Gary Williamson

Summary

Affiliation: University of Leeds
Country: UK

Publications

  1. doi request reprint Nutrients and phytochemicals: from bioavailability to bioefficacy beyond antioxidants
    Birgit Holst
    BioAnalytical Science Department, Nestle Research Center, Nestec Ltd, Vers chez les Blanc, CH 1000 Lausanne 26, Switzerland
    Curr Opin Biotechnol 19:73-82. 2008
  2. doi request reprint Characterization of hydroxycinnamic acid glucuronide and sulfate conjugates by HPLC-DAD-MS(2): enhancing chromatographic quantification and application in Caco-2 cell metabolism
    Tracy Farrell
    School of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Leeds, UK
    J Pharm Biomed Anal 55:1245-54. 2011
  3. doi request reprint Possible effects of dietary polyphenols on sugar absorption and digestion
    Gary Williamson
    School of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
    Mol Nutr Food Res 57:48-57. 2013
  4. doi request reprint Dietary reference intake (DRI) value for dietary polyphenols: are we heading in the right direction?
    Gary Williamson
    Chair of Functional Food, Procter Department of Food Science, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
    Br J Nutr 99:S55-8. 2008
  5. doi request reprint Polyphenol content and health benefits of raisins
    Gary Williamson
    School of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Leeds, LS92JT Leeds, United Kingdom
    Nutr Res 30:511-9. 2010
  6. doi request reprint Colonic metabolites of berry polyphenols: the missing link to biological activity?
    Gary Williamson
    School of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
    Br J Nutr 104:S48-66. 2010
  7. doi request reprint Flavanols from green tea and phenolic acids from coffee: critical quantitative evaluation of the pharmacokinetic data in humans after consumption of single doses of beverages
    Gary Williamson
    School of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
    Mol Nutr Food Res 55:864-73. 2011
  8. doi request reprint Review of the efficacy of green tea, isoflavones and aloe vera supplements based on randomised controlled trials
    Gary Williamson
    School of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK
    Food Funct 2:753-9. 2011
  9. doi request reprint Interaction of hydroxycinnamic acids and their conjugates with organic anion transporters and ATP-binding cassette transporters
    Chi C Wong
    School of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
    Mol Nutr Food Res 55:979-88. 2011
  10. doi request reprint Polyphenols and phenolic acids from strawberry and apple decrease glucose uptake and transport by human intestinal Caco-2 cells
    Susana Manzano
    School of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom
    Mol Nutr Food Res 54:1773-80. 2010

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications60

  1. doi request reprint Nutrients and phytochemicals: from bioavailability to bioefficacy beyond antioxidants
    Birgit Holst
    BioAnalytical Science Department, Nestle Research Center, Nestec Ltd, Vers chez les Blanc, CH 1000 Lausanne 26, Switzerland
    Curr Opin Biotechnol 19:73-82. 2008
    ....
  2. doi request reprint Characterization of hydroxycinnamic acid glucuronide and sulfate conjugates by HPLC-DAD-MS(2): enhancing chromatographic quantification and application in Caco-2 cell metabolism
    Tracy Farrell
    School of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Leeds, UK
    J Pharm Biomed Anal 55:1245-54. 2011
    ..The characterization data presented here will significantly improve quantification and understanding of the bioavailability in vivo...
  3. doi request reprint Possible effects of dietary polyphenols on sugar absorption and digestion
    Gary Williamson
    School of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
    Mol Nutr Food Res 57:48-57. 2013
    ....
  4. doi request reprint Dietary reference intake (DRI) value for dietary polyphenols: are we heading in the right direction?
    Gary Williamson
    Chair of Functional Food, Procter Department of Food Science, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
    Br J Nutr 99:S55-8. 2008
    ..We are heading in the right direction towards a DRI, but bioavailability and dose-effects, including toxic levels, need to be established before DRIs can be considered...
  5. doi request reprint Polyphenol content and health benefits of raisins
    Gary Williamson
    School of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Leeds, LS92JT Leeds, United Kingdom
    Nutr Res 30:511-9. 2010
    ..More research is required to establish the bioavailability and health effects of the PPT component of raisins, the effects of raisins on health biomarkers in vivo in humans, and how these effects compare to grapes and wine...
