W S Waring

Summary

Affiliation: University of Edinburgh
Country: UK

Publications

  1. ncbi Management of lithium toxicity
    W Stephen Waring
    Scottish Poisons Information Bureau, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    Toxicol Rev 25:221-30. 2006
  2. ncbi Images in cardiovascular medicine. Tricyclic cardiotoxicity treated with sodium bicarbonate
    Candice Y Y Chan
    Scottish Poisons Information Bureau, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, 51 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh, Scotland, EH16 4SA
    Circulation 115:e63-4. 2007
  3. ncbi Weight loss and fatigue in an elderly patient
    W S Waring
    The Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Little France
    Scott Med J 50:30-1. 2005
  4. ncbi Lack of significant toxicity after mirtazapine overdose: a five-year review of cases admitted to a regional toxicology unit
    W Stephen Waring
    Scottish Poisons Information Bureau, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
    Clin Toxicol (Phila) 45:45-50. 2007
  5. ncbi Olanzapine overdose is associated with acute muscle toxicity
    W S Waring
    Scottish Poisons Information Bureau, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    Hum Exp Toxicol 25:735-40. 2006
  6. ncbi Haemodynamic responses to salbutamol and isometric exercise are altered in young adults with mild asthma
    W Stephen Waring
    Clinical Pharmacology Unit and Research Centre, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol 61:9-14. 2005
  7. ncbi Alerting and Surveillance Using Poisons Information Systems (ASPIS): outcomes from an international working group
    W S Waring
    National Poisons Information Service Edinburgh Unit, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
    Clin Toxicol (Phila) 45:543-8. 2007
  8. doi Serum urea concentration and the risk of hepatotoxicity after paracetamol overdose
    W S Waring
    Scottish Poisons Information Bureau, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, 51 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh, EH16 4TJ
    QJM 101:359-63. 2008
  9. ncbi Lowering serum urate does not improve endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes
    W S Waring
    Clinical Pharmacology Unit, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    Diabetologia 50:2572-9. 2007
  10. doi Renal injury at first presentation as a predictor for poor outcome in severe paracetamol poisoning referred to a liver transplant unit
    N Pakravan
    National Poisons Information Service Edinburgh Scottish Poisons Information Bureau, The Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, 51 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh, EH16 4SA, UK
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol 65:163-8. 2009

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications55

  1. ncbi Management of lithium toxicity
    W Stephen Waring
    Scottish Poisons Information Bureau, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    Toxicol Rev 25:221-30. 2006
    ..Further research is required to establish the potential benefits of assisted elimination on clinical outcome in patients with lithium poisoning...
  2. ncbi Images in cardiovascular medicine. Tricyclic cardiotoxicity treated with sodium bicarbonate
    Candice Y Y Chan
    Scottish Poisons Information Bureau, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, 51 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh, Scotland, EH16 4SA
    Circulation 115:e63-4. 2007
  3. ncbi Weight loss and fatigue in an elderly patient
    W S Waring
    The Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Little France
    Scott Med J 50:30-1. 2005
    ..This case reminded us that even when a diagnosis of hyperthyroidism has been established, these symptoms may be attributable to other pathology...
  4. ncbi Lack of significant toxicity after mirtazapine overdose: a five-year review of cases admitted to a regional toxicology unit
    W Stephen Waring
    Scottish Poisons Information Bureau, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
    Clin Toxicol (Phila) 45:45-50. 2007
    ..The prevalence of mirtazapine prescribing has steadily risen; however, comparatively little information is available regarding the clinical features associated with mirtazapine overdose...
  5. ncbi Olanzapine overdose is associated with acute muscle toxicity
    W S Waring
    Scottish Poisons Information Bureau, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    Hum Exp Toxicol 25:735-40. 2006
    ..There was an apparent delay of 12 hours or more between olanzapine ingestion and the occurrence of maximum CK. Despite the high prevalence of acute muscle toxicity after olanzapine ingestion, none of the patients developed renal failure...
  6. ncbi Haemodynamic responses to salbutamol and isometric exercise are altered in young adults with mild asthma
    W Stephen Waring
    Clinical Pharmacology Unit and Research Centre, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol 61:9-14. 2005
    ..This study aimed to characterise the effects of acute salbutamol administration on systemic haemodynamics in adults with mild asthma who were receiving intermittent beta(2) agonist treatment...
