L S Young

Summary

Affiliation: University of Birmingham
Country: UK

Publications

  1. pmc The EBV-encoded latent membrane proteins, LMP2A and LMP2B, limit the actions of interferon by targeting interferon receptors for degradation
    K M Shah
    Cancer Research UK Institute for Cancer Studies, The Medical School, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
    Oncogene 28:3903-14. 2009
  2. pmc Upregulation of Id1 by Epstein-Barr virus-encoded LMP1 confers resistance to TGFbeta-mediated growth inhibition
    Angela K F Lo
    Cancer Research UK Cancer Centre, School of Cancer Sciences, University of Birmingham, Vincent Drive, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    Mol Cancer 9:155. 2010
  3. pmc Epstein-Barr virus-encoded EBNA1 inhibits the canonical NF-kappaB pathway in carcinoma cells by inhibiting IKK phosphorylation
    Robert Valentine
    Cancer Research UK Cancer Centre, School of Cancer Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK
    Mol Cancer 9:1. 2010
  4. pmc CD40 ligand induced cytotoxicity in carcinoma cells is enhanced by inhibition of metalloproteinase cleavage and delivery via a conditionally-replicating adenovirus
    Taha Elmetwali
    Cancer Research UK Institute for Cancer Studies, School of Cancer Sciences, University of Birmingham, UK
    Mol Cancer 9:52. 2010
  5. pmc Epstein-Barr virus-encoded EBNA1 enhances RNA polymerase III-dependent EBER expression through induction of EBER-associated cellular transcription factors
    Thomas J Owen
    School of Cancer Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
    Mol Cancer 9:241. 2010
  6. ncbi request reprint Epstein-Barr virus: 40 years on
    Lawrence S Young
    Cancer Research UK Institute for Cancer Studies, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
    Nat Rev Cancer 4:757-68. 2004
  7. ncbi request reprint Epstein-Barr virus and oncogenesis: from latent genes to tumours
    Lawrence S Young
    Cancer Research UK Institute for Cancer Studies, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    Oncogene 22:5108-21. 2003
  8. pmc The expression and function of Epstein-Barr virus encoded latent genes
    L S Young
    CRC Institute for Cancer Studies, University of Birmingham Medical School, UK
    Mol Pathol 53:238-47. 2000
  9. ncbi request reprint CD40 and epithelial cells: across the great divide
    L S Young
    CRC Institute for Cancer Studies, University of Birmingham Medical School, UK
    Immunol Today 19:502-6. 1998
  10. ncbi request reprint Inhibition of NF-kappaB enhances the cytotoxicity of virus-directed enzyme prodrug therapy and oncolytic adenovirus cancer gene therapy
    D H Palmer
    CR UK Institute for Cancer Studies, Clinical Research Block, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
    Gene Ther 12:1187-97. 2005

Detail Information

Publications105 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc The EBV-encoded latent membrane proteins, LMP2A and LMP2B, limit the actions of interferon by targeting interferon receptors for degradation
    K M Shah
    Cancer Research UK Institute for Cancer Studies, The Medical School, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
    Oncogene 28:3903-14. 2009
    ..This function may form part of EBV's strategy to limit anti-viral responses and define a novel function for LMP2A and LMP2B in modulating signalling from receptors that participate in innate immune responses...
  2. pmc Upregulation of Id1 by Epstein-Barr virus-encoded LMP1 confers resistance to TGFbeta-mediated growth inhibition
    Angela K F Lo
    Cancer Research UK Cancer Centre, School of Cancer Sciences, University of Birmingham, Vincent Drive, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    Mol Cancer 9:155. 2010
    ..The mechanism(s) by which LMP1 induces these effects have not been fully characterised...
  3. pmc Epstein-Barr virus-encoded EBNA1 inhibits the canonical NF-kappaB pathway in carcinoma cells by inhibiting IKK phosphorylation
    Robert Valentine
    Cancer Research UK Cancer Centre, School of Cancer Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK
    Mol Cancer 9:1. 2010
    ..In this study we sought to extend these observations by examining the role of EBNA1 upon another pathway commonly deregulated during carcinogenesis; namely NF-kappaB...
  4. pmc CD40 ligand induced cytotoxicity in carcinoma cells is enhanced by inhibition of metalloproteinase cleavage and delivery via a conditionally-replicating adenovirus
    Taha Elmetwali
    Cancer Research UK Institute for Cancer Studies, School of Cancer Sciences, University of Birmingham, UK
    Mol Cancer 9:52. 2010
    ..The most profound induction of cell death in carcinoma cells is induced by membrane-bound rather than recombinant soluble CD40L, but like other TNF family ligands, it is cleaved from the membrane by matrix metalloproteinases...
  5. pmc Epstein-Barr virus-encoded EBNA1 enhances RNA polymerase III-dependent EBER expression through induction of EBER-associated cellular transcription factors
    Thomas J Owen
    School of Cancer Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
    Mol Cancer 9:241. 2010
    ..We have recently demonstrated that EBV-encoded nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA1) induces cellular transcription factors, and given these findings, we investigated the role of EBNA1 in induction of EBER-associated transcription factors...
  6. ncbi request reprint Epstein-Barr virus: 40 years on
    Lawrence S Young
    Cancer Research UK Institute for Cancer Studies, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
    Nat Rev Cancer 4:757-68. 2004
    ..Despite such ubiquity, the link between EBV and 'endemic' Burkitt's lymphoma proved consistent and became the first of an unexpectedly wide range of associations discovered between this virus and tumours...
