G Williams

Summary

Affiliation: University of Liverpool
Country: UK

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Obesity and type 2 diabetes: a conflict of interests?
    G Williams
    Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, University Hospital Aintree, Liverpool, UK
    Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 23:S2-4. 1999
  2. ncbi request reprint Altered energy balance causes selective changes in melanocortin-4(MC4-R), but not melanocortin-3 (MC3-R), receptors in specific hypothalamic regions: further evidence that activation of MC4-R is a physiological inhibitor of feeding
    J A Harrold
    Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, UK
    Diabetes 48:267-71. 1999
  3. ncbi request reprint Changes in hypothalamic agouti-related protein (AGRP), but not alpha-MSH or pro-opiomelanocortin concentrations in dietary-obese and food-restricted rats
    J A Harrold
    Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 258:574-7. 1999
  4. ncbi request reprint Differential distribution of orexin-A and orexin-B immunoreactivity in the rat brain and spinal cord
    D J Cutler
    Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, England
    Peptides 20:1455-70. 1999
  5. ncbi request reprint Regulation of neuropeptide Y release from hypothalamic slices by melanocortin-4 agonists and leptin
    P J King
    Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Unit, Department of Medicine, Duncan Building, Daulby Street, Liverpool University, Liverpool, UK
    Peptides 21:45-8. 2000
  6. ncbi request reprint Neuropeptide Y receptor alterations in the hypothalamus of lactating rats
    L C Pickavance
    Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, UK
    Peptides 20:1055-60. 1999
  7. ncbi request reprint Hypothalamic NPY status during positive energy balance and the effects of the NPY antagonist, BW 1229U91, on the consumption of highly palatable energy-rich diet
    P S Widdowson
    Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, UK
    Peptides 20:367-72. 1999
  8. ncbi request reprint Alterations in hypothalamic NPY and CRF in anorexic tumor-bearing rats
    H D McCarthy
    Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, United Kingdom
    Am J Physiol 264:E638-43. 1993
  9. ncbi request reprint Leptin, the hypothalamus and the regulation of adiposity
    J A Harrold
    Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, UK
    Curr Opin Lipidol 9:295-9. 1998
  10. ncbi request reprint Effect of cytokines on hypothalamic neuropeptide Y release in vitro
    P J King
    Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Unit, Department of Medicine, Liverpool University, Liverpool, UK
    Peptides 21:143-6. 2000

