J C Wells

Summary

Affiliation: University College London
Country: UK

Publications

  1. pmc Infancy and childhood growth and physical activity in adolescence: prospective birth cohort study from Brazil
    Pedro C Hallal
    Federal University of Pelotas, Rua Marechal Deodoro 1160, 96020 220, Pelotas, Brazil
    Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 9:82. 2012
  2. doi request reprint Associations of economic and gender inequality with global obesity prevalence: understanding the female excess
    Jonathan C K Wells
    Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, UCL Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, UK
    Soc Sci Med 75:482-90. 2012
  3. doi request reprint Obesity and energy balance: is the tail wagging the dog?
    J C K Wells
    Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, UCL Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Eur J Clin Nutr 65:1173-89. 2011
  4. doi request reprint Body shape by 3-D photonic scanning in Thai and UK adults: comparison of national sizing surveys
    J C K Wells
    Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, UCL Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Int J Obes (Lond) 36:148-54. 2012
  5. ncbi request reprint Is body composition important for paediatricians?
    Jonathan C K Wells
    Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, UK
    Arch Dis Child 93:168-72. 2008
  6. ncbi request reprint Sexual dimorphism of body composition
    Jonathan C K Wells
    Pediatric Nutrition Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, UK
    Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 21:415-30. 2007
  7. ncbi request reprint The programming effects of early growth
    Jonathan C K Wells
    Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, University College London, Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Early Hum Dev 83:743-8. 2007
  8. ncbi request reprint Whole-body three-dimensional photonic scanning: a new technique for obesity research and clinical practice
    J C K Wells
    Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, University College London, Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Int J Obes (Lond) 32:232-8. 2008
  9. ncbi request reprint Flaws in the theory of predictive adaptive responses
    Jonathan C K Wells
    Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Trends Endocrinol Metab 18:331-7. 2007
  10. ncbi request reprint The biology of the colonizing ape
    Jonathan C K Wells
    Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, London WC1N 1EH, UK
    Am J Phys Anthropol . 2007

Detail Information

Publications91

  1. pmc Infancy and childhood growth and physical activity in adolescence: prospective birth cohort study from Brazil
    Pedro C Hallal
    Federal University of Pelotas, Rua Marechal Deodoro 1160, 96020 220, Pelotas, Brazil
    Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 9:82. 2012
    ..The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of prenatal, infancy and childhood weight and length/height gains on objectively-measured physical activity (PA) in adolescence...
  2. doi request reprint Associations of economic and gender inequality with global obesity prevalence: understanding the female excess
    Jonathan C K Wells
    Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, UCL Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, UK
    Soc Sci Med 75:482-90. 2012
    ..These findings indicate that improving women's status may be a key area for addressing the global obesity epidemic over the long term, with potential benefits for the women themselves and for their offspring...
  3. doi request reprint Obesity and energy balance: is the tail wagging the dog?
    J C K Wells
    Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, UCL Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Eur J Clin Nutr 65:1173-89. 2011
    ..Our perspective generates new hypotheses, which can be tested to improve our understanding of the current obesity epidemic, and to identify novel strategies for prevention or treatment...
  4. doi request reprint Body shape by 3-D photonic scanning in Thai and UK adults: comparison of national sizing surveys
    J C K Wells
    Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, UCL Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Int J Obes (Lond) 36:148-54. 2012
    ..Within-population and ethnic variability in body shape has likewise been linked with variability in cardiovascular risk in western settings...
  5. ncbi request reprint Is body composition important for paediatricians?
    Jonathan C K Wells
    Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, UK
    Arch Dis Child 93:168-72. 2008
    ..Finally, measurements of lean mass may improve the capacity to tailor nutrition, treatment and management to metabolic criteria...
  6. ncbi request reprint Sexual dimorphism of body composition
    Jonathan C K Wells
    Pediatric Nutrition Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, UK
    Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 21:415-30. 2007
    ..Disorders of sex development are associated with significant abnormalities of body composition, attributable largely to their impact on mechanisms of hormonal regulation...