  6. doi request reprint Colonic metabolites of berry polyphenols: the missing link to biological activity?
    Gary Williamson
    School of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
    Br J Nutr 104:S48-66. 2010
    ....
  7. doi request reprint Flavanols from green tea and phenolic acids from coffee: critical quantitative evaluation of the pharmacokinetic data in humans after consumption of single doses of beverages
    Gary Williamson
    School of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
    Mol Nutr Food Res 55:864-73. 2011
    ..Most studies report a very low amount of intact chlorogenic acids in plasma, with one exception. More studies on absorption of chlorogenic acids from coffee are required, including dose-response studies...
  8. doi request reprint Review of the efficacy of green tea, isoflavones and aloe vera supplements based on randomised controlled trials
    Gary Williamson
    School of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK
    Food Funct 2:753-9. 2011
    ....
  9. doi request reprint Interaction of hydroxycinnamic acids and their conjugates with organic anion transporters and ATP-binding cassette transporters
    Chi C Wong
    School of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
    Mol Nutr Food Res 55:979-88. 2011
    ..Hydroxycinnamic acids are abundant antioxidants in our diet. In humans, hydroxycinnamic acids are metabolized to form sulfates and glucuronides, with the majority recovered in urine...
  10. doi request reprint Polyphenols and phenolic acids from strawberry and apple decrease glucose uptake and transport by human intestinal Caco-2 cells
    Susana Manzano
    School of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom
    Mol Nutr Food Res 54:1773-80. 2010
    ..The results in this assay show that some PPTs inhibit glucose transport from the intestinal lumen into cells and also the GLUT2-facilitated exit on the basolateral side...
  11. ncbi request reprint Absorption of dimethoxycinnamic acid derivatives in vitro and pharmacokinetic profile in human plasma following coffee consumption
    Tracy L Farrell
    School of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
    Mol Nutr Food Res 56:1413-23. 2012
    ....
  12. doi request reprint Predicting phenolic acid absorption in Caco-2 cells: a theoretical permeability model and mechanistic study
    Tracy L Farrell
    School of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
    Drug Metab Dispos 40:397-406. 2012
    ....
  13. ncbi request reprint Inhibition of hydroxycinnamic acid sulfation by flavonoids and their conjugated metabolites
    Chi Chun Wong
    School of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Leeds, UK
    Biofactors 39:644-51. 2013
    ..These data suggest that the inhibition of SULTs by flavonoids and in vivo flavonoid conjugates may modify the bioavailability of dietary hydroxycinnamic acids by suppressing their conversion to sulfated metabolites...
  14. ncbi request reprint Controlled flax interventions for the improvement of menopausal symptoms and postmenopausal bone health: a systematic review
    Tristan P Dew
    From the School of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Leeds, West Yorkshire, UK
    Menopause 20:1207-15. 2013
    ..A paucity of appropriate randomized controlled trials means that the effects of flax intervention on postmenopausal bone mineral density are inconclusive. ..
  15. doi request reprint Carrier-mediated transport of quercetin conjugates: involvement of organic anion transporters and organic anion transporting polypeptides
    Chi Chun Wong
    School of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
    Biochem Pharmacol 84:564-70. 2012
    ..siRNA knockdown of OATP4C1 expression in HepG2 cells reduced uptake of quercetin-3'-O-sulfate by ∼40%. This study highlights a role for OATs and OATPs in the cellular uptake of biologically active flavonoid conjugates...
  16. doi request reprint Attenuation of glucose transport across Caco-2 cell monolayers by a polyphenol-rich herbal extract: interactions with SGLT1 and GLUT2 transporters
    Tracy L Farrell
    School of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Leeds, Leeds, West Yorkshire, UK
    Biofactors 39:448-56. 2013
    ....
  17. doi request reprint In vitro and in vivo conjugation of dietary hydroxycinnamic acids by UDP-glucuronosyltransferases and sulfotransferases in humans
    Chi Chun Wong
    School of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Leeds, LS29JT Leeds, UK
    J Nutr Biochem 21:1060-8. 2010
    ..These data suggest that sulfates are the predominant hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates in humans, and that SULT mediated sulfation is a major factor determining the bioavailability of hydroxycinnamic acids in vivo...
