Mark Woolhouse

Summary

Affiliation: University of Edinburgh
Country: UK

Publications

  1. pmc Prevalence and virulence factors of Escherichia coli serogroups O26, O103, O111, and O145 shed by cattle in Scotland
    M C Pearce
    Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9RG, United Kingdom
    Appl Environ Microbiol 72:653-9. 2006
  2. pmc Topographic determinants of foot and mouth disease transmission in the UK 2001 epidemic
    Nicholas J Savill
    Statistical Laboratory, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WB, UK
    BMC Vet Res 2:3. 2006
  3. pmc Human viruses: discovery and emergence
    Mark Woolhouse
    Centre for Immunity, Infection and Evolution, University of Edinburgh, Ashworth Laboratories, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 367:2864-71. 2012
  4. pmc Potential for epidemic take-off from the primary outbreak farm via livestock movements
    Michael J Tildesley
    Centre for Immunity, Infection and Evolution, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Ashworth Laboratories, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JT, UK
    BMC Vet Res 7:76. 2011
  5. pmc Spread of E. coli O157 infection among Scottish cattle farms: stochastic models and model selection
    Xu sheng Zhang
    Centre for Infectious Diseases, University of Edinburgh, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Epidemics 2:11-20. 2010
  6. pmc Modelling Marek's disease virus (MDV) infection: parameter estimates for mortality rate and infectiousness
    Katherine E Atkins
    Centre for Infectious Diseases, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, UK
    BMC Vet Res 7:70. 2011
  7. pmc Geographic and topographic determinants of local FMD transmission applied to the 2001 UK FMD epidemic
    Paul R Bessell
    Centre for Infectious Diseases, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JT, UK
    BMC Vet Res 4:40. 2008
  8. pmc Rapid detection of pandemic influenza in the presence of seasonal influenza
    Brajendra K Singh
    Centre for Infectious Diseases, University of Edinburgh, Ashworth Laboratories, King s Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH93JT, UK
    BMC Public Health 10:726. 2010
  9. pmc Estimating the burden of rhodesiense sleeping sickness during an outbreak in Serere, eastern Uganda
    Eric M Fèvre
    Centre for Infectious Diseases, University of Edinburgh, Ashworth Laboratories, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JT, UK
    BMC Public Health 8:96. 2008
  10. pmc Temporal and spatial patterns of bovine Escherichia coli O157 prevalence and comparison of temporal changes in the patterns of phage types associated with bovine shedding and human E. coli O157 cases in Scotland between 1998-2000 and 2002-2004
    Michael C Pearce
    8 Stour Court, Sandwich, Kent, CT13 9FY, UK
    BMC Microbiol 9:276. 2009

Detail Information

Publications60

  1. pmc Prevalence and virulence factors of Escherichia coli serogroups O26, O103, O111, and O145 shed by cattle in Scotland
    M C Pearce
    Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9RG, United Kingdom
    Appl Environ Microbiol 72:653-9. 2006
    ..The carriage of eae and ehxA genes was highly associated in all three serogroups. Among E. coli serogroup O26 isolates, 28.9% carried vtx, eae, and ehxA-a profile consistent with E. coli O26 strains known to cause human disease...
  2. pmc Topographic determinants of foot and mouth disease transmission in the UK 2001 epidemic
    Nicholas J Savill
    Statistical Laboratory, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WB, UK
    BMC Vet Res 2:3. 2006
    ..This ideally requires a parallel record of spatial epidemic spread and a detailed map of susceptible host density along with relevant transport links and geographical features...
  3. pmc Human viruses: discovery and emergence
    Mark Woolhouse
    Centre for Immunity, Infection and Evolution, University of Edinburgh, Ashworth Laboratories, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 367:2864-71. 2012
    ..It seems almost inevitable that new human viruses will continue to emerge, mainly from other mammals and birds, for the foreseeable future. For this reason, an effective global surveillance system for novel viruses is needed...