  7. ncbi request reprint The programming effects of early growth
    Jonathan C K Wells
    Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, University College London, Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Early Hum Dev 83:743-8. 2007
    ..These complementary processes may account for disease risk being greatest in those born small who subsequently become large...
  8. ncbi request reprint Whole-body three-dimensional photonic scanning: a new technique for obesity research and clinical practice
    J C K Wells
    Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, University College London, Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Int J Obes (Lond) 32:232-8. 2008
    ..The low cost, accuracy, ease of use and high acceptability of the technique make it highly suitable for both research and clinical applications...
  9. ncbi request reprint Flaws in the theory of predictive adaptive responses
    Jonathan C K Wells
    Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Trends Endocrinol Metab 18:331-7. 2007
    ..This debate has important implications, potentially offering a robust theoretical basis for designing public health interventions and guiding the nutritional management of individual infants...
  10. ncbi request reprint The biology of the colonizing ape
    Jonathan C K Wells
    Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, London WC1N 1EH, UK
    Am J Phys Anthropol . 2007
    ..We propose that the concept of hominins as "colonizing apes" offers a novel unified model for interpreting the suite of traits characteristic of our genus...
  11. ncbi request reprint Body shape in American and British adults: between-country and inter-ethnic comparisons
    J C K Wells
    Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Int J Obes (Lond) 32:152-9. 2008
    ..Differential prevalence of obesity has been suggested as a contributing factor; however, the conventional approach to categorizing obesity, body mass index, is confounded by ethnic variability in physique...
  12. ncbi request reprint Programming of body composition by early growth and nutrition
    Jonathan C K Wells
    Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, UK
    Proc Nutr Soc 66:423-34. 2007
    ....
  13. ncbi request reprint The thrifty phenotype as an adaptive maternal effect
    Jonathan C K Wells
    Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 82:143-72. 2007
    ....
  14. ncbi request reprint Commentary: Why are South Asians susceptible to central obesity?--the El NiƱo hypothesis
    Jonathan C K Wells
    Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London, UK
    Int J Epidemiol 36:226-7. 2007
  15. ncbi request reprint A simplified approach to analysing bio-electrical impedance data in epidemiological surveys
    J C K Wells
    MRC Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Int J Obes (Lond) 31:507-14. 2007
    ..It is simple, quick and cheap, but less accurate than other methods. It has potential epidemiological value, but has conventionally required validation before application...
  16. pmc Measuring body composition
    J C K Wells
    MRC Childhood Nutrition Centre, Institute of Child Health, London WC1, UK
    Arch Dis Child 91:612-7. 2006
    ..Simple techniques are adequate for many purposes, and simple regional data may often be of greater value than "whole body" values obtained by more sophisticated approaches...
  17. ncbi request reprint Body composition in normal weight, overweight and obese children: matched case-control analyses of total and regional tissue masses, and body composition trends in relation to relative weight
    J C K Wells
    MRC Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Int J Obes (Lond) 30:1506-13. 2006
    ..Childhood obesity is defined on the basis of weight and height, using body mass index (BMI). There is little detailed information on the body composition characteristic of overweight and obesity...
  18. ncbi request reprint The evolution of human fatness and susceptibility to obesity: an ethological approach
    Jonathan C K Wells
    MRC Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, UK
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 81:183-205. 2006
    ..Alterations to the obesogenic environment are predicted to play a key role in reducing the prevalence of obesity...
  19. ncbi request reprint A trade-off between early growth rate and fluctuating asymmetry in Brazilian boys
    Jonathan C K Wells
    MRC Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, UK
    Ann Hum Biol 33:112-24. 2006
    ..Alternatively, FA could signal the degree of within-lifetime exposure to stress, in particular during specific sensitive periods of development--the 'good development' hypothesis...