  7. ncbi request reprint Epstein-Barr virus and oncogenesis: from latent genes to tumours
    Lawrence S Young
    Cancer Research UK Institute for Cancer Studies, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    Oncogene 22:5108-21. 2003
    ..This review summarises our current knowledge of EBV latent gene function and how this relates to the role of the virus in the aetiology of different tumours...
  8. pmc The expression and function of Epstein-Barr virus encoded latent genes
    L S Young
    CRC Institute for Cancer Studies, University of Birmingham Medical School, UK
    Mol Pathol 53:238-47. 2000
    ..Understanding the function of these EBV latent proteins will not only provide insight into the mechanisms governing fundamental cell processes but will also identify targets for novel treatment...
  9. ncbi request reprint CD40 and epithelial cells: across the great divide
    L S Young
    CRC Institute for Cancer Studies, University of Birmingham Medical School, UK
    Immunol Today 19:502-6. 1998
    ..Here, Lawrence Young and colleagues discuss the effect of CD40 ligation on epithelial cells and consider the role of this pathway in the pathogenesis and treatment of carcinomas...
  10. ncbi request reprint Inhibition of NF-kappaB enhances the cytotoxicity of virus-directed enzyme prodrug therapy and oncolytic adenovirus cancer gene therapy
    D H Palmer
    CR UK Institute for Cancer Studies, Clinical Research Block, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
    Gene Ther 12:1187-97. 2005
    ..This provides a potential therapeutic target to enhance the cytotoxicity of these approaches...
  11. ncbi request reprint Expression of the tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated factors 1 and 2 in Hodgkin's disease
    P G Murray
    Department of Pathology, Division of Cancer Studies, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
    J Pathol 194:158-64. 2001
    ..In contrast, TRAF2 expression by HRS cells appeared to be independent of EBV status. Using a sequential labelling approach, co-localization of LMP1 with either TRAF1 or TRAF2 was also demonstrated in HRS cells from EBV-positive tumours...
  12. pmc CD40 induces apoptosis in carcinoma cells through activation of cytotoxic ligands of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily
    A G Eliopoulos
    CRC Institute for Cancer Studies, The University of Birmingham Medical School, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    Mol Cell Biol 20:5503-15. 2000
    ..These findings identify a novel proapoptotic mechanism which is induced by CD40 in carcinoma cells and depends on the endogenous production of cytotoxic cytokines and autocrine or paracrine induction of cell death...
  13. ncbi request reprint Combining gene and immunotherapy for prostate cancer
    J G Young
    Cancer Research UK Institute for Cancer Studies, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK
    Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 11:187-93. 2008
    ..The mechanism of this improved response is however likely to be non-immune based as it lacks a memory effect...
  14. ncbi request reprint Heterogeneous expression of Epstein-Barr virus latent proteins in endemic Burkitt's lymphoma
    G Niedobitek
    Department of Pathology, University of Birmingham, UK
    Blood 86:659-65. 1995
    ..Our results suggest that a similar phenomenon may occur in BL in vivo and indicate that the operational definition of EBV latencies is not easily applied to human tumors...
  15. ncbi request reprint Effect of Epstein-Barr virus infection on response to chemotherapy and survival in Hodgkin's disease
    P G Murray
    CRC Institute for Cancer Studies, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
    Blood 94:442-7. 1999
    ..40, respectively). In conclusion, the results confirm the favorable prognostic value of EBV in the tumor cells of HD patients and suggest important differences in response to chemotherapy between EBV-positive and EBV-negative patients...
  16. pmc Anti-proliferative activity and mechanism of action of titanocene dichloride
    C V Christodoulou
    CRC Institute for Cancer Studies, The University of Birmingham Medical School, UK
    Br J Cancer 77:2088-97. 1998
    ..The potent in vivo anti-tumour activity of this compound, supported by the encouraging results from two phase I clinical trials, suggests that titanocene dichloride could be a promising novel chemotherapeutic agent...
  17. ncbi request reprint Enhanced efficacy of Escherichia coli nitroreductase/CB1954 prodrug activation gene therapy using an E1B-55K-deleted oncolytic adenovirus vector
    M J Chen
    Cancer Research UK Institute for Cancer Studies, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK
    Gene Ther 11:1126-36. 2004
    ..Combination therapy of CRAd-NTR(PS1217H6) with CB1954 reduced tumour growth from 13.5- to 2.8-fold over 5 weeks, and extended median survival from 42 to 81 days, compared with no treatment...
  18. ncbi request reprint The Epstein-Barr virus encoded latent membrane protein 2A augments signaling from latent membrane protein 1
    C W Dawson
    CRC Institute for Cancer Studies, University of Birmingham Medical School, Birmingham, B15 2TJ, United Kingdom
    Virology 289:192-207. 2001
    ..This study highlights an important role for LMP2A as a modulator of LMP1 activity in epithelial cells...
  19. pmc Mechanism of cell death induced by the novel enzyme-prodrug combination, nitroreductase/CB1954, and identification of synergism with 5-fluorouracil
    D H Palmer
    CR UK Institute for Cancer Studies, Clinical Research Block, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TA, UK
    Br J Cancer 89:944-50. 2003
    ..These data will facilitate the further development and future clinical trial design of this novel therapy...
  20. pmc Seasonal differences in the onset of the EBV-positive and -negative forms of paediatric Hodgkin's lymphoma
    A Reiman
    Department of Pathology, The Medical School, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    Br J Cancer 89:1200-1. 2003
    ..This suggests aetiological differences between the two forms of this disease. EBV-positive HL might be a rare consequence of primary EBV infection...