  18. ncbi request reprint Absorption of quercetin-3-glucoside and quercetin-4'-glucoside in the rat small intestine: the role of lactase phlorizin hydrolase and the sodium-dependent glucose transporter
    Andrea J Day
    Procter Department of Food Science, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
    Biochem Pharmacol 65:1199-206. 2003
    ..Evidently the mechanism of absorption of quercetin-4'-glucoside involves both an interaction with SGLT1 and luminal hydrolysis by LPH, whereas quercetin-3-glucoside appears to be absorbed only following hydrolysis by LPH...
  19. doi request reprint Flavonoid conjugates interact with organic anion transporters (OATs) and attenuate cytotoxicity of adefovir mediated by organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1/SLC22A6)
    Chi Chun Wong
    School of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds, UK
    Biochem Pharmacol 81:942-9. 2011
    ..Interaction with OATs limits systemic availability of flavonoids and may be a mechanism of food-drug interaction via inhibition of renal uptake...
  20. ncbi request reprint Interactions affecting the bioavailability of dietary polyphenols in vivo
    Susanne Scholz
    Nestle Research Center, Vers chez les Blanc, 1000 Lausanne 26, Switzerland
    Int J Vitam Nutr Res 77:224-35. 2007
    ..Information derived from such experiments could be useful for the optimal design of future bioefficacy studies...
  21. doi request reprint Cocoa and human health
    Samantha Ellam
    School of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, United Kingdom
    Annu Rev Nutr 33:105-28. 2013
    ..However, the calorie and sugar content of chocolate and its contribution to the total diet should be taken into account in intervention studies. ..
  22. ncbi request reprint Bioavailability and bioefficacy of polyphenols in humans. II. Review of 93 intervention studies
    Gary Williamson
    Nutrient Bioavailability Group, Nestle Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland
    Am J Clin Nutr 81:243S-255S. 2005
    ..The length of human intervention studies should be increased, to more closely reflect the long-term dietary consumption of polyphenols...
  23. ncbi request reprint Lycopene isomerisation takes place within enterocytes during absorption in human subjects
    Myriam Richelle
    Nestle Research Center, Nestec Ltd, Lausanne, Switzerland
    Br J Nutr 103:1800-7. 2010
    ..Although there is a huge inter-individual variability of total lycopene absorption reported both in in vitro intestinal cell lines as well as in human chylomicrons, the lycopene isomer profile is quite similar...
  24. ncbi request reprint Urinary excretion of ginkgolide terpene lactones following acute consumption of Ginkgo biloba extract
    Tristan P Dew
    School of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK Bradford School of Pharmacy, School of Life Sciences, University of Bradford, Bradford, UK
    Biofactors 40:268-74. 2014
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first study to report intact ginkgolide J in urine following oral consumption of ginkgo supplements and is also the first to account for excreted terpene lactones as a proportion of dose...
  25. doi request reprint Absorption and metabolism of chlorogenic acids in cultured gastric epithelial monolayers
    Tracy L Farrell
    School of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
    Drug Metab Dispos 39:2338-46. 2011
    ..We propose that the stomach is the first location for the release of hydroxycinnamic acids, which could explain their early detection after coffee consumption...
  26. doi request reprint Functional foods for health promotion: state-of-the-science on dietary flavonoids. Extended abstracts from the 12th Annual Conference on Functional Foods for Health Promotion, April 2009
    Gary Williamson
    University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
    Nutr Rev 67:736-43. 2009
    ..While more data are needed on the long-term health impacts of dietary flavonoids in humans, including the efficacious dose, current data indicate it may soon be possible to develop public health messages about flavonoid-rich foods...
  27. ncbi request reprint Measurement of caffeic and ferulic acid equivalents in plasma after coffee consumption: small intestine and colon are key sites for coffee metabolism
    Mathieu Renouf
    Nestle Research Center, Nestec Limited, Vers chez les Blanc, Lausanne, Switzerland
    Mol Nutr Food Res 54:760-6. 2010
    ..This study confirms that the small intestine is a significant site for absorption of PA, but shows for the first time that the colon/microflora play the major role in absorption and metabolism of CGAs and PA from coffee...