  20. doi request reprint Age-variability in body shape associated with excess weight: the UK National Sizing Survey
    Jonathan C K Wells
    Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, UCL Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 16:435-41. 2008
    ..The health risks of obesity are disproportionately due to central abdominal adiposity; however, the extent to which age is associated with the body shape of obese adults is not known...
  21. doi request reprint Sleep patterns and television viewing in relation to obesity and blood pressure: evidence from an adolescent Brazilian birth cohort
    J C K Wells
    Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Int J Obes (Lond) 32:1042-9. 2008
    ..Disruption of circadian rhythms has been associated with obesity in children and adolescents, and with hypertension in adults, in industrialized populations...
  22. doi request reprint Ethnic variability in adiposity and cardiovascular risk: the variable disease selection hypothesis
    Jonathan C K Wells
    Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, UCL Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, UK
    Int J Epidemiol 38:63-71. 2009
    ..It is hypothesized that exposure to different infectious disease burdens has favoured ethnic genetic variability in the anatomical location of, and metabolic profile of, adipose tissue depots...
  23. pmc Associations of birth order with early growth and adolescent height, body composition, and blood pressure: prospective birth cohort from Brazil
    Jonathan C K Wells
    Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, University College London, United Kingdom
    Am J Epidemiol 174:1028-35. 2011
    ..Firstborns may be more sensitive to environmental factors that promote catch-up growth, and this information could potentially be used in nutritional management to prevent catch-up "overshoot."..
  24. doi request reprint Re-examining heritability: genetics, life history and plasticity
    Jonathan C K Wells
    Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, University College London Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, UK
    Trends Endocrinol Metab 22:421-8. 2011
    ..We argue that a life-history approach to understanding variation in the human phenotype must integrate these two risk components, and highlight the important contribution of plasticity to changes in disease prevalence...
  25. doi request reprint Evaluation of lean tissue density for use in air displacement plethysmography in obese children and adolescents
    J C K Wells
    Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, UCL Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Eur J Clin Nutr 65:1094-101. 2011
    ....
  26. doi request reprint An evolutionary perspective on the trans-generational basis of obesity
    Jonathan C K Wells
    Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, UCL Institute of Child Health, London, WC1N 1EH, UK
    Ann Hum Biol 38:400-9. 2011
    ..The biological processes that underpin the offspring's developmental plasticity appear sensitive to the obesogenic niche. Through this sensitivity, diverse environmental factors can induce excess weight gain from childhood onwards...
  27. doi request reprint Reproduction, aging, and body shape by three-dimensional photonic scanning in Thai men and women
    Jonathan C K Wells
    Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, UCL Institute of Child Health, London WC1N 1EH, United Kingdom
    Am J Hum Biol 23:291-8. 2011
    ..It remains unclear whether men show similar life history strategy in shape. The objectives of this study were to investigate associations between shape, age, and number of offspring in both men and women from Thailand...
  28. doi request reprint Prenatal and postnatal programming of body composition in obese children and adolescents: evidence from anthropometry, DXA and the 4-component model
    J C K Wells
    Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, UCL Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London, UK
    Int J Obes (Lond) 35:534-40. 2011
    ..Low-birth weight has been proposed to programme central adiposity in childhood. However, there is little information on associations between fetal weight gain and fat distribution within obese individuals...
  29. doi request reprint The thrifty phenotype: An adaptation in growth or metabolism?
    Jonathan C K Wells
    Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, UCL Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Am J Hum Biol 23:65-75. 2011
    ....
  30. doi request reprint Pediatric reference data for lean tissue properties: density and hydration from age 5 to 20 y
    Jonathan C K Wells
    Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Am J Clin Nutr 91:610-8. 2010
    ..The accuracy of these techniques depends on the validity of age- and sex-specific constant values for lean tissue hydration or density. Empirical data on these constants, and their variability between individuals, are lacking...
