- Impacts of inbreeding on bumblebee colony fitness under field conditionsPenelope R Whitehorn
School of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, UK
BMC Evol Biol 9:152. 2009..Mating, hibernation and colony founding took place in the laboratory. Once colonies had produced 15 offspring they were placed in the field and left to forage under natural conditions...
- Genetic diversity, parasite prevalence and immunity in wild bumblebeesPenelope R Whitehorn
School of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, UK
Proc Biol Sci 278:1195-202. 2011..Our results suggest that as insect populations lose heterozygosity, the impact of parasitism will increase, pushing threatened populations closer to extinction...
- Neonicotinoid pesticide reduces bumble bee colony growth and queen productionPenelope R Whitehorn
School of Natural Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, UK
Science 336:351-2. 2012..Given the scale of use of neonicotinoids, we suggest that they may be having a considerable negative impact on wild bumble bee populations across the developed world...