A R Fooks

Summary

Affiliation: Veterinary Laboratories Agency
Country: UK

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Case report: isolation of a European bat lyssavirus type 2a from a fatal human case of rabies encephalitis
    Anthony R Fooks
    Rabies Research and Diagnostic Group, Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge WHO Collaborating Centre for the Characterisation of Rabies and Rabies Related Viruses, Surrey, United Kingdom
    J Med Virol 71:281-9. 2003
  2. pmc Investigating antibody neutralization of lyssaviruses using lentiviral pseudotypes: a cross-species comparison
    Edward Wright
    MRC UCL Centre for Medical Molecular Virology, Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, 46 Cleveland Street, London W1T 4JF, UK
    J Gen Virol 89:2204-13. 2008
  3. pmc Antibodies against Lagos bat virus in megachiroptera from West Africa
    David T S Hayman
    University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Emerg Infect Dis 14:926-8. 2008
  4. pmc European bat lyssavirus in Scottish bats
    Sharon M Brookes
    World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for the Characterisation of Rabies and Rabies Related Viruses, Surrey, United Kingdom
    Emerg Infect Dis 11:572-8. 2005
  5. pmc Evolutionary history of rabies in Ghana
    David T S Hayman
    Rabies and Wildlife Zoonoses Group, Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, Surrey, United Kingdom
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5:e1001. 2011
  6. pmc A robust lentiviral pseudotype neutralisation assay for in-field serosurveillance of rabies and lyssaviruses in Africa
    Edward Wright
    Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, 46 Cleveland Street, London, United Kingdom
    Vaccine 27:7178-86. 2009
  7. pmc Experimental infection of foxes with European Bat Lyssaviruses type-1 and 2
    Florence Cliquet
    WHO Collaborating Centre for Research and Management in Zoonoses Control, OIE Reference Laboratory for Rabies, Community Reference Laboratory for Rabies, Community Reference Laboratory for Rabies Serology, AFSSA Malzeville, France
    BMC Vet Res 5:19. 2009
  8. pmc A molecular epidemiological study of rabies epizootics in kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) in Namibia
    Karen Mansfield
    Rabies and Wildlife Zoonoses Group, Veterinary Laboratories Agency VLA, Weybridge, WHO Collaborating Centre for the Characterisation of Rabies and Rabies Related Viruses, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey, KT15 3NB, UK
    BMC Vet Res 2:2. 2006
  9. ncbi request reprint Risk factors associated with travel to rabies endemic countries
    A R Fooks
    Rabies Research and Diagnostic Group WHO Collaborating Centre for the Characterisation of Rabies and Rabies Related Viruses, Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, Surrey, UK
    J Appl Microbiol 94:31S-36S. 2003
  10. doi request reprint Detection of high levels of European bat lyssavirus type-1 viral RNA in the thyroid gland of experimentally-infected Eptesicus fuscus bats
    A R Fooks
    Rabies and Wildlife Zoonoses Group, Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, Surrey, UK
    Zoonoses Public Health 56:270-7. 2009

Detail Information

Publications90

  1. ncbi request reprint Case report: isolation of a European bat lyssavirus type 2a from a fatal human case of rabies encephalitis
    Anthony R Fooks
    Rabies Research and Diagnostic Group, Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge WHO Collaborating Centre for the Characterisation of Rabies and Rabies Related Viruses, Surrey, United Kingdom
    J Med Virol 71:281-9. 2003
    ..Brain smears from each infected animal were positive by the FAT and viable virus was isolated. This fatal incident is only the second confirmed case of an EBLV type-2 infection in a human after exposure to bats...
  2. pmc Investigating antibody neutralization of lyssaviruses using lentiviral pseudotypes: a cross-species comparison
    Edward Wright
    MRC UCL Centre for Medical Molecular Virology, Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, 46 Cleveland Street, London W1T 4JF, UK
    J Gen Virol 89:2204-13. 2008
    ....
  3. pmc Antibodies against Lagos bat virus in megachiroptera from West Africa
    David T S Hayman
    University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Emerg Infect Dis 14:926-8. 2008
    ..Neutralizing antibodies were detected in Eidolon helvum (37%), Epomophorus gambianus (3%), and Epomops buettikoferi (33%, 2/6) from Ghana. These findings confirm the presence of LBV in West Africa...
  4. pmc European bat lyssavirus in Scottish bats
    Sharon M Brookes
    World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for the Characterisation of Rabies and Rabies Related Viruses, Surrey, United Kingdom
    Emerg Infect Dis 11:572-8. 2005
    ..The RT-PCR included pan lyssavirus-primers (N gene) and internal PCR control primers for ribosomal RNA. EBLV-2 RNA was not detected in any of the saliva samples tested, and live virus was not detected in virus isolation tests...