  31. pmc Evaluation of DXA against the four-component model of body composition in obese children and adolescents aged 5-21 years
    J C K Wells
    Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, UCL Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Int J Obes (Lond) 34:649-55. 2010
    ..Body composition is increasingly measured in pediatric obese patients. Although dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is widely available, and is precise, its accuracy for body composition assessment in obese children remains untested...
  32. doi request reprint Independent changes in female body shape with parity and age: A life-history approach to female adiposity
    Jonathan C K Wells
    Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, UCL Institute of Child Health, London WC1N 1EH, United Kingdom
    Am J Hum Biol 22:456-62. 2010
    ..This model is relevant to the "grandmother hypothesis." The dual effects of age and parity on fat distribution substantially resolve by old age the profound sexual dimorphism in adiposity present at the start of adult life...
  33. doi request reprint Maternal capital and the metabolic ghetto: An evolutionary perspective on the transgenerational basis of health inequalities
    Jonathan C K Wells
    Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, UCL Institute of Child Health, London, United Kingdom
    Am J Hum Biol 22:1-17. 2010
    ..Public health policies need to benefit metabolic capacity without exacerbating metabolic load...
  34. doi request reprint Thrift: a guide to thrifty genes, thrifty phenotypes and thrifty norms
    J C K Wells
    Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, UCL Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Int J Obes (Lond) 33:1331-8. 2009
    ..The fact that obesity can occur in different individuals through different genotypes, life histories and behaviours indicates that different treatments are also likely to be required...
  35. doi request reprint Body composition by 2H dilution in Gambian infants: comparison with UK infants and evaluation of simple prediction methods
    Jonathan C K Wells
    Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, UCL Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Br J Nutr 102:1776-82. 2009
    ..A new BIA equation for LM prediction is presented; however, creatinine excretion is not recommended for LM estimation in this population...
  36. doi request reprint Historical cohort studies and the early origins of disease hypothesis: making sense of the evidence
    Jonathan C K Wells
    Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, UCL Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Proc Nutr Soc 68:179-88. 2009
    ..Infancy is a developmental period in which nutrition can affect both metabolic capacity and metabolic load; this factor accounts for reported associations of both slow and fast infant growth with greater disease risk...
  37. doi request reprint Aggregate predictions improve accuracy when calculating metabolic variables used to guide treatment
    Jonathan C K Wells
    Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, UCL Institute of Child Health, London, United Kingdom
    Am J Clin Nutr 89:491-9. 2009
    ..Many prediction equations have been published, but validation studies have shown that these equations tend to have limited accuracy in individuals and many have significant average bias...
  38. ncbi request reprint Commentary: games people play--birthweight
    Jonathan Wells
    MRC Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, UK
    Int J Epidemiol 35:277-9. 2006
  39. pmc Can body size predict infant energy requirements?
    J C Wells
    Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, UK
    Arch Dis Child 81:429-30. 1999
    ..Body size is a poor index of the total energy requirements of individual infants, and predictive equations generated from data on healthy infants will be inappropriate for disease states where physical activity or growth is altered...
  40. ncbi request reprint Birth weight and environmental heat load: a between-population analysis
    Jonathan C K Wells
    MRC Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, London WC1N 1EH, UK
    Am J Phys Anthropol 119:276-82. 2002
    ..Further studies are needed to establish to what extent heat stress is a determinant of low birth weight in developing countries...
  41. ncbi request reprint Four-component model of body composition in children: density and hydration of fat-free mass and comparison with simpler models
    J C Wells
    Dunn Clinical Nutrition Centre, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Am J Clin Nutr 69:904-12. 1999
    ..The 4-component (4C) model, which divides body weight into fat, water, mineral, and protein, can overcome these limitations...
  42. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of air-displacement plethysmography in children aged 5-7 years using a three-component model of body composition
    J C K Wells
    MRC Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, London WC1N 1EH, UK
    Br J Nutr 90:699-707. 2003
    ..Paediatric rather than adult equations for lung volume estimation should be used...