  28. ncbi request reprint Investigation of the metabolic fate of dihydrocaffeic acid
    Laure Poquet
    Nestle Research Centre, Vers chez les Blanc, 1000 Lausanne 26, Switzerland
    Biochem Pharmacol 75:1218-29. 2008
    ..As a conclusion, the main form of dihydrocaffeic acid circulating in plasma after its ingestion is a mixture of different primary and secondary metabolites...
  29. ncbi request reprint Predictive relationship between polyphenol and nonfat cocoa solids content of chocolate
    Karen A Cooper
    Nestle Research Centre, Lausanne, Switzerland
    J Agric Food Chem 56:260-5. 2008
    ..40), but these relationships were independent of the nature of the chocolate type, indicating that they might still have some predictive capabilities...
  30. ncbi request reprint Transport and metabolism of ferulic acid through the colonic epithelium
    Laure Poquet
    Nestle Research Center, Vers chez les Blanc, Lausanne, Switzerland
    Drug Metab Dispos 36:190-7. 2008
    ..These results show that the form of ferulic acid available to the blood after passage across the colonic barrier would be mainly the free form, together with only a small percentage of conjugated and reduced ferulic acid...
  31. ncbi request reprint Cocoa and health: a decade of research
    Karen A Cooper
    Nestle Research Center, Vers chez les Blanc, PO Box 44, CH 1000 Lausanne 26, Switzerland
    Br J Nutr 99:1-11. 2008
    ..However, after 10 years of research, what is known about the potential health benefits of cocoa and what are the important next steps in understanding this decadent source of antioxidants?..
  32. ncbi request reprint Review of the factors affecting bioavailability of soy isoflavones in humans
    Inge Lise Finné Nielsen
    Nutrient Bioavailability Group, Nestle Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland
    Nutr Cancer 57:1-10. 2007
    ..In conclusion, it is important to consider the factors affecting bioavailability of isoflavones when designing intervention studies...
  33. ncbi request reprint Interaction of positional isomers of quercetin glucuronides with the transporter ABCC2 (cMOAT, MRP2)
    Gary Williamson
    Nestle Research Center, Vers chez les Blanc, 1000 Lausanne 26, Switzerland
    Drug Metab Dispos 35:1262-8. 2007
    ....
  34. doi request reprint Effect of dihydrocaffeic acid on UV irradiation of human keratinocyte HaCaT cells
    Laure Poquet
    Nestle Research Centre, Vers chez les Blanc, 1000 Lausanne 26, Switzerland School of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, The University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH, UK
    Arch Biochem Biophys 476:196-204. 2008
    ..The data obtained suggest that dihydrocaffeic acid is a potential candidate for photo-protection by interfering with the events initiated after UV exposure in keratinocytes...
  35. ncbi request reprint A review of the health effects of green tea catechins in in vivo animal models
    Vanessa Crespy
    Nestle Research Center, Vers chez les Blanc, CH 1000 Lausanne 26, Switzerland
    J Nutr 134:3431S-3440S. 2004
    ..Further investigations on mechanisms, the nature of the active compounds, and appropriate dose levels are needed...
  36. ncbi request reprint An integrative metabolism approach identifies stearoyl-CoA desaturase as a target for an arachidonate-enriched diet
    David M Mutch
    Nestle Research Center, Vers chez les Blanc, Lausanne, Switzerland
    FASEB J 19:599-601. 2005
    ....
  37. ncbi request reprint Bioavailability and metabolism
    Wilhelm Stahl
    Institut fur Physiologische Chemie I, Dusseldorf, Germany
    Mol Aspects Med 23:39-100. 2002
  38. ncbi request reprint How should we assess the effects of exposure to dietary polyphenols in vitro?
    Paul A Kroon
    Nutrition Division, Institute of Food Research, Norwich, United Kingdom
    Am J Clin Nutr 80:15-21. 2004
    ..1-10 micromol/L. For correct interpretation of results, future efforts to define biological activities of polyphenols must make use of the available data concerning bioavailability and metabolism in humans...
  39. ncbi request reprint Polyphenols from alcoholic apple cider are absorbed, metabolized and excreted by humans
    M Susan DuPont
    Institute of Food Research, Norwich Research Park, Colney, Norwich, NR4 7UA United Kingdom
    J Nutr 132:172-5. 2002
    ..These data show that polyphenols are taken up from cider, that phloretin is excreted in the urine and suggest that low doses of quercetin are extensively methylated in humans...