  5. pmc Evolutionary history of rabies in Ghana
    David T S Hayman
    Rabies and Wildlife Zoonoses Group, Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, Surrey, United Kingdom
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5:e1001. 2011
    ..This analysis highlights the potential problems of individual developing nations implementing rabies control programmes in the absence of a regional programme...
  6. pmc A robust lentiviral pseudotype neutralisation assay for in-field serosurveillance of rabies and lyssaviruses in Africa
    Edward Wright
    Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, 46 Cleveland Street, London, United Kingdom
    Vaccine 27:7178-86. 2009
    ..These results suggest the proposed pseudotype assay is a suitable option for undertaking lyssavirus serosurveillance in areas most affected by these infections...
  7. pmc Experimental infection of foxes with European Bat Lyssaviruses type-1 and 2
    Florence Cliquet
    WHO Collaborating Centre for Research and Management in Zoonoses Control, OIE Reference Laboratory for Rabies, Community Reference Laboratory for Rabies, Community Reference Laboratory for Rabies Serology, AFSSA Malzeville, France
    BMC Vet Res 5:19. 2009
    ..The purpose of this study was to investigate the susceptibility of foxes to EBLVs using silver foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as a model...
  8. pmc A molecular epidemiological study of rabies epizootics in kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) in Namibia
    Karen Mansfield
    Rabies and Wildlife Zoonoses Group, Veterinary Laboratories Agency VLA, Weybridge, WHO Collaborating Centre for the Characterisation of Rabies and Rabies Related Viruses, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey, KT15 3NB, UK
    BMC Vet Res 2:2. 2006
    ..A panel of 37 rabies virus isolates were collected and studied, originating mainly from the northern and central regions of Namibia, between 1980 and 2003...
  9. ncbi request reprint Risk factors associated with travel to rabies endemic countries
    A R Fooks
    Rabies Research and Diagnostic Group WHO Collaborating Centre for the Characterisation of Rabies and Rabies Related Viruses, Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, Surrey, UK
    J Appl Microbiol 94:31S-36S. 2003
    ..Rabies should form part of a differential diagnosis for any patient presenting with a history of travel to a rabies endemic country and displaying an undiagnosed encephalopathy...
  10. doi request reprint Detection of high levels of European bat lyssavirus type-1 viral RNA in the thyroid gland of experimentally-infected Eptesicus fuscus bats
    A R Fooks
    Rabies and Wildlife Zoonoses Group, Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, Surrey, UK
    Zoonoses Public Health 56:270-7. 2009
    ....
  11. ncbi request reprint Epidemiology of rabies in Southeast Europe
    N Johnson
    Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, Addlestone, UK
    Dev Biol (Basel) 131:189-98. 2008
    ..Throughout the region there is evidence for cross-border movement of rabies by both wildlife and canine vectors...
  12. ncbi request reprint Molecular epidemiology of lyssaviruses in Eurasia
    L M McElhinney
    Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, Surrey, Addlestone, United Kingdom
    Dev Biol (Basel) 131:125-31. 2008
    ....
  13. doi request reprint A quantitative release assessment for the noncommercial movement of companion animals: risk of rabies reintroduction to the United kingdom
    A D Goddard
    Centre for Epidemiology and Risk Analysis, Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Addlestone, Surrey, KT15 3NB, UK
    Risk Anal 32:1769-83. 2012
    ..The results of this risk assessment, along with other evidence, formed a scientific evidence base to inform policy decision with respect to companion animal movement...
  14. ncbi request reprint Identification of a conserved linear epitope at the N terminus of the rabies virus glycoprotein
    K L Mansfield
    Rabies Research and Diagnostic Group WHO Collaborating Centre, Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, Woodham Lane, New Haw, Surrey, KT15 3NB, UK
    J Gen Virol 85:3279-83. 2004
    ..In a multimeric form, the peptide could induce an epitope-specific response following immunization in rabbits and mice...
  15. ncbi request reprint Inflammatory responses in the nervous system of mice infected with a street isolate of rabies virus
    N Johnson
    Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, Surrey, Addlestone, United Kingdom
    Dev Biol (Basel) 131:65-72. 2008
    ..We suggest that damage to the DRG and spinal cord could be due to a combination of both virus infection and the infiltration of T-cells...
  16. doi request reprint Phylogenetic analysis of rabies viruses from Sudan provides evidence of a viral clade with a unique molecular signature
    D A Marston
    Rabies and Wildlife Zoonoses Group, WHO Collaborating Centre of Rabies and Rabies Related Viruses, Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Woodham Lane, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, UK
    Virus Res 145:244-50. 2009
    ..The high sequence identity in all Sudanese isolates studied, demonstrates the presence of a single rabies virus biotype for which the principal reservoir is the domestic dog...