  43. ncbi request reprint Body composition in childhood: effects of normal growth and disease
    J C K Wells
    MRC Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, UK
    Proc Nutr Soc 62:521-8. 2003
    ..Improved techniques are required for clinical evaluations. Both higher fatness and reduced lean mass may represent pathways to an increased risk of adult disease...
  44. ncbi request reprint Fetal, infant and childhood growth: relationships with body composition in Brazilian boys aged 9 years
    J C K Wells
    MRC Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, London UK
    Int J Obes (Lond) 29:1192-8. 2005
    ..Early growth rate has been linked to later obesity categorised by body mass index (BMI), but the development of body composition has rarely been studied...
  45. pmc Prediction of total body water in infants and children
    J C K Wells
    MRC Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Arch Dis Child 90:965-71. 2005
    ..Whether such equations remain valid in contemporary populations is not known...
  46. ncbi request reprint Environmental temperature and human growth in early life
    J C Wells
    Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    J Theor Biol 204:299-305. 2000
    ..The hypothesis that heat stress plays a role in human growth faltering in hot environments therefore merits empirical investigation...
  47. ncbi request reprint Assessment of body volume using three-dimensional photonic scanning
    J C Wells
    Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, London, England
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 904:247-54. 2000
    ..Occlusion is also an important source of error. The method offers many advantages over alternative techniques, because the measurement is brief, noninvasive, and suitable for repeat measurements...
  48. ncbi request reprint Natural selection and sex differences in morbidity and mortality in early life
    J C Wells
    Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London, WC1N 1EH, U K
    J Theor Biol 202:65-76. 2000
    ..The model suggests that whatever improvements are made in medical care, any environmental stress will always affect males more severely than females in early life...
  49. ncbi request reprint Physical activity at 9-12 months and fatness at 2 years of age
    J C Wells
    Childhood Nutrition Research Group, Institute of Child Health, London, United Kingdom
    Am J Hum Biol 13:384-9. 2001
    ..Particular aspects of infant behavior appear to be more important than the sum of energy expended on activity. However, the relationship did not extend to total body fat...
  50. ncbi request reprint Validation of food diary method for assessment of dietary energy and macronutrient intake in infants and children aged 6-24 months
    J A Lanigan
    Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Eur J Clin Nutr 55:124-9. 2001
    ....
  51. pmc A critique of the expression of paediatric body composition data
    J C Wells
    Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, UK
    Arch Dis Child 85:67-72. 2001
    ..The same approach is appropriate for the classification of childhood obesity...
  52. ncbi request reprint Precision of measurement and body size in whole-body air-displacement plethysmography
    J C Wells
    Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 25:1161-7. 2001
    ..007 kg/l. Precision of FMI obtained using pairs of procedures improves to <4.5% in adults and <5.5% in children...
  53. ncbi request reprint Adjustment of fat-free mass and fat mass for height in children aged 8 y
    J C K Wells
    MRC Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 26:947-52. 2002
    ..To explore the relationships between height and (a) fat-free mass (FFM) and (b) fat mass (FM) in children in order to determine the optimum means of adjusting body composition for height...
  54. ncbi request reprint Segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis in children aged 8-12 y: 1. The assessment of whole-body composition
    N J Fuller
    MRC Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 26:684-91. 2002
    ..To investigate the potential of segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) for estimating whole-body composition in children...
  55. ncbi request reprint Body composition in early onset eating disorders
    D Nicholls
    Brain and Behavioural Sciences Unit, Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Eur J Clin Nutr 56:857-65. 2002
    ..Although of value as screening instruments the limitation in disease states is their inability to discriminate fat and fat-free components of body weight...
  56. ncbi request reprint The potential of near infra-red interactance for predicting body composition in children
    N J Fuller
    MRC Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, 30 Guildford St, London WC1N 1EH, UK
    Eur J Clin Nutr 55:967-72. 2001
    ..However, greater numbers are required to develop child-specific prediction equations and the viability and validity of NIRI in pediatric patients is still to be evaluated...