  40. ncbi request reprint Bioavailability and bioefficacy of polyphenols in humans. I. Review of 97 bioavailability studies
    Claudine Manach
    Unité des Maladies Métaboliques et Micronutriments, INRA, Saint Genes Champanelle, France
    Am J Clin Nutr 81:230S-242S. 2005
    ..Data are still too limited for assessment of hydroxycinnamic acids and other polyphenols. These data may be useful for the design and interpretation of intervention studies investigating the health effects of polyphenols...
  41. ncbi request reprint Rapid reversed phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the major cocoa polyphenols and inter-relationships of their concentrations in chocolate
    Karen A Cooper
    Nestle Research Center, CH 1000 Lausanne 26, Switzerland
    J Agric Food Chem 55:2841-7. 2007
    ..Finally, the (-)-catechin content is not predictable from the epicatechin content, and it is concluded that this is the main form of polyphenol that varies according to manufacturing conditions and cocoa origin...
  42. ncbi request reprint Skin bioavailability of dietary vitamin E, carotenoids, polyphenols, vitamin C, zinc and selenium
    Myriam Richelle
    Nestle Research Center, Nestec Ltd, PO Box 44, CH 1000 Lausanne 26, Switzerland
    Br J Nutr 96:227-38. 2006
    ..Even for compounds that have been studied well in other organs, information on skin is relatively sparse. Gaps in knowledge are identified and suggestions made for future research...
  43. ncbi request reprint (+)-Catechin is more bioavailable than (-)-catechin: relevance to the bioavailability of catechin from cocoa
    Jennifer L Donovan
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA
    Free Radic Res 40:1029-34. 2006
    ..Our findings provide an explanation for the poor bioavailability of catechin when consumed in chocolate or other cocoa containing products...
  44. pmc Changes in the transcriptional profile of transporters in the intestine along the anterior-posterior and crypt-villus axes
    Pascale Anderle
    ISREC, Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research, 1066 Epalinges s Lausanne, Switzerland
    BMC Genomics 6:69. 2005
    ....
  45. ncbi request reprint Bioavailability of phyto-oestrogens
    Ian Rowland
    Northern Ireland Centre for Food and Health, University of Ulster, Coleraine, UK
    Br J Nutr 89:S45-58. 2003
    ..Factors influencing absorption and metabolism of phyto-oestrogens include diet and gut microflora...
  46. ncbi request reprint Absorption/metabolism of sulforaphane and quercetin, and regulation of phase II enzymes, in human jejunum in vivo
    Niclas Petri
    Department of Pharmacy, Biopharmaceutics Research Group Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
    Drug Metab Dispos 31:805-13. 2003
    ..These results show that food components have the potential to modify drug metabolism in the human enterocyte in vivo very rapidly...
  47. ncbi request reprint Chocolate intake increases urinary excretion of polyphenol-derived phenolic acids in healthy human subjects
    Laurent Y Rios
    Laboratoire des Maladies Métaboliques et Micronutriments, INRA, Saint Genes Champanelle, France
    Am J Clin Nutr 77:912-8. 2003
    ..In vitro and in vivo studies using pure compounds as substrates suggest that proanthocyanidins and the related catechin monomers may be degraded into more bioavailable low-molecular-weight phenolic acids by the microflora in the colon...
  48. ncbi request reprint Deglycosylation by small intestinal epithelial cell beta-glucosidases is a critical step in the absorption and metabolism of dietary flavonoid glycosides in humans
    Kitti Németh
    Institute of Food Research, Colney Lane, Norwich NR4 7 UA, UK
    Eur J Nutr 42:29-42. 2003
    ..Hence, first-pass metabolism (small intestine-liver) appears to involve a critical deglycosylation step for which the mechanisms are not known...
  49. ncbi request reprint Metabolism of quercetin-7- and quercetin-3-glucuronides by an in vitro hepatic model: the role of human beta-glucuronidase, sulfotransferase, catechol-O-methyltransferase and multi-resistant protein 2 (MRP2) in flavonoid metabolism
    Karen A O'Leary
    Institute of Food Research, Norwich Research Park, Colney, Norwich NR4 7UA, UK
    Biochem Pharmacol 65:479-91. 2003
    ..These results show that HepG2 cells can absorb and turnover quercetin glucuronides and that human endogenous beta-glucuronidase activity could modulate the intracellular biological activities of dietary antioxidant flavonoids...
