be used to reduce airborne bacteria and dust within the hatching cabinet...
  54. pmc Molecular subtype analyses of Campylobacter spp. from Arkansas and California poultry operations
    K L Hiett
    Poultry Microbiological Safety Research Unit, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Athens, Georgia 30604, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 68:6220-36. 2002
    ..However, environmental contamination with Campylobacter does not appear to be the sole contributing factor...
  55. ncbi request reprint Effect of drinking water chlorination on Campylobacter spp. colonization of broilers
    N J Stern
    USDA Agricultural Research Service, Richard B Russell Agricultural Research Center, Athens, GA 30604 5677, USA
    Avian Dis 46:401-4. 2002
    ..Chlorination of flock drinking water at the levels tested in this study was not effective in decreasing colonization by Campylobacter spp. under commercial production practices presently used in the United States...
  56. ncbi request reprint Incidence of unabsorbed yolk sacs in broilers, broiler breeder roosters, white Leghorn hens, and Athens-Canadian randombred control broilers
    R J Buhr
    Poultry Microbiological Safety Research Unit, Richard B Russell Agricultural Research Center, USDA, ARS, Athens, GA 30604, USA
    Poult Sci 85:1294-7. 2006
    ..The incidence of unabsorbed yolk sacs in present day commercial broilers appears twice as high as for mature roosters, hens, or ACRBC broilers...