Detail Information

Publications21

  1. ncbi request reprint Obesity and type 2 diabetes: a conflict of interests?
    G Williams
    Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, University Hospital Aintree, Liverpool, UK
    Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 23:S2-4. 1999
    ....
  2. ncbi request reprint Altered energy balance causes selective changes in melanocortin-4(MC4-R), but not melanocortin-3 (MC3-R), receptors in specific hypothalamic regions: further evidence that activation of MC4-R is a physiological inhibitor of feeding
    J A Harrold
    Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, UK
    Diabetes 48:267-71. 1999
    ..This alpha-MSH/MC4-R system may be inhibited by leptin and/or insulin. MC3-R are not apparently involved in regulating feeding...
  3. ncbi request reprint Changes in hypothalamic agouti-related protein (AGRP), but not alpha-MSH or pro-opiomelanocortin concentrations in dietary-obese and food-restricted rats
    J A Harrold
    Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 258:574-7. 1999
    ..AGRP may be an important modulator of feeding behaviour...
  4. ncbi request reprint Differential distribution of orexin-A and orexin-B immunoreactivity in the rat brain and spinal cord
    D J Cutler
    Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, England
    Peptides 20:1455-70. 1999
    ..Orexin cells are strategically sited to contribute to feeding regulation, but their widespread projections suggest that orexins have other physiological roles...
  5. ncbi request reprint Regulation of neuropeptide Y release from hypothalamic slices by melanocortin-4 agonists and leptin
    P J King
    Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Unit, Department of Medicine, Duncan Building, Daulby Street, Liverpool University, Liverpool, UK
    Peptides 21:45-8. 2000
    ....
  6. ncbi request reprint Neuropeptide Y receptor alterations in the hypothalamus of lactating rats
    L C Pickavance
    Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, UK
    Peptides 20:1055-60. 1999
    ..01). Thus, although the NPY system may not have a major role in the hyperphagia of freely fed lactating rats, it appears to have an important function in the response to undernutrition in such animals...
  7. ncbi request reprint Hypothalamic NPY status during positive energy balance and the effects of the NPY antagonist, BW 1229U91, on the consumption of highly palatable energy-rich diet
    P S Widdowson
    Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, UK
    Peptides 20:367-72. 1999
    ..The lack of effect of BW1229U91 on the increased caloric intake of dietary-obese rats suggests that the hyperphagia is not NPY-driven and supports the data indicating reduced synaptic activity of the hypothalamic NPY system...
  8. ncbi request reprint Alterations in hypothalamic NPY and CRF in anorexic tumor-bearing rats
    H D McCarthy
    Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, United Kingdom
    Am J Physiol 264:E638-43. 1993
    ..Such changes may include impaired activity of NPY or failure of CRF activity to be suppressed after underfeeding and weight loss...
  9. ncbi request reprint Leptin, the hypothalamus and the regulation of adiposity
    J A Harrold
    Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, UK
    Curr Opin Lipidol 9:295-9. 1998
    ..This review will discuss several of the more recently identified neurotransmitters and consider their validity as candidates in the regulation of energy homeostasis...
  10. ncbi request reprint Effect of cytokines on hypothalamic neuropeptide Y release in vitro
    P J King
    Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Unit, Department of Medicine, Liverpool University, Liverpool, UK
    Peptides 21:143-6. 2000
    ..Therefore, we suggest that the failure to activate the hypothalamic NPY system in states of cancer cachexia cannot be attributed to a cytokine-induced reduction in neurotransmitter release...
  11. ncbi request reprint Increased binding at 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(1B), and 5-HT(2A) receptors and 5-HT transporters in diet-induced obese rats
    S Park
    Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Group, Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, Duncan Building, Daulby Street, Liverpool, UK
    Brain Res 847:90-7. 1999
    ..Reduction in the hypophagic action of 5-HT, possibly acting at 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(1B) and 5-HT(2A) receptors, may contribute to increased appetite in rats presented with highly palatable diet...
  12. ncbi request reprint Early leptin response to a palatable diet predicts dietary obesity in rats: key role of melanocortin-4 receptors in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus
    J A Harrold
    Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Group, Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, England
    J Neurochem 74:1224-8. 2000
    ..The early leptin response to palatable feeding may therefore "program" subsequent feeding behaviour and weight gain by regulating neurones that project selectively to the VMH...
  13. ncbi request reprint Down-regulation of orexin gene expression by severe obesity in the rats: studies in Zucker fatty and zucker diabetic fatty rats and effects of rosiglitazone
    X J Cai
    Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Group, Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Brain Res Mol Brain Res 77:131-7. 2000
    ..Obesity-related signals that might mediate this effect have not been identified, but plasma leptin, insulin and glucose are not obviously involved...
  14. ncbi request reprint Effect of a selective neuropeptide Y Y(2) receptor antagonist, BIIE0246 on neuropeptide Y release
    P J King
    Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Group, Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, Duncan Building, Daulby Street, L69 3GA, Liverpool, UK
    Eur J Pharmacol 396:R1-3. 2000
    ..These data are consistent with anatomical and functional studies suggesting a pre-synaptic role for neuropeptide Y Y(2) receptors in regulating rat hypothalamic neuropeptide Y release in the rat...
  15. ncbi request reprint Comparable vasorelaxant effects of 17alpha- and 17beta-oestradiol on rat mesenteric resistance arteries: an action independent of the oestrogen receptor
    E K Naderali
    Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, Daulby Street, Liverpool L69 3GA, U K
    Clin Sci (Lond) 97:649-55. 1999
    ..Direct interactions with the cell membrane or with ion-channel proteins may be responsible...
  16. ncbi request reprint Smoking, eicosanoids and ulcerative colitis
    R J Motley
    Department of Medicine, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff, UK
    J Pharm Pharmacol 42:288-9. 1990
    ..However, with each eicosanoid the statistical probability approached only the 10% level, but the fact that the trend was the same for all eicosanoids somewhat strengthens the possibility of a real difference between the groups...
  17. ncbi request reprint NSF and SNAP are present on adrenal chromaffin granules
    R D Burgoyne
    The Physiological Laboratory, University of Liverpool, UK
    FEBS Lett 414:349-52. 1997
    ..These results suggest that NSF and alpha-SNAP are associated with chromaffin granules and support the idea that they function prior to docking of the granules on the plasma membrane...
  18. ncbi request reprint Hypothalamic obesity in humans: what do we know and what can be done?
    J Pinkney
    University of Liverpool, Department of Medicine, Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Group, Clinical Sciences Centre, University Hospital Aintree, Longmoor Lane, Liverpool L9 7AL, UK
    Obes Rev 3:27-34. 2002
    ..In those who are already obese, we propose that the principal causal mechanisms in individual patients should be considered as a basis for guiding clinical management...
  19. ncbi request reprint Decreased plasma leptin levels in lean and obese Zucker rats after treatment with the serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine
    S Dryden
    Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, UK
    Horm Metab Res 31:363-6. 1999
    ..01). We have previously suggested that serotonin may decrease food intake by inhibiting neuropeptide Y neurones, and we further suggest that it also inhibits leptin, possibly by an effect on white adipose tissue...
  20. pmc Muscle UCP-3 mRNA levels are elevated in weight loss associated with gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma in humans
    P Collins
    Gastroenterology Unit, University Hospital Aintree, Longmoor Lane, Liverpool L9 7AL, UK
    Br J Cancer 86:372-5. 2002
    ..23; P<0.02). Uncoupling proteins-2 mRNA levels did not differ significantly between groups. Elevations in muscle uncoupling proteins-3 activity may enhance energy expenditure and this in turn could contribute to tissue catabolism...
  21. ncbi request reprint Leptin and the adaptations of lactation in rodents and ruminants
    R G Vernon
    Hannah Research Institute, Ayr, Scotland
    Horm Metab Res 34:678-85. 2002
    ....