  17. doi request reprint Quantitative risk assessment to compare the risk of rabies entering the UK from Turkey via quarantine, the Pet Travel Scheme and the EU Pet Movement Policy
    V Ramnial
    Risk Analysis Workgroup, Centre for Epidemiology and Risk Analysis, Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Addlestone, Surrey, UK
    Epidemiol Infect 138:1114-25. 2010
    ..In addition, EUPMP(listed) and EUPMP(unlisted) (at an increased level of importation) present a higher risk than quarantine or PETS at 100% compliance and at an uncertain level of compliance...
  18. ncbi request reprint Molecular epidemiological study of Arctic rabies virus isolates from Greenland and comparison with isolates from throughout the Arctic and Baltic regions
    K L Mansfield
    Rabies Research and Diagnostic Group, Veterinary Laboratories Agency, VLA, Weybridge, WHO Collaborating Centre for the Characterisation of Rabies and Rabies Related Viruses, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, UK
    Virus Res 116:1-10. 2006
    ..The broad distribution of rabies in the Arctic regions including Greenland, Canada and Alaska provides evidence for the movement of rabies across borders...
  19. ncbi request reprint Isolation of European bat lyssavirus type 2 from a Daubenton's bat (Myotis daubentonii) in Shropshire
    S L Harris
    Rabies and Wildlife Zoonoses Group, WHO Collaborating Centre for the Characterisation of Rabies and Rabies Related Viruses, Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey
    Vet Rec 161:384-6. 2007
  20. doi request reprint Human rabies due to lyssavirus infection of bat origin
    N Johnson
    Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, Surrey, United Kingdom
    Vet Microbiol 142:151-9. 2010
    ..Many diagnostic techniques are unable to differentiate rabies virus from other genotypes so it is possible that some human and animal cases go unreported. Furthermore, current vaccines have limited efficacy against some genotypes...
  21. ncbi request reprint Rabies epidemiology and control in Turkey: past and present
    N Johnson
    Rabies and Wildlife Zoonoses Group, WHO Collaborating Centre for Characterisation of Rabies and Rabies related Viruses, Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, Surrey, UK
    Epidemiol Infect 138:305-12. 2010
    ..This review considers the current state of rabies in Turkey including current control measures, the varying epidemiology of the disease throughout this country and the prospects for rabies elimination...
  22. ncbi request reprint The application of genetic markers for EBLV surveillance in European bat species
    S L Harris
    Rabies and Wildlife Zoonoses Group, Veterinary Laboratories Agency VLA, WHO Collaborating Centre for the Characterisation of Rabies and Rabies Related Viruses, Surrey, UK
    Dev Biol (Basel) 131:347-63. 2008
    ..Application of this approach identified the species of a bat infected with EBLV-2 in Surrey as Myotis daubentoni (Daubenton's bat)...
  23. ncbi request reprint Comparative analysis of the full genome sequence of European bat lyssavirus type 1 and type 2 with other lyssaviruses and evidence for a conserved transcription termination and polyadenylation motif in the G-L 3' non-translated region
    D A Marston
    Rabies and Wildlife Zoonoses Group, Veterinary Laboratories Agency VLA, Weybridge, WHO Collaborating Centre for the Characterisation of Rabies and Rabies Related Viruses, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, UK
    J Gen Virol 88:1302-14. 2007
    ..This observation may explain differences in pathogenicity between lyssavirus strains, dependent on the length of the untranslated region, which might affect transcriptional activity and RNA stability...
  24. ncbi request reprint Rabies human diploid cell vaccine elicits cross-neutralising and cross-protecting immune responses against European and Australian bat lyssaviruses
    S M Brookes
    Rabies Research and Diagnostic Group, Virology Department, World Health Organisation Collaborating Centre Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey, UK
    Vaccine 23:4101-9. 2005
    ..Levels of protection were lower following intra-cranial (i.c.) challenge. Our data provides strong evidence for broad spectrum cross-neutralisation and cross-protection of phylogroup I lyssaviruses using rabies HDCV...
  25. ncbi request reprint Molecular epidemiology of canid rabies in Sudan: evidence for a common origin of rabies with Ethiopia
    N Johnson
    Rabies Research and Diagnostic Group, WHO Collaborating Centre for the Characterisation of Rabies and Rabies Related Viruses, Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Weybridge, Woodham Lane, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, UK
    Virus Res 104:201-5. 2004
    ..The Sudanese group of viruses belong to the Africa 1a group of viruses that are present throughout much of north Africa...
  26. ncbi request reprint Rabies antibody testing and the UK Pet Travel Scheme
    A R Fooks
    Department of Virology, Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, Addlestone, Surrey
    Vet Rec 150:428-30. 2002
    ..In this article, Dr Tony Fooks and colleagues consider the results of serological testing under the scheme at the Veterinary Laboratories Agency and look to future developments...