  21. ncbi request reprint Bmi-1 is induced by the Epstein-Barr virus oncogene LMP1 and regulates the expression of viral target genes in Hodgkin lymphoma cells
    Amanda Dutton
    Cancer Research UK Institute for Cancer Studies, The Medical School, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, United Kingdom
    Blood 109:2597-603. 2007
    ..We show here that Bmi-1 and LMP1 down-regulate the ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) tumor suppressor and conclude that Bmi-1 contributes to LMP1-induced oncogenesis in HL...
  22. ncbi request reprint Absence of Epstein-Barr virus DNA in the tumor cells of European hepatocellular carcinoma
    Jia Junying
    Department of Pathology, University of Birmingham, B15 2TT, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK
    Virology 306:236-43. 2003
    ..Furthermore, none of the German or U.K. HCC tumors tested positive for EBER or EBNAI expression in tumor cells. Our results provide strong evidence that HCCs from the U.K. or Germany are not associated with EBV...
  23. pmc CD40 activation in epithelial ovarian carcinoma cells modulates growth, apoptosis, and cytokine secretion
    N J Gallagher
    CRC Institute for Cancer Studies, University of Birmingham Medical School, Birmingham B15 2TA, UK
    Mol Pathol 55:110-20. 2002
    ..This study investigated the effects of CD40 ligation on ovarian carcinoma cell growth and apoptosis and on cytokine production, in addition to the role of the NF-kappa B and JNK signalling pathways...
  24. ncbi request reprint CD40 expression in prostate cancer: a potential diagnostic and therapeutic molecule
    D H Palmer
    CR UK Institute for Cancer Studies, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TA, UK
    Oncol Rep 12:679-82. 2004
    ..These data may be relevant as a diagnostic tool; in providing insight into progression of cancer from normal epithelium; and in identifying novel therapeutic strategies for prostate cancer...
  25. doi request reprint The Epstein-Barr virus oncoprotein, latent membrane protein-1, reprograms germinal centre B cells towards a Hodgkin's Reed-Sternberg-like phenotype
    M Vockerodt
    Cancer Research UK Institute for Cancer Studies, The Medical School, University of Birmingham, UK
    J Pathol 216:83-92. 2008
    ..Our data suggest that in EBV-positive cases, LMP1 is likely to be a major contributor to the altered transcriptional pattern characteristic of Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg cells, including the loss of B-cell identity...
  26. ncbi request reprint The transmembrane domains of the EBV-encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) variant CAO regulate enhanced signalling activity
    S M Blake
    CRC Institute for Cancer Studies, The University of Birmingham Medical School, Vincent Drive, Birmingham, Edgbaston, B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    Virology 282:278-87. 2001
    ..The ability of CAO-LMP1 to activate higher levels of NF-kappaB and AP-1 may contribute to its potent transforming properties...
  27. ncbi request reprint Gene therapy for colorectal cancer: therapeutic potential
    M J Chen
    CRC Institute for Cancer Studies, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TA, England
    BioDrugs 15:357-67. 2001
    ..In order to achieve this and extend the scope of the treatment, continuing efforts should be made to improve the antitumour potency, efficiency of gene delivery and accuracy of gene targeting...
  28. ncbi request reprint Virus-directed enzyme prodrug therapy: intratumoral administration of a replication-deficient adenovirus encoding nitroreductase to patients with resectable liver cancer
    Daniel H Palmer
    Cancer Research UK Institute for Cancer Studies, Department of Pathology and Liver Research Laboratories, University of Birmingham, UK
    J Clin Oncol 22:1546-52. 2004
    ..In this study, we report the first clinical trial investigating the feasibility, safety, and transgene expression of a replication-defective adenovirus encoding nitroreductase (CTL102) in patients with liver tumors...
  29. ncbi request reprint Epstein-Barr virus-encoded EBNA1 regulates cellular gene transcription and modulates the STAT1 and TGFbeta signaling pathways
    V H J Wood
    Cancer Research UK Institute for Cancer Studies, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK
    Oncogene 26:4135-47. 2007
    ..These data show that EBNA1 can influence cellular gene transcription resulting in effects that may contribute to the development of EBV-associated tumors...
  30. pmc The polycomb group proteins, BMI-1 and EZH2, are tumour-associated antigens
    J C Steele
    Cancer Research UK Institute for Cancer Studies, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    Br J Cancer 95:1202-11. 2006
    ..Given the widespread overexpression of PcG proteins in cancer and their critical role in oncogenesis, these data suggest that they may be useful targets for cancer immunotherapy...
  31. ncbi request reprint Epstein-Barr virus infection and malignant lymphomas in liver transplant recipients
    G Niedobitek
    Department of Pathology, University of Birmingham, UK
    Int J Cancer 73:514-20. 1997
    ..Our results also suggest that the examination of liver allograft biopsies using EBER in situ hybridisation is not an appropriate method for identifying patients at risk of developing PTLD...
  32. ncbi request reprint CD40 expression in bladder cancer
    P W Cooke
    CRC Institute for Cancer Studies, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, U K
    J Pathol 188:38-43. 1999
    ..It also raises the possibility of the future development of CD40/CD40 ligand-based immunotherapy for bladder cancer...
  33. ncbi request reprint Bcl-2 expression identifies patients with advanced bladder cancer treated by radiotherapy who benefit from neoadjuvant chemotherapy
    P W Cooke
    Departments of Urology and Pathology, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, and CRC Institute for Cancer Studies, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
    BJU Int 85:829-35. 2000
    ....