  4. pmc Potential for epidemic take-off from the primary outbreak farm via livestock movements
    Michael J Tildesley
    Centre for Immunity, Infection and Evolution, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Ashworth Laboratories, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JT, UK
    BMC Vet Res 7:76. 2011
    ..We consider short infectious periods of 1 week, 2 weeks and 4 weeks, characteristic of acute contagious livestock diseases. The analysis is based on farms in Scotland from 1 January 2003 to 31 July 2007...
  5. pmc Spread of E. coli O157 infection among Scottish cattle farms: stochastic models and model selection
    Xu sheng Zhang
    Centre for Infectious Diseases, University of Edinburgh, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Epidemics 2:11-20. 2010
    ..coli O157 infection at any given time approximately 80% may harbour infection at some point during the course of a year...
  6. pmc Modelling Marek's disease virus (MDV) infection: parameter estimates for mortality rate and infectiousness
    Katherine E Atkins
    Centre for Infectious Diseases, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, UK
    BMC Vet Res 7:70. 2011
    ..The strains had previously been pathotyped to assign virulence scores according to pathogenicity of strains in hosts...
  7. pmc Geographic and topographic determinants of local FMD transmission applied to the 2001 UK FMD epidemic
    Paul R Bessell
    Centre for Infectious Diseases, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JT, UK
    BMC Vet Res 4:40. 2008
    ..Cases were matched to controls by Euclidean distance to the source of infection and farm size. Intervening geographical features and connectivity between the source of infection and case and controls were compared...
  8. pmc Rapid detection of pandemic influenza in the presence of seasonal influenza
    Brajendra K Singh
    Centre for Infectious Diseases, University of Edinburgh, Ashworth Laboratories, King s Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH93JT, UK
    BMC Public Health 10:726. 2010
    ..We develop a method that uses historical syndromic influenza data from the existing surveillance system 'SERVIS' (Scottish Enhanced Respiratory Virus Infection Surveillance) for influenza-like illness (ILI) in Scotland...
  9. pmc Estimating the burden of rhodesiense sleeping sickness during an outbreak in Serere, eastern Uganda
    Eric M Fèvre
    Centre for Infectious Diseases, University of Edinburgh, Ashworth Laboratories, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JT, UK
    BMC Public Health 8:96. 2008
    ..T.b. rhodesiense occurs focally, and it is important to assess the burden at the scale at which resource-allocation decisions are made...
  10. pmc Temporal and spatial patterns of bovine Escherichia coli O157 prevalence and comparison of temporal changes in the patterns of phage types associated with bovine shedding and human E. coli O157 cases in Scotland between 1998-2000 and 2002-2004
    Michael C Pearce
    8 Stour Court, Sandwich, Kent, CT13 9FY, UK
    BMC Microbiol 9:276. 2009
    ..Cattle are considered the main reservoir for E. coli O157. Significant associations between livestock related exposures and human infection have been identified in a number of studies...
  11. pmc Herd-level risk factors associated with the presence of Phage type 21/28 E. coli O157 on Scottish cattle farms
    Jo E B Halliday
    Centre for Infectious Diseases, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Roslin, Midlothian, EH25 9RG, UK
    BMC Microbiol 6:99. 2006
    ..E. coli O157 is a bacterial pathogen that is shed by cattle and can cause severe disease in humans. Phage type (PT) 21/28 is a subtype of E. coli O157 that is found across Scotland and is associated with particularly severe human morbidity...
  12. pmc Comparative evidence for a link between Peyer's patch development and susceptibility to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies
    Suzanne G St Rose
    Centre for Infectious Diseases, University of Edinburgh, King s Buildings, Edinburgh EH9 3JF, UK
    BMC Infect Dis 6:5. 2006
    ....
  13. ncbi request reprint Population biology of emerging and re-emerging pathogens
    Mark E J Woolhouse
    Centre for Infectious Diseases, College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Roslin, Midlothian, UK
    Trends Microbiol 10:S3-7. 2002
    ..Surveillance is a key defence against emerging pathogens but will often need to be integrated across human, domestic animal and wildlife populations...
