R A Walker

Summary

Affiliation: University of Leicester
Country: UK

Publications

  1. pmc Survivin is an independent predictor of short-term survival in poor prognostic breast cancer patients
    A R Hinnis
    Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University of Leicester, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester, LE2 7LX, UK
    Br J Cancer 96:639-45. 2007
  2. pmc Intrinsic genetic characteristics determine tumor-modifying capacity of fibroblasts: matrix metalloproteinase-3 5A/5A genotype enhances breast cancer cell invasion
    Deborah L Holliday
    Centre for Tumour Biology, Institute of Cancer and CR UK Clinical Centre, Bart s and The London, Queen Mary s School of Medicine and Dentistry, John Vane Science Centre, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ, UK
    Breast Cancer Res 9:R67. 2007
  3. pmc Association of invasion-promoting tenascin-C additional domains with breast cancers in young women
    David S Guttery
    Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University of Leicester, Infirmary Close, Robert Kilpatrick Clinical Sciences Building, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester LE2 7LX, UK
    Breast Cancer Res 12:R57. 2010
  4. pmc Tumour-associated tenascin-C isoforms promote breast cancer cell invasion and growth by matrix metalloproteinase-dependent and independent mechanisms
    Rachael A Hancox
    Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, Infirmary Close, University of Leicester, Robert Kilpatrick Clinical Sciences Building, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester, UK
    Breast Cancer Res 11:R24. 2009
  5. ncbi request reprint Immunohistochemical markers as predictive tools for breast cancer
    R A Walker
    Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University of Leicester, Robert Kilpatrick Building, Leicester Royal Infirmary, PO Box 65, Leicester LE2 7LX, UK
    J Clin Pathol 61:689-96. 2008
  6. pmc The complexities of breast cancer desmoplasia
    R A Walker
    Glenfield Hospital, Leicester, UK
    Breast Cancer Res 3:143-5. 2001
  7. doi request reprint HER2 testing in the UK: further update to recommendations
    R A Walker
    Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University of Leicester, RKCSB, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester, UK
    J Clin Pathol 61:818-24. 2008
  8. ncbi request reprint Quantification of immunohistochemistry--issues concerning methods, utility and semiquantitative assessment I
    R A Walker
    Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester, UK
    Histopathology 49:406-10. 2006
  9. pmc Loss of heterozygosity at chromosome 6q in preinvasive and early invasive breast carcinomas
    S A Chappell
    Department of Pathology, University of Leicester, Glenfield General Hospital, UK
    Br J Cancer 75:1324-9. 1997
  10. pmc Differential expression of translation-associated genes in benign and malignant human breast tumours
    S M Adams
    University ICI Joint Laboratory, University of Leicester, UK
    Br J Cancer 65:65-71. 1992

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications42

  1. pmc Survivin is an independent predictor of short-term survival in poor prognostic breast cancer patients
    A R Hinnis
    Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University of Leicester, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester, LE2 7LX, UK
    Br J Cancer 96:639-45. 2007
    ....
  2. pmc Intrinsic genetic characteristics determine tumor-modifying capacity of fibroblasts: matrix metalloproteinase-3 5A/5A genotype enhances breast cancer cell invasion
    Deborah L Holliday
    Centre for Tumour Biology, Institute of Cancer and CR UK Clinical Centre, Bart s and The London, Queen Mary s School of Medicine and Dentistry, John Vane Science Centre, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ, UK
    Breast Cancer Res 9:R67. 2007
    ..This study directly examined the impact of MMP SNP genotype on the ability of host fibroblasts to promote tumor cell invasion...
  3. pmc Association of invasion-promoting tenascin-C additional domains with breast cancers in young women
    David S Guttery
    Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University of Leicester, Infirmary Close, Robert Kilpatrick Clinical Sciences Building, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester LE2 7LX, UK
    Breast Cancer Res 12:R57. 2010
    ....