  27. doi request reprint Repeated detection of European bat lyssavirus type 2 in dead bats found at a single roost site in the UK
    Ashley C Banyard
    Rabies and Wildlife Zoonoses Group, Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Weybridge, Addlestone, Surrey, KT15 3NB, UK
    Arch Virol 154:1847-50. 2009
    ..We also report sequence data from both cases and compare data with those derived from other EBLV-2 isolations in the UK...
  28. ncbi request reprint Up-regulation of chemokine gene transcripts and T-cell infiltration into the central nervous system and dorsal root ganglia are characteristics of experimental European bat lyssavirus type 2 infection of mice
    K L Mansfield
    Rabies and Wildlife Zoonoses Group, Veterinary Laboratories Agency VLA Weybridge, WHO Collaborating Centre for the Characterisation of Rabies and Rabies Related Viruses, Addlestone, Surrey, United Kingdom
    J Neurovirol 14:218-28. 2008
    ....
  29. ncbi request reprint Evidence for trans-border movement of rabies by wildlife reservoirs between countries in the Balkan Peninsular
    N Johnson
    Rabies and Wildlife Zoonoses Group, Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, Woodham Lane, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, UK
    Vet Microbiol 120:71-6. 2007
    ..We speculate that natural barriers such as the Balkan mountains may play a significant role in constraining the southerly spread of rabies in southeast Europe...
  30. pmc Wildlife rabies in Western Turkey: the spread of rabies through the western provinces of Turkey
    N Johnson
    Rabies Research and Diagnostic Group, WHO Collaborating Centre for the Characterisation of Rabies and Rabies Related Viruses, Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Weybridge, Surrey, UK
    Epidemiol Infect 134:369-75. 2006
    ....
  31. pmc Quantifying antigenic relationships among the lyssaviruses
    D L Horton
    Rabies and Wildlife Zoonoses, Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, UK
    J Virol 84:11841-8. 2010
    ..The use of passive immune globulin is a crucial component of rabies postexposure prophylaxis, and here we also show that it is possible to predict the reactivity of immune globulin against divergent lyssaviruses...
  32. ncbi request reprint Ability of rabies vaccine strains to elicit cross-neutralising antibodies
    S M Brookes
    Rabies and Wildlife Zoonoses Group, Veterinary Laboratories Agency, WHO Collaborating Centre for the Characterisation of Rabies and Rabies Related Viruses, Addlestone, Surrey, United Kingdom
    Dev Biol (Basel) 125:185-93. 2006
    ..The continuing occurrence of non-classical lyssaviruses in Europe emphasizes the need for continual surveillance of bats and other species...
  33. ncbi request reprint Molecular epidemiology of rabies in Botswana: a comparison between antibody typing and nucleotide sequence phylogeny
    N Johnson
    Rabies Research and Diagnostic Group, WHO Collaborating Centre for the Characterisation of Rabies and Rabies Related Viruses, Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Weybridge, Woodham Lane, Addlestone KT15 3NB, UK
    Vet Microbiol 101:31-8. 2004
    ....
  34. ncbi request reprint Tick-borne encephalitis virus - a review of an emerging zoonosis
    K L Mansfield
    Rabies and Wildlife Zoonoses Group, Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Surrey, UK
    J Gen Virol 90:1781-94. 2009
    ..We also discuss the factors which may have influenced an apparent increase in the number of reported human cases each year, despite the availability of effective vaccines...
  35. ncbi request reprint Airborne transmission of lyssaviruses
    N Johnson
    Rabies and Wildlife Zoonoses Group, Veterinary Laboratories Agency VLA, Weybridge, WHO Collaborating Centre for the Characterisation of Rabies and Rabies Related Viruses, New Haw, Addlestone KT15 3NB, UK
    J Med Microbiol 55:785-90. 2006
    ..This could present a particular hazard to personnel exposed to aerosols of infectious RABV following accidental release in a laboratory environment...
  36. ncbi request reprint Phylogenetic comparison of rabies viruses from disease outbreaks on the Svalbard Islands
    N Johnson
    Rabies and Wildlife Zoonoses Group, WHO Collaborating Centre for the Characterisation of Rabies and Rabies Related Viruses, Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, Surrey, UK
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 7:457-60. 2007
    ..Arctic fox migration has likely contributed to the establishment of another zoonotic disease, Echinococcus multilocularis, on Svalbard in recent years...
  37. ncbi request reprint Development of a real-time, differential RT-PCR TaqMan assay for lyssavirus genotypes 1, 5 and 6
    P R Wakeley
    Technology Transfer Unit, Biotechnology Department, Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Weybridge, Surrey, United Kingdom
    Dev Biol (Basel) 126:227-36; discussion 326-7. 2006
    ..Rapid genotyping of two recent EBLV2 cases in the U.K. in Daubenton's bats and a recently imported human case of rabies has been performed using this test...