  14. pmc Epidemiological implications of the contact network structure for cattle farms and the 20-80 rule
    M E J Woolhouse
    Centre for Infectious Diseases, College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush Veterinary Centre, Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9RG, UK
    Biol Lett 1:350-2. 2005
    ..Despite this, it is still the case that just 20% of holdings contribute at least 80% of the value of R0...
  15. pmc Host range and emerging and reemerging pathogens
    Mark E J Woolhouse
    Centre for Infectious Diseases, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
    Emerg Infect Dis 11:1842-7. 2005
    ..However, although zoonotic pathogens do represent the most likely source of emerging and reemerging infectious disease, only a small minority have proved capable of causing major epidemics in the human population...
  16. ncbi request reprint Ecological origins of novel human pathogens
    Mark Woolhouse
    Centre for Infectious Diseases, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
    Crit Rev Microbiol 33:231-42. 2007
    ..quot; We also consider the public health implications of the continuing emergence of new pathogens, focusing on the importance of international surveillance...
  17. ncbi request reprint Heterogeneities in schistosome transmission dynamics and control
    M E Woolhouse
    Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Roslin, Midlothian
    Parasitology 117:475-82. 1998
    ....
  18. ncbi request reprint Seeking the ghost of worms past
    M E Woolhouse
    Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh Easter Bush, Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9RG
    Nat Med 5:1225-7. 1999
    ..Here, Woolhouse and Hagan discuss new evidence suggesting that the extremely slow development of acquired immunity to human schistosomes may depend on exposure to antigens from these worms after they die...
  19. ncbi request reprint Exposure, infection and immune responses to Schistosoma haematobium in young children
    M E Woolhouse
    Centre for Veterinary Tropical Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Scotland
    Parasitology 120:37-44. 2000
    ..This suggests that there may be substantial attrition of invading cercaria even in naïve individuals...
  20. ncbi request reprint On the interpretation of age-prevalence curves for trypanosome infections of tsetse flies
    M E Woolhouse
    Wellcome Trust Centre for the Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford
    Parasitology 116:149-56. 1998
    ..Models with these features can explain up to 97% of observed variance. Parameter estimates from published experimental data suggest that all may contribute in practice but that (i) and/or (ii) are likely to be the most important...
  21. ncbi request reprint Biological and biomedical implications of the co-evolution of pathogens and their hosts
    Mark E J Woolhouse
    Centre for Infectious Diseases, College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9RG, UK
    Nat Genet 32:569-77. 2002
    ....
  22. ncbi request reprint Foot-and-mouth disease in the UK: what should we do next time?
    M E J Woolhouse
    Centre for Infectious Diseases, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
    J Appl Microbiol 94:126S-130S. 2003
    ....
  23. pmc Temporal trends in the discovery of human viruses
    Mark E J Woolhouse
    Centre for Infectious Diseases, Ashworth Laboratories, Kings Buildings, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Proc Biol Sci 275:2111-5. 2008
    ..More systematic virus discovery programmes, covering both humans and potential animal reservoirs of human viruses, should be considered...
  24. pmc How to make predictions about future infectious disease risks
    Mark Woolhouse
    Centre for Infectious Diseases, University of Edinburgh, Ashworth Laboratories, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 366:2045-54. 2011
    ..A starting point would be generally accepted guidelines for 'good practice' for the development and the use of predictive models...
  25. ncbi request reprint Population biology of multihost pathogens
    M E Woolhouse
    Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9RG, UK
    Science 292:1109-12. 2001
    ..The evolutionary advantages and disadvantages of generalism are so finely balanced that even closely related pathogens can have very different host range sizes...
  26. ncbi request reprint A centuries-long epidemic of scrapie in British sheep?
    M E Woolhouse
    Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Roslin, EH25 9RG, Midlothian, UK
    Trends Microbiol 9:67-70. 2001
    ..This interpretation implies that scrapie should eventually disappear from the sheep population...
  27. pmc Enhancement of bacterial competitive fitness by apramycin resistance plasmids from non-pathogenic Escherichia coli
    C M Yates
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, UK
    Biol Lett 2:463-5. 2006
    ..This work indicates that reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes in commensal organisms might not decrease if antibiotic usage is halted...