  34. doi request reprint The ATM tumour suppressor gene is down-regulated in EBV-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma
    Shikha Bose
    Cancer Research UK Institute for Cancer Studies, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    J Pathol 217:345-52. 2009
    ..Our data suggest that loss of ATM function could be an important step in the pathogenesis of NPC, and may have implications for the treatment of this disease...
  35. doi request reprint Epstein-Barr virus and carcinogenesis: beyond Burkitt's lymphoma
    K M Shah
    Cancer Research UK Institute for Cancer Studies, School of Cancer Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK
    Clin Microbiol Infect 15:982-8. 2009
    ..The study of EBV and its role in carcinomas continues to provide insights into the carcinogenic process that are relevant to a broader understanding of tumour pathogenesis and to the development of targeted cancer therapies...
  36. pmc Expression of the cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) protects Hodgkin's lymphoma cells from autonomous Fas-mediated death
    A Dutton
    Department of Pathology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:6611-6. 2004
    ..Our results provide a mechanism whereby HRS cells are protected from autonomous FasL-mediated cell death while preserving their ability to evade immunosurveillance. Targeting c-FLIP could provide a novel approach to the treatment of HL...
  37. ncbi request reprint The Role of the Epstein-Barr virus in human disease
    P G Murray
    Department of Pathology, Division of Cancer Studies, Medical School, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
    Front Biosci 7:d519-40. 2002
    ..Finally, therapeutic strategies that target EBV in tumours are discussed...
  38. ncbi request reprint Frequent expression of the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 1 in latent membrane protein 1-positive posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease and HIV-associated lymphomas
    P G Murray
    Division of Cancer Studies, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, England
    Hum Pathol 32:963-9. 2001
    ....
  39. pmc Epstein-Barr virus and carcinomas: rare association of the virus with gastric adenocarcinomas
    D C Rowlands
    Department of Pathology, University of Birmingham, UK
    Br J Cancer 68:1014-9. 1993
    ..The close association of EBV with undifferentiated gastric carcinomas compared to the variable association with gastric adenocarcinomas suggests fundamentally different roles for the virus in the aetiology of these two malignancies...
  40. ncbi request reprint LMP1 structure and signal transduction
    A G Eliopoulos
    CRC Institute for Cancer Studies, The University of Birmingham Medical School, Birmingham, B15 2TA, UK
    Semin Cancer Biol 11:435-44. 2001
    ..The constitutive engagement of these signals and the characteristic molecular interactions that regulate them provide the basis for the molecular explanation of the transforming properties of this key EBV protein...
  41. pmc A phase I/II clinical trial in localized prostate cancer of an adenovirus expressing nitroreductase with CB1954 [correction of CB1984]
    Prashant Patel
    CR UK Institute for Cancer Studies, University of Birmingham, UK
    Mol Ther 17:1292-9. 2009
    ....
  42. ncbi request reprint Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) induced cytotoxicity in epithelial cells is associated with EBNA1 degradation and processing
    Richard J Jones
    Cancer Research UK Institute for Cancer Studies, University of Birmingham Medical School, UK
    Virology 313:663-76. 2003
    ..These data have important implications for both the cellular requirements necessary to sustain a stable EBV infection and for the possible role of CTL responses in controlling EBV infection of epithelial cells...
  43. pmc The Epstein-Barr virus-encoded LMP2A and LMP2B proteins promote epithelial cell spreading and motility
    Michael D Allen
    Cancer Research UK Institute for Cancer Studies, University of Birmingham Medical School, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    J Virol 79:1789-802. 2005
    ..Thus, rather than serving to modulate the activity of LMP2A, LMP2B may directly engage signaling pathways to influence epithelial cell behavior such as cell adhesion and motility...
  44. ncbi request reprint Down-regulation of the TGF-beta target gene, PTPRK, by the Epstein-Barr virus encoded EBNA1 contributes to the growth and survival of Hodgkin lymphoma cells
    Joanne R Flavell
    Cancer Research UK Institute for Cancer Studies, The Medical School, University of Birmingham, Vincent Drive, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    Blood 111:292-301. 2008
    ..We speculate that loss of the phosphatase function of PTPRK may activate as-yet-unidentified growth-promoting protein tyrosine kinases, which in turn contribute to the pathogenesis of EBV-positive HL...
  45. pmc Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in infectious mononucleosis: detection of the virus in tonsillar B lymphocytes but not in desquamated oropharyngeal epithelial cells
    G Niedobitek
    Institute for Cancer Studies, University of Birmingham, UK
    Mol Pathol 53:37-42. 2000
    ..In view of the association of EBV with several lymphoid and epithelial malignancies, resolution of this issue is important...
  46. pmc Epstein-Barr virus-encoded LMP2A regulates viral and cellular gene expression by modulation of the NF-kappaB transcription factor pathway
    Suzanne Stewart
    Cancer Research UK Institute for Cancer Studies and Department of Rheumatology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:15730-5. 2004
    ..These data reveal that LMP2A modulates two key transcription factor pathways in carcinoma cells and suggest that this finding may be important in the pathogenesis of EBV-associated tumors...
  47. pmc Expression of the Epstein-Barr virus-encoded Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 in Hodgkin's lymphoma cells mediates Up-regulation of CCL20 and the migration of regulatory T cells
    Karl R N Baumforth
    Cancer Research United Kingdom Institute for Cancer Studies, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom
    Am J Pathol 173:195-204. 2008
    ....