  4. pmc Tumour-associated tenascin-C isoforms promote breast cancer cell invasion and growth by matrix metalloproteinase-dependent and independent mechanisms
    Rachael A Hancox
    Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, Infirmary Close, University of Leicester, Robert Kilpatrick Clinical Sciences Building, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester, UK
    Breast Cancer Res 11:R24. 2009
    ..The ECM protein tenascin-C (TNC) is frequently up-regulated in breast cancer and we have previously identified two novel isoforms - one containing exon 16 (TNC-16) and one containing exons 14 plus 16 (TNC-14/16)...
  5. ncbi request reprint Immunohistochemical markers as predictive tools for breast cancer
    R A Walker
    Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University of Leicester, Robert Kilpatrick Building, Leicester Royal Infirmary, PO Box 65, Leicester LE2 7LX, UK
    J Clin Pathol 61:689-96. 2008
    ..A false negative or a false positive result will impact on patient management...
  6. pmc The complexities of breast cancer desmoplasia
    R A Walker
    Glenfield Hospital, Leicester, UK
    Breast Cancer Res 3:143-5. 2001
    ..Further studies are required to elaborate the mechanisms of the desmoplastic response, to determine its role in breast cancer progression and whether it is the same for all carcinomas...
  7. doi request reprint HER2 testing in the UK: further update to recommendations
    R A Walker
    Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University of Leicester, RKCSB, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester, UK
    J Clin Pathol 61:818-24. 2008
    ..For immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridisation there must be participation in the appropriate National External Quality Assurance scheme...
  8. ncbi request reprint Quantification of immunohistochemistry--issues concerning methods, utility and semiquantitative assessment I
    R A Walker
    Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester, UK
    Histopathology 49:406-10. 2006
    ..Improvements in automated analysis with wider applicability could lead to standardization...
  9. pmc Loss of heterozygosity at chromosome 6q in preinvasive and early invasive breast carcinomas
    S A Chappell
    Department of Pathology, University of Leicester, Glenfield General Hospital, UK
    Br J Cancer 75:1324-9. 1997
    ..These data suggest that the inactivation of tumour-suppressor genes within this region on chromosome 6q is important for the development of these early lesions...
  10. pmc Differential expression of translation-associated genes in benign and malignant human breast tumours
    S M Adams
    University ICI Joint Laboratory, University of Leicester, UK
    Br J Cancer 65:65-71. 1992
    ..1990). In situ hybridisation has shown these genes to be expressed predominantly in the epithelium of breast tumours...
  11. pmc Microsatellite instability in early sporadic breast cancer
    J A Shaw
    Department of Pathology, University of Leicester, Glenfield General Hospital, UK
    Br J Cancer 73:1393-7. 1996
    ..These data indicate that microsatellite instability is specific to the tumour DNA and is an early event in the genesis of some sporadic breast cancers...
  12. pmc E-cadherin relates to EGFR expression and lymph node metastasis in primary breast carcinoma
    J L Jones
    Department of Pathology, University of Leicester, Glenfield Hospital, UK
    Br J Cancer 74:1237-41. 1996
    ..These findings emphasise the complexity of control of E-cadherin in breast carcinomas and provide evidence of a link between membrane signalling pathways and modulation of E-cadherin expression...
  13. ncbi request reprint Primary breast myoepithelial cells exert an invasion-suppressor effect on breast cancer cells via paracrine down-regulation of MMP expression in fibroblasts and tumour cells
    J L Jones
    Breast Cancer Research Unit, Department of Pathology, University of Leicester, Glenfield Hospital, Groby Road, Leicester LE2 2BB, UK
    J Pathol 201:562-72. 2003
    ..This emphasizes the importance of the myoepithelial cell in controlling the breast microenvironment and focuses on the potential significance of the loss of this population with disease progression...
  14. pmc Pathological and biological features of mammographically detected invasive breast carcinomas
    R Rajakariar
    Breast Cancer Research Unit, University of Leicester, UK
    Br J Cancer 71:150-4. 1995
    ..The impalpable carcinomas detected by mammography differ from clinically presenting carcinomas in many ways, raising the question of whether a proportion or all would progress (dedifferentiate) with time...