  57. ncbi request reprint The contribution of fat and fat-free tissue to body mass index in contemporary children and the reference child
    J C K Wells
    MRC Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 26:1323-8. 2002
    ..However, BMI does not measure fat directly, and its relationship with body fatness is not necessarily stable over time...
  58. ncbi request reprint Composition of the fat-free mass in obese and nonobese children: matched case-control analyses
    D Haroun
    MRC Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Int J Obes (Lond) 29:29-36. 2005
    ..Previous studies suggested that FFM composition may change in childhood obesity; however, this issue has not been investigated in detail...
  59. ncbi request reprint Indices of whole-body and central adiposity for evaluating the metabolic load of obesity
    J C K Wells
    MRC Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Int J Obes (Lond) 29:483-9. 2005
    ..The statistical validity of these indices, defined as independence of the index from its denominator, has received inadequate evaluation...
  60. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of a model for total body protein mass based on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: comparison with a reference four-component model
    N J Fuller
    MRC Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, UK
    Br J Nutr 86:45-52. 2001
    ....
  61. doi request reprint Insufficient evidence to support separate BMI definitions for obesity in children and adolescents from south Asian ethnic groups in the UK
    R M Viner
    General and Adolescent Paediatrics Unit, UCL Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Int J Obes (Lond) 34:656-8. 2010
    ....
  62. ncbi request reprint Segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis in children aged 8-12 y: 2. The assessment of regional body composition and muscle mass
    N J Fuller
    MRC Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 26:692-700. 2002
    ..To investigate the potential of segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) for assessing regional composition and muscle mass in children...
  63. ncbi request reprint Assessing the acceptability and feasibility of the MEND Programme in a small group of obese 7-11-year-old children
    P M Sacher
    The MRC Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    J Hum Nutr Diet 18:3-5. 2005
    ..An uncontrolled, pilot study to evaluate feasibility and acceptability of a new community based childhood obesity treatment programme...
  64. ncbi request reprint Number of days needed to assess energy and nutrient intake in infants and young children between 6 months and 2 years of age
    J A Lanigan
    MRC Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Eur J Clin Nutr 58:745-50. 2004
    ..To estimate the minimum number of days of recorded dietary intake needed to place infants and young children into thirds of a population distribution with an acceptable degree of accuracy...
  65. pmc The contribution of psychosocial stress to the obesity epidemic: an evolutionary approach
    M Siervo
    Addenbrooke s Hospital, Cambridge, UK
    Horm Metab Res 41:261-70. 2009
    ..In experimental settings, the effects of various forms of psychosocial stress in increasing metabolic efficiency and gene expression can be further tested...
  66. pmc Early determinants of physical activity in adolescence: prospective birth cohort study
    Pedro C Hallal
    Postgraduate Program in Epidemiology, Federal University of Pelotas, Duque de Caxias 250 3 piso 96030 002 Pelotas RS, Brazil
    BMJ 332:1002-7. 2006
    ..To examine the effects of early social, anthropometric, and behavioural variables on physical activity in adolescence...
  67. ncbi request reprint Body composition in children in remission from acute lymphoblastic leukemia
    Alexia J Murphy
    Children s Nutrition Research Centre, Discipline of Pediatrics and Child Health, University of Queensland, Royal Children s Hospital, Herston, Australia
    Am J Clin Nutr 83:70-4. 2006
    ..However, the effect of ALL and of its treatment on body composition in children in remission from ALL has not been fully examined with the use of a reference method...
  68. ncbi request reprint Socio-economic and environmental factors influence energy utilization in Brazilian breast-fed infants
    Hinke Haisma
    Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Departamento de Medicina Social, Pelotas, RS, Brazil
    J Nutr 136:2945-51. 2006
    ....