  48. ncbi request reprint Induction of autotaxin by the Epstein-Barr virus promotes the growth and survival of Hodgkin lymphoma cells
    Karl R N Baumforth
    CRUK Institute for Cancer Studies, The Medical School, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    Blood 106:2138-46. 2005
    ....
  49. ncbi request reprint CD40 activation-induced, Fas-dependent apoptosis and NF-kappaB/AP-1 signaling in human intrahepatic biliary epithelial cells
    S C Afford
    The Liver Research Laboratories, MRC Centre for Immune Regulation, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham B15 2TH, UK
    FASEB J 15:2345-54. 2001
    ..Sustained activation of AP-1 in the absence of NF-kappaB signaling may be a critical factor in determining the outcome of CD40 engagement...
  50. ncbi request reprint Expression of Escherichia coli B nitroreductase in established human tumor xenografts in mice results in potent antitumoral and bystander effects upon systemic administration of the prodrug CB1954
    A H Djeha
    Cobra Therapeutics Ltd, The Science Park, University of Keele, United Kingdom
    Cancer Gene Ther 7:721-31. 2000
    ..We also demonstrate that this enzyme/prodrug combination results in antitumoral effects in vivo when only a minority of tumor cells express the enzyme, using either cells constitutively expressing NTR or ntr gene delivery in situ...
  51. pmc CD40 activation induces apoptosis in cultured human hepatocytes via induction of cell surface fas ligand expression and amplifies fas-mediated hepatocyte death during allograft rejection
    S C Afford
    Liver Research Laboratories, The University of Birmingham, Institute of Clinical Science, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham B15 2TH, United Kingdom
    J Exp Med 189:441-6. 1999
    ..Thus, CD40 engagement triggers apoptosis of human hepatocytes and might amplify Fas-dependent hepatocyte apoptosis in chronic rejection and other inflammatory liver diseases in which Fas-mediated apoptosis is involved...
  52. ncbi request reprint Constitutive activation of the CD40 pathway promotes cell transformation and neoplastic growth
    Amanda J Baxendale
    Cancer Research UK Institute for Cancer Studies, The University of Birmingham Medical School, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TA, UK
    Oncogene 24:7913-23. 2005
    ..Strategies that neutralize this pathway may therefore be useful in cancer treatment and prevention...
  53. ncbi request reprint Role of sexual behavior in the acquisition of asymptomatic Epstein-Barr virus infection: a longitudinal study
    Ciaran B J Woodman
    Cancer Research UK Institute for Cancer Studies, University of Birmingham
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 24:498-502. 2005
    ..We report the prevalence and subsequent incidence of EBV infection in a cohort of sexually active young women and explore the social and sexual determinants of incident infections...
  54. ncbi request reprint Viral gene therapy strategies: from basic science to clinical application
    Lawrence S Young
    Cancer Research UK Institute for Cancer Studies, University of Birmingham Medical School, UK
    J Pathol 208:299-318. 2006
    ....
  55. ncbi request reprint CD154 tone sets the signaling pathways and transcriptome generated in model CD40-pluricompetent L3055 Burkitt's lymphoma cells
    Ross Stewart
    MRC Centre for Immune Regulation, University of Birmingham Medical School, Birmingham, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 179:2705-12. 2007
    ..Identifying components selectively coupling CD40 to each axis could indicate targets for disruption in B cell pathologies underpinned by ectopic and/or hyper-CD154 activity such as neoplasia and some autoimmunities...
  56. pmc Epstein-Barr virus-encoded LMP1 regulates epithelial cell motility and invasion via the ERK-MAPK pathway
    Christopher W Dawson
    Cancer Research UK Institute for Cancer Studies, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    J Virol 82:3654-64. 2008
    ....
  57. doi request reprint Epstein-Barr virus-encoded EBNA1 modulates the AP-1 transcription factor pathway in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells and enhances angiogenesis in vitro
    John D O'Neil
    Cancer Research UK Institute for Cancer Studies, University of Birmingham, Vincent Drive, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    J Gen Virol 89:2833-42. 2008
    ..These findings implicate EBNA1 in the angiogenic process and suggest that this viral protein might directly contribute to the development and aggressively metastatic nature of NPC...
  58. ncbi request reprint The natural history of cervical HPV infection: unresolved issues
    Ciaran B J Woodman
    Cancer Research UK Institute for Cancer Studies, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    Nat Rev Cancer 7:11-22. 2007
    ..We discuss areas of uncertainty, and their possible effect on disease prevention strategies...
  59. pmc Is human papillomavirus viral load a clinically useful predictive marker? A longitudinal study
    Christothea Constandinou-Williams
    Cancer Research UK Institute for Cancer Studies, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, United Kingdom
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 19:832-7. 2010
    ..It has been suggested that in women who test positive for high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types, viral load can distinguish women who are at increased risk of cervical neoplasia from those who are not...
  60. doi request reprint A phase II study of adoptive immunotherapy using dendritic cells pulsed with tumor lysate in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma
    Daniel H Palmer
    Cancer Research UK Clinical Trials Unit, CR UK Institute for Cancer Studies, Clinical Research Block
    Hepatology 49:124-32. 2009
    ..Immune responses were assessed using an ELIspot assay of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) release. In several cases there was induction of T cell responses to the vaccine and/or AFP following vaccination...