  15. ncbi request reprint Alterations to either c-erbB-2(neu) or c-myc proto-oncogenes in breast carcinomas correlate with poor short-term prognosis
    J M Varley
    ICI University Joint Laboratory, University of Leicester, LE1 7RH, UK
    Oncogene 1:423-30. 1987
    ..This lesion exhibited some features characteristic of those thought to be associated with an increased risk of developing breast cancer...
  16. pmc A sequence previously identified as metastasis-related encodes an acidic ribosomal phosphoprotein, P2
    M G Sharp
    University ICI Joint Laboratory, Leicester, UK
    Br J Cancer 61:83-8. 1990
    ..The possible role that ribosomal proteins may play in the progression of carcinoma of the breast is discussed...
  17. pmc Is apocrine differentiation in breast carcinoma of prognostic significance?
    N J Bundred
    Department of Surgery, University of Leicester, UK
    Br J Cancer 62:113-7. 1990
    ..0014) for patient survival. The other seven prognostic factors tested did not reach significance and were rejected from the model. Apocrine differentiation in breast cancer appears to be an independent predictor of poor prognosis tumours...
  18. ncbi request reprint Microsatellite alterations plasma DNA of primary breast cancer patients
    J A Shaw
    Department of Pathology, University of Leicester, Clinical Sciences Wing, Glenfield Hospital, United Kingdom
    Clin Cancer Res 6:1119-24. 2000
    ....
  19. pmc Loss of heterozygosity at the mannose 6-phosphate insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor gene correlates with poor differentiation in early breast carcinomas
    S A Chappell
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Leicester, UK
    Br J Cancer 76:1558-61. 1997
    ..Three of these were poorly differentiated (high-grade) lesions. These data suggest that loss of heterozygosity at the IGF2R gene is associated with poor differentiation at this early stage of breast cancer development and progression...
  20. pmc Relationship of transforming growth factor beta 1 to extracellular matrix and stromal infiltrates in invasive breast carcinoma
    R A Walker
    Breast Cancer Research Unit, University of Leicester, Glenfield General Hospital, UK
    Br J Cancer 69:1160-5. 1994
    ..The findings indicate that TGF-beta 1 may have a role in invasion and metastasis of breast carcinomas...
  21. pmc An evaluation of immunoreactivity for c-erbB-2 protein as a marker of poor short-term prognosis in breast cancer
    R A Walker
    Department of Pathology, Leicester Royal Infirmary, UK
    Br J Cancer 60:426-9. 1989
    ..85 (95% confidence interval 1.86-7.97). In this particular group of patients immunoreactivity for c-erbB-2 protein is an independent indicator of poor short-term prognosis...
  22. ncbi request reprint The aged breast
    R A Walker
    Breast Cancer Research Unit, Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University of Leicester, Robert Kilpatrick Clinical Sciences Building, Leicester Royal Infirmary, PO Box 65, Leicester LE2 7LX, UK
    J Pathol 211:232-40. 2007
    ....
  23. doi request reprint Altered expression of anti-apoptotic proteins in non-involved tissue from cancer-containing breasts
    A J Batchelder
    Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University of Leicester, Robert Kilpatrick Clinical Sciences Building, P O Box 65, Leicester, LE2 7 LX, UK
    Breast Cancer Res Treat 114:63-9. 2009
    ..These alterations in apoptotic regulation would enhance tumour development. Further studies are needed to examine the value of these proteins as risk markers...
  24. pmc Detection of HER2 amplification in circulating free DNA in patients with breast cancer
    K Page
    Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University of Leicester, Robert Kilpatrick Building, PO Box 65, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester LE2 7LX, UK
    Br J Cancer 104:1342-8. 2011
    ..Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is amplified and overexpressed in 20-25% of breast cancers. This study investigated circulating free DNA (cfDNA) for detection of HER2 gene amplification in patients with breast cancer...
  25. pmc Angiogenesis is an independent prognostic factor in malignant mesothelioma
    J G Edwards
    University Department of Medical Oncology, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Osborne Building, Leicester LE1 5WW, UK
    Br J Cancer 85:863-8. 2001
    ..Further work is required to assess the prognostic importance of angiogenic regulatory factors in this disease...