  69. ncbi request reprint Duration of exclusive breast-feeding: introduction of complementary feeding may be necessary before 6 months of age
    John J Reilly
    Division of Developmental Medicine, University of Glasgow, Yorkhill Hospitals, Glasgow, G3 8SJ, UK
    Br J Nutr 94:869-72. 2005
    ..The hypothesis would be testable in a longitudinal study of infant energy balance using stable-isotope techniques, which are both practical and valid...
  70. ncbi request reprint Associations of size at birth and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measures of lean and fat mass at 9 to 10 y of age
    Imogen S Rogers
    Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom
    Am J Clin Nutr 84:739-47. 2006
    ..Birth weight has been positively associated with risk of overweight in later life. However, little information exists on how weight and length at birth are associated with subsequent lean and total body fat...
  71. ncbi request reprint Association of physical activity with body-composition indexes in children aged 6-8 y at varied risk of obesity
    Kirsten L Rennie
    Medical Research Council Human Nutrition Research, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Am J Clin Nutr 82:13-20. 2005
    ..Physical inactivity increases the risk of obesity, but the relations between reported levels of physical activity (PA) and measures of body fatness (BF) in children are remarkably inconsistent...
  72. ncbi request reprint Assessment of obesity status in outpatients from three disease states
    Dalia Haroun
    MRC Childhood Nutrition Research, Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Acta Paediatr 95:970-4. 2006
    ..To assess obesity status in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and various metabolic disorders (MD), through comparison against a) UK reference data and b) contemporary healthy children...
  73. ncbi request reprint Metabolisable energy consumption in the exclusively breast-fed infant aged 3--6 months from the developed world: a systematic review
    John J Reilly
    University of Glasgow, Division of Developmental Medicine, Yorkhill Hospitals, Glasgow G3 8SJ, UK
    Br J Nutr 94:56-63. 2005
    ..This evidence should inform future recommendations on infant feeding and help to identify research needs in infant energy balance...
  74. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of Lunar Prodigy dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for assessing body composition in healthy persons and patients by comparison with the criterion 4-component model
    Jane E Williams
    MRC Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Am J Clin Nutr 83:1047-54. 2006
    ..Several studies have evaluated its accuracy in healthy persons; however, little attention has been directed to the same issue in patients...
  75. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of arm anthropometry for assessing pediatric body composition: evidence from healthy and sick children
    Sirinuch Chomtho
    The Medical Research Council Childhood Nutrition Research Center, Institute of Child Health, London, WC1N 1EH, United Kingdom
    Pediatr Res 59:860-5. 2006
    ..Arm anthropometry is useful for predicting FM and ranking healthy children and patients for fatness. It has poorer success in predicting regional or total FFM...
  76. pmc Earlier mother's age at menarche predicts rapid infancy growth and childhood obesity
    Ken K Ong
    Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    PLoS Med 4:e132. 2007
    ..As age at menarche is a heritable trait, we hypothesised that age at menarche in the mother may in turn predict her children's early growth and obesity risk...
  77. ncbi request reprint The effect of physical activity on body fatness in children and adolescents
    Kirsten L Rennie
    Northern Ireland Centre for Food and Health, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster, Coleraine BT52 1SA, UK
    Proc Nutr Soc 65:393-402. 2006
    ....
  78. ncbi request reprint Prematurity and reduced body fatness at 8-12 y of age
    Mary S Fewtrell
    Medical Research Council Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, UK
    Am J Clin Nutr 80:436-40. 2004
    ..Children born preterm remain shorter and lighter than their term-born peers during childhood, but it is unclear whether the size difference is associated with altered body composition...
  79. ncbi request reprint Adjusting body cell mass for size in women of differing nutritional status
    Jonathan C K Wells
    MRC Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, UK
    Am J Clin Nutr 80:333-6. 2004
    ....
  80. ncbi request reprint Thermal environment and human birth weight
    Jonathan C K Wells
    MRC Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, UK
    J Theor Biol 214:413-25. 2002
    ..These associations generate the hypothesis that low birth weight in hot environments may in part represent an adaptation to environmental heat stress...