  61. doi request reprint Disruption of the E2 gene is a common and early event in the natural history of cervical human papillomavirus infection: a longitudinal cohort study
    Stuart I Collins
    Cancer Research UK Clinical Trials Unit, Institute for Cancer Studies, and Cancer Research UK Institute for Cancer Studies, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, United Kingdom
    Cancer Res 69:3828-32. 2009
    ....
  62. ncbi request reprint Targeting cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein as a novel approach to the treatment of Hodgkin's lymphoma
    Amanda Dutton
    Cancer Research UK Institute for Cancer Studies, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, West Midlands, B15 2TT, UK
    Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 6:911-9. 2006
    ....
  63. pmc TRAF1 is a critical regulator of JNK signaling by the TRAF-binding domain of the Epstein-Barr virus-encoded latent infection membrane protein 1 but not CD40
    Aristides G Eliopoulos
    Cancer Research UK Institute for Cancer Studies, The University of Birmingham Medical School, United Kingdom
    J Virol 77:1316-28. 2003
    ..These data further dissect the signaling components used by LMP1 and identify a novel role for TRAF1 as a modulator of oncogenic signals...
  64. pmc The oncogenic protein kinase Tpl-2/Cot contributes to Epstein-Barr virus-encoded latent infection membrane protein 1-induced NF-kappaB signaling downstream of TRAF2
    Aristides G Eliopoulos
    The Cancer Research UK Institute for Cancer Studies, The University of Birmingham Medical School, Birmingham B15 2TA, England
    J Virol 76:4567-79. 2002
    ..These data identify Tpl-2 as a component of LMP1 signaling downstream of TRAF2 and as a modulator of LMP1-mediated effects...
  65. ncbi request reprint Nitroreductase: a prodrug-activating enzyme for cancer gene therapy
    Peter F Searle
    Cancer Research UK Institute for Cancer Studies, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham
    Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 31:811-6. 2004
    ..These can provide improved cell sensitization to CB1954. Combinations of these are being tested. 7. The basis for a positive selection for improved NTR variants has been demonstrated...
  66. pmc Differential induction of nuclear factor-kappaB and activator protein-1 activity after CD40 ligation is associated with primary human hepatocyte apoptosis or intrahepatic endothelial cell proliferation
    Jalal Ahmed-Choudhury
    Liver Research Laboratories, Medical Research Council Centre for Immune Regulation, University of Birmingham Institute of Clinical Science, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TH, United Kingdom
    Mol Biol Cell 14:1334-45. 2003
    ..Transient activation of NF-kappaB and sustained AP-1 activation is associated with apoptosis in hepatocytes, whereas prolonged NF-kappaB activation and a lack of AP-1 activation in IHECs result in proliferation...
  67. ncbi request reprint Epstein-Barr virus-encoded latent infection membrane protein 1 regulates the processing of p100 NF-kappaB2 to p52 via an IKKgamma/NEMO-independent signalling pathway
    Aristides G Eliopoulos
    Cancer Research UK Institute for Cancer Studies, The University of Birmingham Medical School, Birmingham B15 2TA, UK
    Oncogene 22:7557-69. 2003
    ..These data point to the existence of a novel signalling pathway that regulates NF-kappaB in LMP1-expressing cells, and may thereby play a role in both oncogenic transformation and the establishment of persistent EBV infection...
  68. ncbi request reprint Constitutive activation of phosphatidyl-inositide 3 kinase contributes to the survival of Hodgkin's lymphoma cells through a mechanism involving Akt kinase and mTOR
    Amanda Dutton
    Department of Pathology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
    J Pathol 205:498-506. 2005
    ..However, rapamycin and doxorubicin acted synergistically to reduce HL cell survival. A combination of rapamycin and chemotherapy should be investigated in the treatment of HL...
  69. ncbi request reprint Reactivity with A monoclonal antibody to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 defines a subset of aggressive breast cancers in the absence of the EBV genome
    Paul G Murray
    Department of Pathology, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, United Kingdom
    Cancer Res 63:2338-43. 2003
    ..Additional studies should be directed to the identification of this protein and to elucidation of its role in breast cancer...
  70. pmc Smoking initiation is followed by the early acquisition of epigenetic change in cervical epithelium: a longitudinal study
    Y T Ma
    Cancer Research UK Institute for Cancer Studies, School of Cancer Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, Edgbaston, B15 2TT, UK
    Br J Cancer 104:1500-4. 2011
    ....
  71. ncbi request reprint The expression of the retinoblastoma gene product Rb1 in primary and adenovirus-transformed human cells
    R J Grand
    Department of Cancer Studies, University of Birmingham, Medical School, UK
    Oncogene 4:1291-8. 1989
    ..These results are discussed in view of the known similarities and differences between the amino acid sequences of Ad 12 and Ad 5 E1A proteins...
  72. pmc Low prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus in incident gastric adenocarcinomas from the United Kingdom
    D E Burgess
    Department of Pathology, Division of Cancer Studies, The Medical School, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    Br J Cancer 86:702-4. 2002
    ..Gastric adenocarcinoma is another tumour whose association with Epstein-Barr virus varies with the population studied...
  73. pmc Molecular evolution of the metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence in the esophagus
    J A Jankowski
    Institute for Cancer Studies, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom
    Am J Pathol 154:965-73. 1999
    ..Exploitation of these molecular events may lead to a more appropriate diagnosis and understanding of these lesions in the future...
