- The 1.7 kilogram microchip: energy and material use in the production of semiconductor devicesEric D Williams
United Nations University, 53 67 Jingumae 5 chome, Shibuya ku, Tokyo, Japan
Environ Sci Technol 36:5504-10. 2002..Future analysis of semiconductor and other low entropy high-tech goods needs to include the use of secondary materials, especially for purification...
- Energy intensity of computer manufacturing: hybrid assessment combining process and economic input-output methodsEric Williams
United Nations University, 53 70 Jingumae 5 chome, Shibuya ku Tokyo, Japan
Environ Sci Technol 38:6166-74. 2004..Extension of usable lifespan (e.g. by reselling or upgrading) is thus a promising approach to mitigating energy impacts as well as other environmental burdens associated with manufacturing and disposal...