  38. ncbi request reprint Molecular epidemiology of rabies viruses in Europe
    L M McElhinney
    Rabies and Wildlife Zoonoses Group, Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, WHO Collaborating Centre for the Characterisation of Rabies and Rabies Related Viruses, Surrey, United Kingdom
    Dev Biol (Basel) 125:17-28. 2006
    ..Phylogenetic analysis of 198 unique sequences demonstrated numerous groups of viruses clustered at both geographical and host-species levels...
  39. ncbi request reprint Phylogenetic comparison of the genus Lyssavirus using distal coding sequences of the glycoprotein and nucleoprotein genes
    N Johnson
    Rabies Research and Diagnostic Group, Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Weybridge, UK
    Arch Virol 147:2111-23. 2002
    ..Comparison of the phylogenetic analysis for this partial region of the glycoprotein suggest that it gives comparable results to studies that have used larger regions of the Lyssavirus genome...
  40. ncbi request reprint Detection and strain differentiation of European bat lyssaviruses using in situ hybridisation
    C J Finnegan
    Rabies Research and Diagnostic Group WHO Collaborating Centre for the Characterisation of Rabies and Rabies Related Viruses, Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Weybridge, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, UK
    J Virol Methods 121:223-9. 2004
    ....
  41. pmc European bat lyssaviruses: an emerging zoonosis
    A R Fooks
    Rabies Research and Diagnostic Group, Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, WHO Collaborating Centre for the Characterisation of Rabies and Rabies Related Viruses, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, UK
    Epidemiol Infect 131:1029-39. 2003
    ..This review provides a brief history of EBLVs, their distribution in host species and the public health risks...
  42. doi request reprint Endemic Lagos bat virus infection in Eidolon helvum
    D T S Hayman
    Cambridge Infectious Diseases Consortium, Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Epidemiol Infect 140:2163-71. 2012
    ..These key findings point towards acute transmission of bat lyssaviruses in adapted bat hosts that occurs at a far higher rate than the occurrence of disease...
  43. ncbi request reprint Occupational lyssavirus risks and post-vaccination monitoring
    S M Brookes
    Rabies and Wildlife Zoonoses Group, Veterinary Laboratories Agency, WHO Collaborating Centre for the Characterisation of Rabies and Rabies Related Viruses, Addlestone, Surrey, United Kingdom
    Dev Biol (Basel) 125:165-73. 2006
    ..0 IU/ml for those in contact with non-RABV lyssaviruses in order to ensure that all individuals had antibody levels capable of neutralising the phylogroup I lyssaviruses...
  44. doi request reprint A new outbreak of rabies in rare Ethiopian wolves (Canis simensis)
    N Johnson
    Rabies and Wildlife Zoonoses Group, Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, United Kingdom
    Arch Virol 155:1175-7. 2010
    ..Sequence comparison of a partial fragment of the nucleoprotein-coding gene demonstrated that all viruses showed 100% sequence identity, suggesting a single introduction of rabies virus...
  45. ncbi request reprint Canine vaccine recipients recognize an immunodominant region of the rabies virus glycoprotein
    N Johnson
    Rabies Research and Diagnostic Group, Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Weybridge, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, UK
    J Gen Virol 83:2663-9. 2002
    ....
  46. ncbi request reprint Rabies diagnosis in the presence of strychnine and carbamate
    L M McElhinney
    Rabies Research and Diagnostic Group, Department of Virology, Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB
    Vet Rec 155:303-4. 2004
  47. ncbi request reprint Pathobiology of rabies virus and the European bat lyssaviruses in experimentally infected mice
    D M Healy
    Wildlife Zoonoses and Vector borne Diseases Research Group WZ and VBDRG, Department of Virology, Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency AHVLA, Woodham Lane, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey, KT15 3NB, United Kingdom
    Virus Res 172:46-53. 2013
    ....
  48. ncbi request reprint Quantitative risk assessment of rabies entering Great Britain from North America via cats and dogs
    Rowena D Jones
    Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Woodham Lane, Addlestone, Surrey, KT15 3NB, UK
    Risk Anal 25:533-42. 2005
    ..22 x 10(-6), 95th percentile) than quarantine (1.01 x 10(-5), 95th percentile). These results, and other scientific evidence, directly informed the decision to expand the PETS scheme to North America as of December 2002...
  49. ncbi request reprint Case report: rapid ante-mortem diagnosis of a human case of rabies imported into the UK from the Philippines
    Jemma Smith
    Rabies Research and Diagnostic Group, WHO Collaborating Centre for the Characterisation of Rabies and Rabies Related Viruses, Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, Surrey, United Kingdom
    J Med Virol 69:150-5. 2003
    ..Subsequent phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that this isolate was closely related to that of canine variants currently circulating in the Philippines...