  7. ncbi Alerting and Surveillance Using Poisons Information Systems (ASPIS): outcomes from an international working group
    W S Waring
    National Poisons Information Service Edinburgh Unit, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
    Clin Toxicol (Phila) 45:543-8. 2007
    ..In particular, there is concern surrounding the potential risk of a covert release, which underpins the need to develop robust methods of population surveillance...
  8. doi Serum urea concentration and the risk of hepatotoxicity after paracetamol overdose
    W S Waring
    Scottish Poisons Information Bureau, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, 51 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh, EH16 4TJ
    QJM 101:359-63. 2008
    ..Therefore, we hypothesized that low serum urea concentration might itself be predictive of hepatotoxicity in patients that present to hospital after paracetamol overdose...
  9. ncbi Lowering serum urate does not improve endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes
    W S Waring
    Clinical Pharmacology Unit, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    Diabetologia 50:2572-9. 2007
    ..We hypothesised that lowering of uric acid concentrations might allow restoration of endothelial function in this high-risk group...
  10. doi Renal injury at first presentation as a predictor for poor outcome in severe paracetamol poisoning referred to a liver transplant unit
    N Pakravan
    National Poisons Information Service Edinburgh Scottish Poisons Information Bureau, The Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, 51 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh, EH16 4SA, UK
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol 65:163-8. 2009
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between renal function (serum creatinine, Cr) at first hospital presentation and time of tertiary referral to outcomes in severe paracetamol poisoning...
  11. ncbi Redefining the ACE-inhibitor dose-response relationship: substantial blood pressure lowering after massive doses
    G A Christie
    Scottish Poisons Information Bureau, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, 51 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4SA, UK
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol 62:989-93. 2006
    ..Therefore, we examined the blood pressure responses in patients presenting to hospital following a deliberate ACE inhibitor overdose...
  12. doi Survey of cases of paracetamol overdose in the UK referred to National Poisons Information Service (NPIS) consultants
    H K R Thanacoody
    Scottish Poisons Information Bureau, Royal Infirmary Edinburgh, 51 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh, UK
    Emerg Med J 25:140-3. 2008
    ..A study was undertaken to examine reasons why calls about paracetamol are referred to consultants to better understand issues in managing this common poisoning...
  13. ncbi Systemic uric acid administration increases serum antioxidant capacity in healthy volunteers
    W S Waring
    Clinical Pharmacology Unit and Research Centre, Department of Medical Sciences, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 38:365-71. 2001
    ..The effect of uric acid was substantially greater than that of vitamin C...
  14. ncbi Acute caffeine ingestion: clinical features in patients attending the emergency department and Scottish poison centre enquiries between 2000 and 2008
    W S Waring
    Scottish Poisons Information Bureau, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    Scott Med J 54:3-6. 2009
    ..The present study sought to establish the impact of caffeine ingestion on hospital attendances and Poisons Centre enquiries in Scotland...
  15. doi Delayed onset of acute renal failure after significant paracetamol overdose: A case series
    W S Waring
    Scottish Poisons Information Bureau, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    Hum Exp Toxicol 29:63-8. 2010
    ..Therefore, renal failure might easily be missed if patients are discharged home before this. Further work is required to establish the prevalence of paracetamol-induced nephrotoxicity, and its clinical significance...
  16. doi Risk factors and mechanisms of anaphylactoid reactions to acetylcysteine in acetaminophen overdose
    Nasrin Pakravan
    National Poisons Information Service Edinburgh, University ofEdinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    Clin Toxicol (Phila) 46:697-702. 2008
    ..Adverse effects to N-acetylcysteine (NAC) are well recognized, but their etiology and incidence are unclear...
  17. doi Interpretation of clinical guidelines for poisoned patients: positive and negative effects of standard phrases used in TOXBASE
    W S Waring
    NPIS Edinburgh, Scottish Poisons Information Bureau, The Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, 51 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4SA, UK
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol 65:1007-12. 2009
    ..Advice is delivered using a series of standard phrases. The present study examined how healthcare professionals interpret the phrases and studied their impact on clinical decision-making...
  18. ncbi Impact of legislative changes on patterns of antipsychotic prescribing and self-poisoning in Scotland: 2000-06
    H Poon
    Scottish Poisons Information Bureau Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH16 4SA, UK
    J Toxicol Sci 32:1-7. 2007
    ..These data indicate that legislative changes that restrict the use of thioridazine and other typical antipsychotics are associated with a measurable reduction in the number of hospital admissions due to overdose with these agents...