  50. ncbi request reprint Quercetin metabolism in the lens: role in inhibition of hydrogen peroxide induced cataract
    Kelly M Cornish
    School of Biological Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, Norfolk, UK
    Free Radic Biol Med 33:63-70. 2002
    ..The results indicate dietary quercetin and metabolites are active in inhibiting oxidative damage in the lens and thus could play a role in prevention of cataract formation...
  51. ncbi request reprint Sulforaphane and quercetin modulate PhIP-DNA adduct formation in human HepG2 cells and hepatocytes
    James R Bacon
    Institute of Food Research, Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7UA, UK
    Carcinogenesis 24:1903-11. 2003
    ....
  52. ncbi request reprint Regional variations in ABC transporter expression along the mouse intestinal tract
    David M Mutch
    Nestle Research Center, CH 1000 Lausanne 26, Switzerland
    Physiol Genomics 17:11-20. 2004
    ....
  53. ncbi request reprint Quercetin metabolites downregulate cyclooxygenase-2 transcription in human lymphocytes ex vivo but not in vivo
    Sonia de Pascual-Teresa
    Nutrition Division, Institute of Food Research, Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7UA, UK
    J Nutr 134:552-7. 2004
    ..The results show that a single high dose of the flavonoid quercetin from onions does not change COX-2 mRNA expression in human lymphocytes in vivo even though this change occurred in vitro and ex vivo...
  54. ncbi request reprint Interactions between sulforaphane and apigenin in the induction of UGT1A1 and GSTA1 in CaCo-2 cells
    Vanda Svehlíková
    Nutrition Division, Institute of Food Research, Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7UA, UK
    Carcinogenesis 25:1629-37. 2004
    ....
  55. ncbi request reprint Effect of flavonoids and vitamin E on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) transcription
    Karen A O'Leary
    Institute of Food Research, Norwich Research Park, Colney, Norwich NR4 7UA, UK
    Mutat Res 551:245-54. 2004
    ..Flavonoid modulation of COX-2 transcription may therefore be an important mechanism in anti-carcinogenesis...
  56. ncbi request reprint Flavonoid-mediated inhibition of intestinal ABC transporters may affect the oral bioavailability of drugs, food-borne toxic compounds and bioactive ingredients
    Walter Brand
    Nestle Research Center, Nestec Ltd, Vers chez les Blanc, PO Box 44, 1000 Lausanne 26, Switzerland
    Biomed Pharmacother 60:508-19. 2006
    ....
  57. ncbi request reprint Divergent effects of quercetin conjugates on angiogenesis
    Sandra Donnini
    Section of Pharmacology, Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Siena, Via A Moro 2, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Br J Nutr 95:1016-23. 2006
    ..Q3G and Q3'S are the two major conjugates in plasma, but their ratio is dependent on several factors, so that inhibition or activation of angiogenesis could be subtly shifted as a result of metabolism in vivo...
  58. ncbi request reprint Glucuronidation of the green tea catechins, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate and (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate, by rat hepatic and intestinal microsomes
    Vanessa Crespy
    Nestle Research Center, PO Box 44, CH 1000 Lausanne 26, Switzerland
    Free Radic Res 38:1025-31. 2004
    ..The low glucuronidation rates could partially explain why these flavanols are present in plasma as unconjugated forms...
  59. ncbi request reprint Hepatic cytochrome P-450 reductase-null mice show reduced transcriptional response to quercetin and reveal physiological homeostasis between jejunum and liver
    David M Mutch
    Nutrient Bioavailability, Nestlé Research Center Vers Chez Les Blanc, Lausanne 26, Switzerland
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 291:G63-72. 2006
    ....
  60. ncbi request reprint Properties of quercetin conjugates: modulation of LDL oxidation and binding to human serum albumin
    Kerstin M Janisch
    Technical University of Munich, WZW Department of Plant Sciences, Institute of Phytopathology, Am Hochanger 2, 85350 Freising Weihenstephan, Germany
    Free Radic Res 38:877-84. 2004
    ..The data show that flavonoid intestinal and hepatic metabolism have profound effects on ability to inhibit LDL oxidation and a lesser but significant effect on binding to serum albumin...