  50. ncbi request reprint Susceptibility of sheep to European bat lyssavirus type-1 and -2 infection: a clinical pathogenesis study
    Sharon M Brookes
    Rabies and Wildlife Zoonoses Group, Veterinary Laboratories Agency VLA, Weybridge, WHO Collaborating Centre for the Characterisation of Rabies and Rabies Related Viruses, New Haw, Addlestone, UK
    Vet Microbiol 125:210-23. 2007
    ..This study suggests that inter-species animal-to-animal transmission of a bat variant of rabies virus to a terrestrial mammal host may be limited, and may not always result in fatal encephalitis...
  51. ncbi request reprint Surveillance for West Nile virus in British birds (2001 to 2006)
    L P Phipps
    Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, UK
    Vet Rec 162:413-5. 2008
  52. pmc Development of a real-time, TaqMan reverse transcription-PCR assay for detection and differentiation of lyssavirus genotypes 1, 5, and 6
    P R Wakeley
    World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for the Characterization of Rabies and Rabies Related Viruses, Department of Virology, Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Addlestone, United Kingdom
    J Clin Microbiol 43:2786-92. 2005
    ..We propose that within a geographically constrained area, this assay will be a useful tool for the detection and differentiation of members of the Lyssavirus genus...
  53. ncbi request reprint Molecular diversity and evolutionary history of rabies virus strains circulating in the Balkans
    L M McElhinney
    Wildlife Zoonoses and Vector borne Diseases Research Group, Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, UK
    J Gen Virol 92:2171-80. 2011
    ....
  54. ncbi request reprint Reassessing the risk from rabies: a continuing threat to the UK?
    Ashley C Banyard
    Rabies and Wildlife Zoonoses Group, Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Weybridge, Addlestone, Surrey, UK
    Virus Res 152:79-84. 2010
    ..We highlight the current diagnostic necessity for testing indigenous and foreign cases and comment on current UK government policy in light of a European call to harmonise rabies legislation across Europe...
  55. ncbi request reprint Rabies emergence among foxes in Turkey
    Nicholas Johnson
    Rabies Research and Diagnostic Group, Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Weybridge, Addlestone, Surrey, KT15 3NB, UK
    J Wildl Dis 39:262-70. 2003
    ....
  56. doi request reprint Assessment of a novel real-time pan-flavivirus RT-polymerase chain reaction
    Nicholas Johnson
    Rabies and Wildlife Zoonoses Group, Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Addlestone, United Kingdom
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 10:665-71. 2010
    ..The assay has been used to survey 160 bird samples and 1000 mosquito samples from the United Kingdom and found no evidence for WNV...
  57. pmc European bat lyssavirus type 2 RNA in Myotis daubentonii
    Nicholas Johnson
    Rbies and Wildlife Zoonoses group, Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Addlestone, Surrey, United Kingdom
    Emerg Infect Dis 12:1142-4. 2006
    ..High levels of genomic RNA were found in the brain and were also detectable in the tongue, bladder, and stomach...
  58. ncbi request reprint The immune response to rabies virus infection and vaccination
    Nicholas Johnson
    Rabies and Wildlife Zoonoses Group, Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, Woodham Lane, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, United Kingdom
    Vaccine 28:3896-901. 2010
    ..This could help identify ways in which the response to prophylactic vaccination can be enhanced and how the natural immune response to infection can be boosted to combat neuroinvasion...
  59. ncbi request reprint Lyssavirus infection activates interferon gene expression in the brain
    Nicholas Johnson
    Rabies and Wildlife Zoonoses Group WHO Collaborating Centre for the Characterization of Rabies and Rabies related Viruses, Department of Virology, Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, Addlestone, Surrey, UK
    J Gen Virol 87:2663-7. 2006
    ..Induction of this response was also observed following infection with the related European bat lyssaviruses, a group of zoonotic viruses capable of causing fatal, rabies-like disease in mammalian species...
  60. ncbi request reprint Identification of European bat lyssavirus isolates with short genomic insertions
    Nicholas Johnson
    Rabies and Wildlife Zoonoses Group, WHO Collaborating Centre for the Characterization of Rabies and Rabies Related Viruses, Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Weybridge, Woodham Lane, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, UK
    Virus Res 128:140-3. 2007
    ....
  61. ncbi request reprint Experimental study of European bat lyssavirus type-2 infection in Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii)
    Nicholas Johnson
    Rabies and Wildlife Zoonoses Group, WHO Collaborating Centre for the Characterisation of Rabies and Rabies Related Viruses, Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, Woodham Lane, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, UK
    J Gen Virol 89:2662-72. 2008
    ..We conclude that EBLV-2 is most likely transmitted in saliva by a shallow bite...