  74. ncbi request reprint The role of cellular FLICE inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) in the pathogenesis and treatment of cancer
    Amanda Dutton
    Cancer Research UK Institute for Cancer Studies, Division of Cancer Studies, Department of Pathology, The Medical School, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
    Expert Opin Ther Targets 10:27-35. 2006
    ..The possibility of targeting c-FLIP as an approach to the treatment of cancer and, in particular, Hodgkin's lymphoma is discussed...
  75. ncbi request reprint Inhibition of metalloproteinase cleavage enhances the cytotoxicity of Fas ligand
    Pauline G Knox
    Cancer Research United Kingdom Institute for Cancer Studies, University of Birmingham Medical School, Edgbaston, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 170:677-85. 2003
    ..Moreover, these findings have general implications for the therapeutic exploitation of TNF family ligands and for the possible impact of MP-based therapies on the normal physiology of Fas/TNF pathways...
  76. doi request reprint Role of the Epstein-Barr virus-encoded latent membrane protein-1, LMP1, in the pathogenesis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma
    Mhairi A Morris
    Cancer Research UK Institute for Cancer Studies, School of Cancer Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK
    Future Oncol 5:811-25. 2009
    ..Here we review the effects of LMP1 on epithelial cell growth transformation, and its putative role in the pathogenesis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, focusing on key areas of proliferation, survival, cell motility and invasion...
  77. ncbi request reprint Epstein-Barr virus-associated cancers: aetiology and treatment
    Victor Lopes
    Cancer Research UK Institute for Cancer Studies, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
    Herpes 10:78-82. 2003
    ..Understanding the functions of EBV latent proteins will improve our knowledge of the role of the virus in transformation, and may help to identify novel therapies...
  78. ncbi request reprint PTTG's C-terminal PXXP motifs modulate critical cellular processes in vitro
    K Boelaert
    Division of Medical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TH, UK
    J Mol Endocrinol 33:663-77. 2004
    ..Taken together, our data suggest that PXXP structure and phosphorylation are likely to exert independent and critical influences upon PTTG's diverse actions in vitro...
  79. doi request reprint Phase I/II trial of a dendritic cell vaccine transfected with DNA encoding melan A and gp100 for patients with metastatic melanoma
    J C Steele
    Cancer Research UK Clinical Trials Unit, School of Cancer Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK
    Gene Ther 18:584-93. 2011
    ..Vaccination with mature DC non-virally transfected with DNA encoding antigen had biological effect causing tumour regression and inducing diverse T lymphocyte responses...
  80. doi request reprint Epstein-Barr virus-encoded LMP1 induces a hyperproliferative and inflammatory gene expression programme in cultured keratinocytes
    Mhairi A Morris
    Cancer Research UK Institute for Cancer Studies, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    J Gen Virol 89:2806-20. 2008
    ..Identification of these LMP1-regulated genes helps to define the mechanism(s) by which this oncoprotein influences cellular pathways that regulate terminal differentiation, cell motility and inflammation...
  81. doi request reprint CD40 ligand-induced carcinoma cell death: a balance between activation of TNFR-associated factor (TRAF) 3-dependent death signals and suppression of TRAF6-dependent survival signals
    Taha Elmetwali
    Cancer Research United Kingdom Institute for Cancer Studies, School of Cancer Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 184:1111-20. 2010
    ..These data provide mechanistic insights into the consequences of CD40 activation in carcinoma cells and how these might be exploited in the clinical development of CD40-targeted anticancer therapies...
  82. ncbi request reprint CD40 mediated human cholangiocyte apoptosis requires JAK2 dependent activation of STAT3 in addition to activation of JNK1/2 and ERK1/2
    Jalal Ahmed-Choudhury
    Liver Research Group, MRC Centre for Immune Regulation, Institute of Biomedical Research, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    Cell Signal 18:456-68. 2006
    ..This study demonstrates that STAT3 can function as a proapoptotic factor in primary human liver epithelial cells...
  83. ncbi request reprint Activation of CD40 in cervical carcinoma cells facilitates CTL responses and augments chemotherapy-induced apoptosis
    Seran C Hill
    Cancer Research UK Institute for Cancer Studies and Medical Research Council Centre for Immune Regulation, University of Birmingham Medical School, Birhimgham B15 2TA, UK
    J Immunol 174:41-50. 2005
    ....
  84. ncbi request reprint Frequent epigenetic inactivation of the RASSF1A tumor suppressor gene in Hodgkin's lymphoma
    Paul G Murray
    Department of Pathology, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    Oncogene 23:1326-31. 2004
    ..Inactivation of RASSF1A could be one mechanism by which HRS cells escape the apoptosis that should occur following nonproductive immunoglobulin gene rearrangements...
  85. ncbi request reprint Proximity of first intercourse to menarche and the risk of human papillomavirus infection: a longitudinal study
    Stuart I Collins
    Cancer Research U K Institute for Cancer Studies, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom
    Int J Cancer 114:498-500. 2005
    ..581; 95% CI = 1.113-2.245) after controlling for age and sexual experience of partner...
  86. ncbi request reprint BCL2 expression predicts survival in patients receiving synchronous chemoradiotherapy in advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder
    S A Hussain
    Cancer Research UK Institute for Cancer Studies, University of Birmingham, Vincent Drive, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    Oncol Rep 10:571-6. 2003
    ..This study shows that over-expression of BCL2 in patients receiving synchronous chemoradiotherapy is an independent indicator of poor survival in muscle invasive TCC of the bladder...
  87. ncbi request reprint An interferon-gamma ELISPOT and immunohistochemical investigation of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-mediated tumour immunity in patients with paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration and anti-Yo antibodies
    I J Sutton
    Department of Neurology, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK
    J Neuroimmunol 150:98-106. 2004
    ....