  19. pmc Hyperuricaemia does not impair cardiovascular function in healthy adults
    W S Waring
    Centre for Cardiovascular Science, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    Heart 90:155-9. 2004
    ..To investigate the possibility that uric acid (UA) can impair endothelial function, an important surrogate for atherosclerosis...
  20. ncbi Uric acid: an important antioxidant in acute ischaemic stroke
    W S Waring
    Clinical Pharmacology Unit and Research Centre, The University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, UK
    QJM 95:691-3. 2002
  21. pmc Glycolysis inhibitors negatively bias blood glucose measurements: potential impact on the reported prevalence of diabetes mellitus
    W S Waring
    Clinical Pharmacology Unit, Roche Products, Welwyn Garden City, UK
    J Clin Pathol 60:820-3. 2007
    ..One of these involves addition of glycolysis inhibitors, such as sodium fluoride-potassium oxalate (NaF-KOx) to sample collection tubes, whereas the other requires immediate refrigeration and sample separation...
  22. ncbi Emergency presentation of an elderly female patient with profound hypoglycaemia
    W S Waring
    Clinical Pharmacology Unit, The University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital
    Scott Med J 49:105-7. 2004
    ..Furthermore, it serves to illustrate the sequence of events that may be created when foul play is suspected, and the factors related to patient confidentiality that require consideration by the responsible physician...
  23. doi Lower incidence of anaphylactoid reactions to N-acetylcysteine in patients with high acetaminophen concentrations after overdose
    W Stephen Waring
    Scottish Poisons Information Bureau, The Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
    Clin Toxicol (Phila) 46:496-500. 2008
    ..The present study examined the relationship between serum acetaminophen concentrations and risk of anaphylactoid reactions...
  24. ncbi Acute myocarditis after massive phenelzine overdose
    W Stephen Waring
    Scottish Poisons Information Bureau, The Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol 63:1007-9. 2007
    ..The clinical features of MAOI overdose are poorly characterised. This paper describes a novel cardiac complication of phenelzine toxicity in a previously healthy young adult with no history of cardiovascular disease...
  25. ncbi Serum acetaminophen concentrations after acute overdose are not altered by opioid co-ingestion
    W Stephen Waring
    Scottish Poisons Information Bureau, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
    J Toxicol Sci 33:549-53. 2008
    ..Therefore, early serum acetaminophen concentrations can be used to determine the extent of drug exposure, irrespective of whether an opioid has been co-ingested...
  26. pmc Predictive factors for generalized seizures after deliberate citalopram overdose
    W Stephen Waring
    Scottish Poisons Information Bureau, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 66:861-5. 2008
    ..The present study sought to establish risk factors for seizures in this high-risk patient group, including stated dose ingested, co-ingested drugs or ethanol, and electrolyte disturbances...
  27. ncbi Acute acetaminophen overdose is associated with dose-dependent hypokalaemia: a prospective study of 331 patients
    W Stephen Waring
    Scottish Poisons Information Bureau, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
    Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 102:325-8. 2008
    ..Acetaminophen appears to cause concentration-dependent hypokalaemia after overdose, and the pharmacological basis requires further consideration...
  28. doi Acute ethanol coingestion confers a lower risk of hepatotoxicity after deliberate acetaminophen overdose
    W Stephen Waring
    Scottish Poisons Information Bureau, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland
    Acad Emerg Med 15:54-8. 2008
    ..This study prospectively examined the effect of acute ethanol coingestion on risk of hepatotoxicity among patients admitted to hospital for N-acetylcysteine (NAC) therapy after deliberate acetaminophen overdose...
  29. pmc Constrictive pericarditis is an easily overlooked cause of right heart failure: a case report
    Aleksandra M Malkowska
    Scottish Poisons Information Bureau, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    Cases J 1:27. 2008
    ..The case reminds us to consider the possibility of constrictive pericarditis in patients with unexplained chronic right heart failure, so that prompt investigation and treatment can be instigated...
  30. pmc Effects of salbutamol and glyceryl trinitrate on large arterial stiffness are similar between patients with hypertension and adults with normal blood pressure
    W Stephen Waring
    Clinical Pharmacology Unit, The University of Edinburgh, Queens Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh, UK
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 62:621-6. 2006
    ..Endothelial function is characteristically impaired in patients with hypertension. Endothelial function was assessed in men and women with hypertension using a recently described, non-invasive method...