  81. ncbi request reprint Validity of six field and laboratory methods for measurement of body composition in boys
    Lisa Parker
    Centre for Exercise Science and Medicine, West Medical Building, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland
    Obes Res 11:852-8. 2003
    ....
  82. ncbi request reprint The thrifty phenotype hypothesis: thrifty offspring or thrifty mother?
    Jonathan C K Wells
    MRC Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, UK
    J Theor Biol 221:143-61. 2003
    ..Equally, aggressive nutritional management of infants born small or pre-term may induce the very environmental fluctuations that are naturally softened by maternal nutrition...
  83. ncbi request reprint BMI compared with 3-dimensional body shape: the UK National Sizing Survey
    Jonathan C K Wells
    Childhood Nutrition Research Centre and the Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Child Health, London, United Kingdom
    Am J Clin Nutr 85:419-25. 2007
    ..Three-dimensional (3-D) body scanning provides high-quality digital information about shape...
  84. ncbi request reprint Associations between birth weight and later body composition: evidence from the 4-component model
    Sirinuch Chomtho
    Medical Research Council, Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, University College London, UK
    Am J Clin Nutr 88:1040-8. 2008
    ..Higher birth weight is associated with higher body mass index, traditionally interpreted as greater fatness or obesity, in later life. However, its relation with individual body-composition components and fat distribution remains unclear...
  85. ncbi request reprint Energy requirements and body composition in stable pediatric intensive care patients receiving ventilatory support
    Jonathan C K Wells
    MRC Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Food Nutr Bull 23:95-8. 2002
    ..Although they gain weight similar to healthy children, their weight gain is disproportionately higher in fat. However, one patient with myofibromatosis contradicted this general pattern...
  86. pmc Smoking during pregnancy and offspring fat and lean mass in childhood
    Sam D Leary
    Department of Community Based Medicine, University of Bristol, 24, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol, BS8 1TQ, United Kingdom
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 14:2284-93. 2006
    ..This study examined the association between maternal and partner smoking during pregnancy and offspring total fat, truncal fat, and lean mass in childhood...
  87. ncbi request reprint Growth and failure to thrive
    Jonathan C K Wells
    Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, London
    Paediatr Nurs 14:37-42; quiz 43. 2002
    ..Growth monitoring is important for recognition of failure to thrive and it is valuable as a proxy measure for wellbeing. Many factors can contribute to failure to thrive which is best managed using a multidisciplinary approach...
  88. ncbi request reprint Complementary feeding with cow's milk alters sleeping metabolic rate in breast-fed infants
    Hinke Haisma
    Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Departamento de Medicina Social, Pelotas, RS, Brazil
    J Nutr 135:1889-95. 2005
    ..These findings deserve attention in relation to "metabolic programming" and the development of obesity later in life...
  89. ncbi request reprint A new method for quantifying encephalization in the growing individual
    Tracey H Joffe
    Institute of Child Health, MRC Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, UK
    J Theor Biol 225:361-7. 2003
    ..Derived SD scores may also be applied to correlation and regression analyses where statistical relationships with other variables are of interest...
  90. ncbi request reprint Adolescent physical activity and health: a systematic review
    Pedro C Hallal
    Post Graduate Program in Epidemiology, Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil
    Sports Med 36:1019-30. 2006
    ..Physical activity promotion must start in early life; although the 'how much' remains unknown and needs further research, the lifelong benefits of adolescent physical activity on adult health are unequivocal...
  91. ncbi request reprint Fetal and infant head circumference sexual dimorphism in primates
    Tracey H Joffe
    Institute of Child Health, MRC Childhood Nutrition Research Center, University College London, London WC1N 1EH, UK
    Am J Phys Anthropol 126:97-110. 2005
    ..Finally, some of the problems with ascribing functional significance to brain size sexual dimorphism are discussed, and the energetic implications for brain size sexual dimorphism in infancy are assessed...