  88. ncbi request reprint Induction of apoptosis by chemotherapeutic drugs: the role of FADD in activation of caspase-8 and synergy with death receptor ligands in ovarian carcinoma cells
    A E Milner
    CRC Institute for Cancer Studies, Clinical Research Block, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TA, UK
    Cell Death Differ 9:287-300. 2002
    ....
  89. ncbi request reprint The role of the CD40 pathway in the pathogenesis and treatment of cancer
    Aristides G Eliopoulos
    Cancer Research UK Institute for Cancer Studies, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    Curr Opin Pharmacol 4:360-7. 2004
    ..Thus, the CD40 pathway provides an opportunity to muster different anti-cancer approaches in one therapy, and offers an attractive option for future clinical trials...
  90. ncbi request reprint Pituitary tumor transforming gene binding factor: a novel transforming gene in thyroid tumorigenesis
    Anna L Stratford
    Division of Medical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TH, United Kingdom
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90:4341-9. 2005
    ..Pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) is a protooncogene implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple tumor types, which stimulates fibroblast growth factor-2 secretion via PTTG binding factor (PBF)...
  91. pmc Cigarette smoking is an independent risk factor for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in young women: a longitudinal study
    Stuart Collins
    Cancer Research UK Clinical Trials Unit, Institute for Cancer Studies, School of Cancer Sciences, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    Eur J Cancer 46:405-11. 2010
    ..03, 95% CI 0.78-1.34). Current smoking intensity is an independent risk factor for high-grade CIN in young women, after controlling for cervical HPV infection...
  92. doi request reprint DNA tumour viruses promote tumour cell invasion and metastasis by deregulating the normal processes of cell adhesion and motility
    Mhairi A Morris
    Cancer Research UK Institute for Cancer Studies, The Medical School, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    Eur J Cell Biol 87:677-97. 2008
    ..This review will take a brief look at the current knowledge of viral-induced alterations in cell motility and invasiveness in the context of tumour invasion and metastasis...
  93. ncbi request reprint Interleukin 6 expression by Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg cells is associated with the presence of 'B' symptoms and failure to achieve complete remission in patients with advanced Hodgkin's disease
    Gary M Reynolds
    The Liver Research Laboratories, CRC Institute for Cancer Studies, Department of Pathology, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, UK
    Br J Haematol 118:195-201. 2002
    ..57). In summary, the results suggest that IL-6 expression by HRS cells may contribute to the presence of 'B' symptoms and to a decreased likelihood to achieve a complete remission in HD patients...
  94. pmc TRAF6 is required for TRAF2-dependent CD40 signal transduction in nonhemopoietic cells
    Clare C Davies
    Cancer Research UK Institute for Cancer Studies, The University of Birmingham Medical School, United Kingdom
    Mol Cell Biol 25:9806-19. 2005
    ..These observations provide novel insight into the mechanisms of CD40 signaling and the multiple roles played by TRAF6 in signal transduction...
  95. ncbi request reprint High incidence of cervical human papillomavirus infection in women during their first sexual relationship
    Stuart Collins
    Centre for Cancer Epidemiology, The University of Manchester, Withington, UK
    BJOG 109:96-8. 2002
    ....
  96. pmc Modulation of the cell growth regulator mTOR by Epstein-Barr virus-encoded LMP2A
    Cary A Moody
    Microbiology and Immunology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 1501 Kings Highway, Shreveport, LA 71130, USA
    J Virol 79:5499-506. 2005
    ..Intervention by this DNA tumor virus in cellular translational controls is likely to be an integral component of EBV tumorigenesis...
  97. ncbi request reprint Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase- and ERK MAPK-regulated protein synthesis reveals the pro-apoptotic properties of CD40 ligation in carcinoma cells
    Clare C Davies
    Cancer Research United Kingdom Institute for Cancer Studies, The University of Birmingham Medical School, Birmingham B15 2TA, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 279:1010-9. 2004
    ..Pharmacological agents that target this machinery or its upstream kinases could, therefore, be exploited for CD40-based tumor therapy...
  98. ncbi request reprint Cancer gene-therapy: clinical trials
    Daniel H Palmer
    CR UK Institute for Cancer Studies, University of Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    Trends Biotechnol 24:76-82. 2006
    ..The challenge now is to translate these features into effective therapies that can supplement or supplant existing treatments...
  99. ncbi request reprint NF-kappaB overrides the apoptotic program of TNF receptor 1 but not CD40 in carcinoma cells
    Clare C Davies
    Cancer Research UK Institute for Cancer Studies, The University of Birmingham Medical School, Birmingham B15 2TA, United Kingdom
    Cell Signal 17:729-38. 2005
    ..These data provide new evidence for the role of NF-kappaB and PI3 kinase/Akt in phenotypic effects mediated by CD40 ligation and highlight differences in the mechanisms by which TNF family members regulate apoptosis in carcinoma cells...
  100. ncbi request reprint Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and its associated human cancers--genetics, epigenetics, pathobiology and novel therapeutics
    Qian Tao
    Sir YK Pao Cancer Center, Department of Clinical Oncology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
    Front Biosci 11:2672-713. 2006
    ..Finally, therapeutic strategies targeting EBV in tumors are discussed...
  101. ncbi request reprint Immune enhancement of nitroreductase-induced cytotoxicity: studies using a bicistronic adenovirus vector
    Nicola K Green
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Oxford, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Int J Cancer 104:104-12. 2003
    ....