  31. ncbi Acute caffeine intake influences central more than peripheral blood pressure in young adults
    W Stephen Waring
    Clinical Pharmacology Unit and Research Centre, The University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Scotland, United Kingdom
    Am J Hypertens 16:919-24. 2003
    ..The aim of this study was to characterize the acute effects of caffeine on peripheral and central blood pressure (BP) in healthy individuals, using validated noninvasive techniques...
  32. ncbi Comparison of spectrophotometric and enhanced chemiluminescent assays of serum antioxidant capacity
    W Stephen Waring
    Clinical Pharmacology Unit, The University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Porterfield Road, Edinburgh, EH4 2XU, Scotland, UK
    Clin Chim Acta 338:67-71. 2003
    ..A number of assays are now available, and we wished to compare an enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL) method to a spectrophotometric method, the total antioxidant status (TAS) assay...
  33. ncbi The role of pharmacotherapy in assisting smoking cessation
    W Stephen Waring
    Clinical Pharmacology Unit, The University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Crewe Road, EH4 2XU Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol 59:351-6. 2003
    ..These are discussed in further detail, with reference to evidence supporting their use in clinical practice...
  34. ncbi Uric acid restores endothelial function in patients with type 1 diabetes and regular smokers
    W Stephen Waring
    Clinical Pharmacology Unit, University of Edinburgh, The Queen s Medical Research Institute, 3rd Floor East, Room E3 22, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh, EH16 4TJ, UK
    Diabetes 55:3127-32. 2006
    ....
  35. ncbi Cardiovascular effects of acute oxygen administration in healthy adults
    W Stephen Waring
    Clinical Pharmacology Unit and Research Centre, The University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Porterfield Road, Edinburgh EH4 2LH, Scotland
    J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 42:245-50. 2003
    ..05). There were no effects on vascular responses in the isolated forearm bed. These findings indicate that oxygen administration causes acute effects on cardiovascular function, which might be important in the context of acute illness...
  36. ncbi Autonomic cardiovascular responses are impaired in women with irritable bowel syndrome
    W Stephen Waring
    Clinical Pharmacology Unit and Research Centre, University of Edinburgh
    J Clin Gastroenterol 38:658-63. 2004
    ..This study characterizes cardiovascular autonomic function in women with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), using standardized techniques...
  37. ncbi Lithium carbonate as a potential pharmacological vehicle: intravenous kinetics of single-dose administration in healthy subjects
    W Stephen Waring
    Clinical Pharmacology Unit and Research Centre, The University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Crewe Road, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol 58:431-4. 2002
    ..We wished to determine the pharmacokinetics of a single systemic administration of 500 mg lithium carbonate (13.5 mmol free Li(+)) in healthy subjects...
  38. ncbi Pattern of lithium exposure predicts poisoning severity: evaluation of referrals to a regional poisons unit
    W S Waring
    Scottish Poisons Information Bureau, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, 51 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4SA, UK
    QJM 100:271-6. 2007
    ..Lithium toxicity may result in severe clinical features. There is on-going uncertainty about the significance of serum lithium concentrations in patients with lithium toxicity...
  39. doi Impaired heart rate variability and altered cardiac sympathovagal balance after antidepressant overdose
    W S Waring
    Scottish Poisons Information Bureau, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, 51 Little France Crescent, EH164SA, Edinburgh, UK
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol 64:1037-41. 2008
    ..This study was designed to examine the feasibility of non-invasive heart rate variability recording in patients that present to hospital after deliberate antidepressant ingestion...
  40. doi Does the patient history predict hepatotoxicity after acute paracetamol overdose?
    W S Waring
    Scottish Poisons Information Bureau, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, 51 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh, EH16 4TJ, UK
    QJM 101:121-5. 2008
    ..However, the validity of this approach has received comparatively little attention...
  41. pmc Proteinuria is unrelated to the extent of acute acetaminophen overdose: a prospective clinical study
    Suzanne Benhalim
    Scottish Poisons Information Bureau, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, UK
    J Med Toxicol 4:232-7. 2008
    ..The present study examined whether proteinuria might correspond with the extent of acute acetaminophen exposure as a possible early marker of renal effects...