  62. ncbi request reprint Rabies remains a 'neglected disease'
    A R Fooks
    Rabies and Wildlife Zoonoses Group, Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, WHO Collaborating Centre for the Characterisation of Rabies and Rabies Related Viruses, United Kingdom
    Euro Surveill 10:211-2. 2005
  63. ncbi request reprint Investigation of a human case of rabies in the United Kingdom
    Nicholas Johnson
    Rabies Research and Diagnostic Group, Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Weybridge, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, UK
    J Clin Virol 25:351-6. 2002
    ..Comparison of both the nucleoprotein and glycoprotein coding sequences of this isolate with an imported case of human rabies from 1996, also from Nigeria, showed that the two viruses were 99% homologous...
  64. ncbi request reprint The feasibility of developing a risk assessment for the impact of climate change on the emergence of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in livestock in Europe: a review
    P Gale
    Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Weybridge, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey, UK
    J Appl Microbiol 108:1859-70. 2010
    ..The species of migratory bird is also an important consideration in the release assessment with greater abundance and biodiversity of ground-dwelling birds in southern Europe than in northern Europe...
  65. doi request reprint Assessing the impact of climate change on vector-borne viruses in the EU through the elicitation of expert opinion
    P Gale
    Centre for Epidemiology and Risk Analysis, Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Weybridge, Addlestone, Surrey, UK
    Epidemiol Infect 138:214-25. 2010
    ..This work will facilitate identification of appropriate risk management options in relation to adaptations to climate change...
  66. ncbi request reprint Live viral vectors: construction of a replication-deficient recombinant adenovirus
    Anthony R Fooks
    Veterinary Laboratories Agency, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey, United Kingdom
    Methods Mol Med 87:37-50. 2003
  67. ncbi request reprint Molecular epidemiology of terrestrial rabies in the former Soviet Union
    Ivan V Kuzmin
    Rabies Group, Institute for Natural Foci Infections, Prospekt Mira, 7, Omsk, 644080 Russia
    J Wildl Dis 40:617-31. 2004
    ..In the glycoprotein gene, evidence of positive selection was strongly suggested in codons 156, 160, and 183. At these sites, no link between amino acid substitutions and phylogenetic placement or specific host species was detected...
  68. ncbi request reprint European bat lyssavirus type 2 in a bat found in Lancashire
    Nicholas Johnson
    Vet Rec 151:455-6. 2002
  69. ncbi request reprint Human case of EBL type 2 following exposure to bats in Angus, Scotland
    Anthony R Fooks
    Vet Rec 151:679. 2002
  70. ncbi request reprint Detection of antibodies to EBLV-2 in Daubenton's bats in the UK
    Anthony R Fooks
    Vet Rec 154:245-6. 2004
  71. ncbi request reprint Identification of a European bat lyssavirus type 2 in a Daubenton's bat found in Staines, Surrey, UK
    Anthony R Fooks
    Vet Rec 155:434-5. 2004
  72. ncbi request reprint Identification of a European bat lyssavirus type 2 in a Daubenton's bat found in Lancashire
    Anthony R Fooks
    Vet Rec 155:606-7. 2004
  73. pmc Paralytic rabies after a two week holiday in India
    Tom Solomon
    Viral CNS Infections Group, Division of Neurological Science, University of Liverpool, Walton Centre for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Liverpool L9 7LJ
    BMJ 331:501-3. 2005
  74. ncbi request reprint Review of human rabies cases in the UK and in Germany
    Nicholas Johnson
    Vet Rec 157:715. 2005
  75. pmc Pivotal role of dogs in rabies transmission, China
    Xianchun Tang
    Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing, People s Republic of China
    Emerg Infect Dis 11:1970-2. 2005
    ..We review the incidence of rabies in China based on data from 1950 and 2004, obtained mainly from epidemiologic bulletins published by the Chinese Ministry of Health...
  76. ncbi request reprint Isolation of EBLV-2 in a Daubenton's bat (Myotis daubentonii) found in Oxfordshire
    Anthony R Fooks
    Vet Rec 159:534-5. 2006
  77. ncbi request reprint Prevention of rabies virus infection in dogs by a recombinant canine adenovirus type-2 encoding the rabies virus glycoprotein
    Rongliang Hu
    Laboratory of Epidemiology, Veterinary Institute, Academy of Military Medical Science, 1068 Qinglong Road, Changchun, Jilin 130062, PR China
    Microbes Infect 8:1090-7. 2006
    ..The immunity lasts for months with a protective level of neutralizing antibody. This recombinant virus would be an alternative to the attenuated and the inactivated rabies vaccines and be prospective in immunizing dogs against rabies...