  28. ncbi request reprint New approaches to quantifying the spread of infection
    Louise Matthews
    Veterinary Epidemiology Group, Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush Veterinary Centre, Roslin, Midlothian, EH25 9RG, Scotland
    Nat Rev Microbiol 3:529-36. 2005
    ..This signals a move towards a closer interplay between epidemiological modelling, surveillance and disease-management strategies...
  29. doi request reprint Super-shedding and the link between human infection and livestock carriage of Escherichia coli O157
    Margo Chase-Topping
    Centre for Infectious Diseases, University of Edinburgh, Kings Buildings, Edinburgh, EH9 3JT, UK
    Nat Rev Microbiol 6:904-12. 2008
    ..More generally, epidemiological evidence suggests that super-shedding might be important in other bacterial and viral infections...
  30. pmc Temporal shedding patterns and virulence factors of Escherichia coli serogroups O26, O103, O111, O145, and O157 in a cohort of beef calves and their dams
    M C Pearce
    Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9RG, United Kingdom
    Appl Environ Microbiol 70:1708-16. 2004
    ..For E. coli O26 and O103, there was no association between shedding and scouring, and there was no significant change in shedding following housing...
  31. doi request reprint Evaluating different PrP genotype selection strategies for expected severity of scrapie outbreaks and genetic progress in performance in commercial sheep
    W Y N Man
    Scottish Agricultural College, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, UK
    Prev Vet Med 91:161-71. 2009
    ..The reduction in genetic progress was only large when the initial ARR frequency was low and, in general, the risk of major epidemics was very small when the frequency of this allele reached 0.7...
  32. pmc Super-shedding cattle and the transmission dynamics of Escherichia coli O157
    L Matthews
    Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Roslin, Midlothian, UK
    Epidemiol Infect 134:131-42. 2006
    ..The pattern of prevalence displayed in the second dataset also strongly supports the super-shedder hypothesis...
  33. pmc Neighbourhood control policies and the spread of infectious diseases
    L Matthews
    Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Roslin EH25 9RG, UK
    Proc Biol Sci 270:1659-66. 2003
    ..The total loss to the population is relatively insensitive to the level of control as it increases beyond the optimal level, suggesting that over-control is a safer policy than under-control...
  34. doi request reprint Potential for transmission of infections in networks of cattle farms
    V V Volkova
    Epidemiology Group, Centre for Infectious Diseases, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Ashworth Laboratories, King s Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, UK
    Epidemics 2:116-22. 2010
    ..We note that the second order properties of a directed contact network may vary through time even with little change in the mean contact rates or in overall connectedness of the network...
  35. ncbi request reprint High frequency transfer and horizontal spread of apramycin resistance in calf faecal Escherichia coli
    C M Yates
    Medical Microbiology, University of Edinburgh Medical School, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 54:534-7. 2004
    ..This study aimed to determine both whether calves that had never been treated with aminoglycoside antibiotics harboured apramycin-resistant (apr(R)) commensal Escherichia coli, and the mode of spread of the resistance gene...
  36. doi request reprint The predicted impact of immunosuppression upon population age-intensity profiles for schistosomiasis
    K M Mitchell
    Centre for Infectious Diseases, Institute of Immunology and Infection Research, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    Parasite Immunol 30:462-70. 2008
    ..These findings are discussed in the light of existing field and experimental data...
  37. pmc Shedding patterns of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli strains in a cohort of calves and their dams on a Scottish beef farm
    D J Shaw
    Veterinary Epidemiology Group, Centre for Tropical and Veterinary Medicine, College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Roslin, Midlothian, United Kingdom
    Appl Environ Microbiol 70:7456-65. 2004
    ..No association between calf diarrhea and any of the VTEC serogroups was identified...
  38. pmc Modelling the epidemiology of Verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli serogroups in young calves
    W C Liu
    Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Roslin, Midlothian, Scotland, EH25 9RG, UK
    Epidemiol Infect 133:449-58. 2005
    ..We suggest that future field studies may wish to adopt a tighter sampling frame in order to detect all circulating VTEC serogroups in similar animal populations...