  42. ncbi Coma blisters
    W S Waring
    Scottish Poisons Information Bureau, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
    Clin Toxicol (Phila) 45:808-9. 2007
  43. pmc Rapid onset of haemodynamic effects after angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitor overdose: implications for initial patient triage
    C Lucas
    Scottish Poisons Information Bureau, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, 51 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4SA, UK
    Emerg Med J 23:854-7. 2006
    ..Therefore, the relationship between the interval after an ACE-inhibitor overdose and onset of hypotension was examined...
  44. pmc Cardiovascular toxicity due to venlafaxine poisoning in adults: a review of 235 consecutive cases
    C Howell
    Scottish Poisons Information Bureau, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 64:192-7. 2007
    ..Venlafaxine may increase the risk of arrhythmia in certain patients. We sought to characterize the cardiovascular effects of venlafaxine overdose in adults...
  45. pmc Variability in the quality of overdose advice in Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC) documents: gut decontamination recommendations for CNS drugs
    Andrew J B Wall
    Scottish Poisons Information Bureau, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 67:83-7. 2009
    ..9 addresses the features of toxicity and clinical advice on management of overdose. The quality and appropriateness of this advice have received comparatively little attention...
  46. ncbi Endogenous urate production augments plasma antioxidant capacity in healthy lowland subjects exposed to high altitude
    J Kenneth Baillie
    Apex Altitude Physiology Expeditions, c o College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, The Queen s Medical Research Institute, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh, UK
    Chest 131:1473-8. 2007
    ..Production of urate, a potent soluble antioxidant, is increased in hypoxic conditions. We aimed to determine whether urate is an important antioxidant defense in healthy subjects exposed to hypoxia...
  47. ncbi Uric acid reduces exercise-induced oxidative stress in healthy adults
    W S Waring
    Clinical Pharmacology Unit and Research Centre, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, Scotland, UK
    Clin Sci (Lond) 105:425-30. 2003
    ..These findings indicate that the antioxidant properties of UA are of biological importance in vivo...
  48. doi Patterns of antiepileptic drug overdose differ between men and women: admissions to the Edinburgh Poisons Unit, 2000-2007
    A C Nixon
    Scottish Poisons Information Bureau, The Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, 51 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH164SA, UK
    QJM 102:51-6. 2009
    ..This might increase the likelihood that these agents are used as a means of overdose. This study was designed to examine the rate of occurrence of antiepileptic drug overdose between 2000 and 2007...
  49. doi Self-poisoning in older adults: patterns of drug ingestion and clinical outcomes
    Martin W Doak
    The Scottish Poisons Information Bureau, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
    Age Ageing 38:407-11. 2009
    ..This study sought to determine the agents ingested by older adults presenting to hospital after drug overdose, and to compare clinical outcomes to younger patients...
  50. ncbi Toxins that affect the cardiovascular system
    H K Ruben Thanacoody
    National Poisons Information Service Edinburgh Unit, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh
    Clin Med 8:92-5. 2008
  51. doi QT Prolongation and delayed atrioventricular conduction caused by acute ingestion of trazodone
    Jennifer A Service
    Scottish Poisons Information Bureau, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
    Clin Toxicol (Phila) 46:71-3. 2008
    ..This case reminds us to consider the possibility of cardiotoxic effects after trazodone overdose, even in young patients with no established cardiovascular disease...
  52. pmc Severe hypotension and hypothermia caused by acute ethanol toxicity
    E Wilson
    Scottish Poisons Information Bureau, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, 51 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4SA, Scotland, UK
    Emerg Med J 24:e7. 2007
    ..More severe toxicity should be anticipated in patients who normally abstain from alcohol...
  53. ncbi Effects of short-term isocapnic hyperoxia and hypoxia on cardiovascular function
    Alastair J Thomson
    Dept of Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh EH16 4SA, UK
    J Appl Physiol 101:809-16. 2006
    ..We conclude that both hyperoxia and hypoxia, when present during isocapnia, cause similar changes in cardiovascular function to those described with poikilocapnic conditions...
  54. ncbi Acetaminophen poisoning
    James W Dear
    N Engl J Med 359:1963-4; author reply 1965. 2008
  55. ncbi Prolonged toxicity after massive olanzapine overdose: two cases with confirmatory laboratory data
    George H Tse
    J Toxicol Sci 33:363-5. 2008
    ..These reports indicate the potential for olanzapine ingestion to cause coma that may persist for several days after overdose...