  78. ncbi request reprint A recombinant pseudorabies virus expressing rabies virus glycoprotein: safety and immunogenicity in dogs
    Ziguo Yuan
    Laboratory of Epidemiology, Veterinary Institute, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, 1068 Qinglong Road, Changchun 130062, PR China
    Vaccine 26:1314-21. 2008
    ..Antibody titers were maintained for over 6 months. This suggests that pseudorabies virus could be an effective live vector for recombinant rabies oral vaccination...
  79. ncbi request reprint Genetic characterisation of attenuated SAD rabies virus strains used for oral vaccination of wildlife
    Lutz Geue
    Friedrich Loeffler Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Institute of Epidemiology, WHO Collaborating Centre for Rabies Surveillance and Research, Wusterhausen, Germany
    Vaccine 26:3227-35. 2008
    ..Our data also supports the idea of a possible recombination that had occurred during the derivation of the European branch of SAD viruses. If confirmed, this recombination event would be the first one reported among RABV vaccine strains...
  80. ncbi request reprint Factors influencing the antibody response of dogs vaccinated against rabies
    Lorna J Kennedy
    Centre for Integrated Genomic Medical Research, University of Manchester, Stopford Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT, UK
    Vaccine 25:8500-7. 2007
    ....
  81. ncbi request reprint Oral vaccination of dogs (Canis familiaris) with baits containing the recombinant rabies-canine adenovirus type-2 vaccine confers long-lasting immunity against rabies
    Shoufeng Zhang
    Laboratory of Epidemiology, Veterinary Institute, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, 1068 Qinglong Road, Changchun 130062, China
    Vaccine 26:345-50. 2008
    ..This demonstrated that the recombinant vaccine could be orally administrated and the bait was effective for the oral vaccination of dogs...
  82. ncbi request reprint Rabies virus in a dog imported to the UK from Sri Lanka
    Anthony R Fooks
    Vet Rec 162:598. 2008
  83. ncbi request reprint Serological reactivity of baculovirus-expressed Ebola virus VP35 and nucleoproteins
    Jan Groen
    Institute of Virology, Erasmus MC, Dr Molenwaterplein 40, 3015GD, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Microbes Infect 5:379-85. 2003
    ..r-NP ELISA proved to be a sensitive and specific assay for EBOV diagnosis and for epidemiological studies for both EBOV subtypes Reston and Zaire. The use of r-VP35 in an ELISA format has no additional value for EBOV serodiagnosis...
  84. pmc Rabies encephalitis in malaria-endemic area, Malawi, Africa
    Macpherson Mallewa
    Divisions of Neurological Science, Medical Microbiology, and School of Tropical Medicine at University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    Emerg Infect Dis 13:136-9. 2007
    ..5%) of 133 cases. Four patients had unusual clinical manifestations, and rabies was only diagnosed postmortem. Three (11.5%) of 26 fatal cases originally attributed to cerebral malaria were due to rabies...
  85. ncbi request reprint Antigenic characterisation of yeast-expressed lyssavirus nucleoproteins
    Indre Kucinskaite
    Institute of Biotechnology, V Graiciuno 8, 02241, Vilnius, Lithuania
    Virus Genes 35:521-9. 2007
    ..These recombinant proteins have the potential for use as components of serological assays for lyssaviruses...
  86. pmc Rabies in North America and Europe
    Christopher J Finnegan
    Rabies Research and Diagnostics Group, Department of Virology, Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, UK
    J R Soc Med 95:9-13. 2002
  87. ncbi request reprint Viruses selectively upregulate Toll-like receptors in the central nervous system
    Clive S McKimmie
    Centre for Infectious Diseases, College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, UK
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 336:925-33. 2005
    ..Upregulation of TLR 3 and 9 was dependent upon the type-I interferon response and may act to increase the threshold of sensitivity to detect virus infection in cells surrounding virally infected cells...
  88. ncbi request reprint Rabies antibody levels in bat handlers in the United Kingdom: immune response before and after purified chick embryo cell rabies booster vaccination
    Jill Morris
    Immunisation Department, Centre for Infections, Health Protection Agency, London, UK
    Hum Vaccin 3:165-70. 2007
    ..We recommend that the first rabies booster vaccination is given one year after the primary course and subsequent boosters are given every three to five years thereafter...
  89. doi request reprint Intradermal pre-exposure rabies vaccine elicits long lasting immunity
    David Brown
    Virus Reference Department, Centre for Infections, HPA, London, UK
    Vaccine 26:3909-12. 2008
    ..Using a schedule that administers 0.6 ml of rabies vaccine over three clinic visits the boosting interval could be extended towards ten years; substantially cheaper than the standard licensed intramuscular dosing schedule...