  39. pmc Modelling the epidemiology and transmission of Verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli serogroups O26 and O103 in two different calf cohorts
    W C Liu
    Centre for Infectious Diseases, College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Midlothian, UK
    Epidemiol Infect 135:1316-23. 2007
    ..For serogroup O26 but not O103, there is evidence for unequal environmental exposure to infection with different PFGE types...
  40. pmc Effect of the initial dose of foot-and-mouth disease virus on the early viral dynamics within pigs
    Richard Howey
    Epidemiology Group, Centre for Infectious Diseases, Ashworth Laboratories, Kings Buildings, Mains Road, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    J R Soc Interface 6:835-47. 2009
    ..We show that the general trend in the data can be explained by varying only the initial dose. The higher the initial dose the earlier the development of a detectable viral load...
  41. pmc Heterogeneous shedding of Escherichia coli O157 in cattle and its implications for control
    L Matthews
    Centre for Infectious Diseases, College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9RG, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:547-52. 2006
    ..We conclude that a greater understanding of the cause of the heterogeneity in bacterial carriage could lead to highly efficient control measures to reduce the prevalence of E. coli O157...
  42. pmc Comparative epidemiology of scrapie outbreaks in individual sheep flocks
    C A Redman
    Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Roslin, Midlothian, UK
    Epidemiol Infect 128:513-21. 2002
    ..Scrapie incidence was higher in ewes than rams and at certain times of years, though these effects were not consistent between flocks. There was no evidence for high levels of vertical transmission...
  43. pmc Origin and fate of A/H1N1 influenza in Scotland during 2009
    Samantha Lycett
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Ashworth Laboratories, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    J Gen Virol 93:1253-60. 2012
    ....
  44. ncbi request reprint Silent spread of H5N1 in vaccinated poultry
    Nicholas J Savill
    Centre for Infectious Diseases, University of Edinburgh, Ashworth Laboratories, The King s Buildings, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Nature 442:757. 2006
    ..The use of unvaccinated sentinels can mitigate, although not completely eliminate, the problem...
  45. ncbi request reprint Optimal reactive vaccination strategies for a foot-and-mouth outbreak in the UK
    Michael J Tildesley
    Department of Biological Sciences and Mathematics Institute, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
    Nature 440:83-6. 2006
    ..This strategy has the advantage that it rapidly targets new foci of infection and that determining an optimal ring size is unnecessary...
  46. ncbi request reprint Using remote sensing and geographic information systems to identify villages at high risk for rhodesiense sleeping sickness in Uganda
    Martin Odiit
    Sleeping Sickness Programme, National Agricultural Research Organization, LIRI Hospital, P O Box 96, Tororo, Uganda
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 100:354-62. 2006
    ..These findings demonstrate the potential of remote sensing and GIS to characterize village-level risk of sleeping sickness in endemic regions...
  47. ncbi request reprint Chemotherapy-induced, age-related changes in antischistosome antibody responses
    Francisca Mutapi
    Comparative Epidemiology and Informatics, Department of Veterinary Clinical Studies, University of Glasgow Veterinary School, Bearsden Road, UK
    Parasite Immunol 25:87-97. 2003
    ..Taken together, these results indicate that the age-antibody relationship observed in these children is due, at least in part, to cumulative host experience of parasite antigens and not host age alone...
  48. ncbi request reprint Theileria annulata: virulence and transmission from single and mixed clone infections in cattle
    Louise H Taylor
    Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Roslin, Midlothian, EH25 9RG Scotland, UK
    Exp Parasitol 100:186-95. 2002
    ..Index Descriptors and Abbreviations. Theileria annulata, Apicomplexa, mixed infections, virulence, growth rates, red blood cell, RBC; packed cell volume, PCV...
  49. ncbi request reprint Acquisition and epidemiology of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli in a cohort of newborn calves
    Deborah V Hoyle
    Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Royal Dick School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush Veterinary Centre, Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9RG
    J Antimicrob Chemother 53:867-71. 2004
    ..The acquisition of antibiotic-resistant commensal Escherichia coli was examined in a cohort of newborn calves...
  50. ncbi request reprint Serial passage of foot-and-mouth disease virus in sheep reveals declining levels of viraemia over time
    Gareth J Hughes
    Institute for Animal Health, Pirbright Laboratory, Ash Road, Pirbright, Woking, Surrey GU24 0NF, UK
    J Gen Virol 83:1907-14. 2002
    ..The results of these experiments are discussed in terms of the epidemiology of FMD in sheep...
  51. pmc Molecular epidemiology of antimicrobial-resistant commensal Escherichia coli strains in a cohort of newborn calves
    Deborah V Hoyle
    Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Royal Dick School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush Veterinary Centre, Roslin, Midlothian, Scotland EH25 9RG, United Kingdom
    Appl Environ Microbiol 71:6680-8. 2005
    ..These data indicate that calves were colonized by a succession of multiply resistant strains, with a probable environmental source, that disseminated through the cohort over time...
  52. ncbi request reprint Quantification of Peyer's patches in Cheviot sheep for future scrapie pathogenesis studies
    Suzanne G St Rose
    Centre for Infectious Diseases, University of Edinburgh, Ashworth Laboratories, King s Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JF, Scotland, UK
    Vet Immunol Immunopathol 116:163-71. 2007
    ..They may also offer a possible biological explanation for the apparent age-susceptibility relationship observed in natural cases of TSEs and might help to explain the young age-distribution of cases...
  53. pmc Metapopulation dynamics of Escherichia coli O157 in cattle: an exploratory model
    Wei Chung Liu
    Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, 128 Section 2, Academia Road, Nankang, Taipei 115, Taiwan, Republic of China
    J R Soc Interface 4:917-24. 2007
    ..coli O157 could have reached the currently observed prevalence levels in less than a decade. Implications and findings from our models are discussed in relation to possible control of E. coli O157 in Scottish cattle...
  54. pmc Risk factors for the presence of high-level shedders of Escherichia coli O157 on Scottish farms
    Margo E Chase-Topping
    Centre for Infectious Diseases, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
    J Clin Microbiol 45:1594-603. 2007
    ..Management-related risk factors that were identified included the type of cattle (female breeding cattle) and cattle stress (movement and weaning), as opposed to environmental factors, such as water supply and feed...
  55. ncbi request reprint Epidemiology: dangers of moving cows
    Mark E J Woolhouse
    Nature 435:431-2. 2005
  56. doi request reprint Epidemiology: emerging diseases go global
    Mark E J Woolhouse
    Nature 451:898-9. 2008
  57. pmc Accuracy of models for the 2001 foot-and-mouth epidemic
    Michael J Tildesley
    Department of Biological Sciences and Mathematics Institute, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
    Proc Biol Sci 275:1459-68. 2008
    ....
  58. ncbi request reprint Genotype-level variation in lifetime breeding success, litter size and survival of sheep in scrapie-affected flocks
    Margo E Chase-Topping
    Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine CTVM, Royal Dick School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9RG, UK
    J Gen Virol 86:1229-38. 2005
    ..One possible explanation for these results is the effect of pre-clinical scrapie. Additional evidence supporting this hypothesis is discussed...
  59. pmc Age-related decline in carriage of ampicillin-resistant Escherichia coli in young calves
    Deborah V Hoyle
    Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Roayl Dick School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush Veterinary Centre, Roslin, Midlothian, United Kingdom
    Appl Environ Microbiol 70:6927-30. 2004
    ..The prevalence of calves yielding Amp(r) E. coli in cohorts consistently declined to low levels with increasing age of the calves (P < 0.001)...
  60. pmc Effect of data quality on estimates of farm infectiousness trends in the UK 2001 foot-and-mouth disease epidemic
    Nicholas J Savill
    Centre for Infectious Diseases, University of Edinburgh, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    J R Soc Interface 4:235-41. 2007
    ..Here, we show that such data degradation prevents successful determination of trends in farm infectiousness...