  26. pmc Assessment of milk fat globule membrane antibodies and lectins as markers of short-term prognosis in breast cancer
    R A Walker
    Department of Pathology, University of Leicester, Leicester Royal Infirmary, UK
    Br J Cancer 62:462-6. 1990
    ..It is concluded that for short-term prognosis none of the markers can given independent prognostic information over and above that provided by histological evaluation...
  27. ncbi request reprint Expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9, their inhibitors, and the activator MT1-MMP in primary breast carcinomas
    J L Jones
    Breast Cancer Research Unit, Department of Pathology, University of Leicester, Glenfield General Hospital, Groby Road, Leicester LE3 9QP, U K
    J Pathol 189:161-8. 1999
    ..The association of MMP-9 with the infiltrating lobular phenotype may reveal novel mechanisms of control for this metalloproteinase...
  28. pmc There is more than one kind of myofibroblast: analysis of CD34 expression in benign, in situ, and invasive breast lesions
    H Chauhan
    Department of Pathology, University Hospital of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester LE2 7LX, UK
    J Clin Pathol 56:271-6. 2003
    ..The aim of this study was to establish the relation between CD34 and SMA expression in breast fibroblasts and to analyse whether loss of CD34 is specific for invasive disease...
  29. pmc Breast carcinomas occurring in young women (< 35 years) are different
    R A Walker
    Breast Cancer Research Unit, University of Leicester, Glenfield Hospital, UK
    Br J Cancer 74:1796-800. 1996
    ..Breast carcinomas occurring in women aged under 35 years are more aggressive. An important finding is the high incidence of p53 positivity, which may indicate genetic instability...
  30. pmc Integrins: a role as cell signalling molecules
    J L Jones
    Department of Pathology, University of Leicester, Glenfield Hospital, UK
    Mol Pathol 52:208-13. 1999
    ....
  31. pmc Lack of cyclin E immunoreactivity in non-malignant breast and association with proliferation in breast cancer
    K A Scott
    Department of Pathology, University of Leicester, Clinical Sciences, Glenfield Hospital, UK
    Br J Cancer 76:1288-92. 1997
    ..025). Virtually all cases with cyclin E and p53 were poorly differentiated. The presence of cyclin E is therefore only found in breast malignancies and is associated with more aggressive features, including high proliferation...
  32. pmc Comparison of monoclonal antibody Ki-67 reactivity with grade and DNA flow cytometry of breast carcinomas
    R A Walker
    Department of Pathology, Leicester Royal Infirmary, UK
    Br J Cancer 57:281-3. 1988
    ..These patients will be followed to assess which of these three markers of proliferation is of greatest prognostic value...
  33. pmc Differences between human breast cell lines in susceptibility towards growth inhibition by genistein
    K Dampier
    MRC Toxicology Unit, University of Leicester, PO Box 138, Leicester LE1 9HN, UK
    Br J Cancer 85:618-24. 2001
    ....
  34. ncbi request reprint Isolation and characterization of a novel gene with differential expression in benign and malignant human breast tumours
    S M Adams
    ICI University Joint Laboratory, University of Leicester, UK
    Hum Mol Genet 1:91-6. 1992
    ..This cDNA therefore represents a highly conserved gene sequence. We have identified only one major transcript in human cells, and it seems likely that there are several pseudogenes within the human genome...
  35. pmc Chromosome 3p allele loss in early invasive breast cancer: detailed mapping and association with clinicopathological features
    A Martinez
    Section of Medical and Molecular Genetics, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Birmingham, The Medical School, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    Mol Pathol 54:300-6. 2001
    ..0098) and oestrogen (p = 0.0472) receptor expression, indicating a link between 3p allelic loss and the regulation of differentiation...
  36. ncbi request reprint New perspectives into the biological and clinical relevance of oestrogen receptors in the human breast
    V Speirs
    Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine, Wellcome Trust Brenner Building, St James s University Hospital, Leeds LS9 7TF, UK
    J Pathol 211:499-506. 2007
    ..Here we outline these changes and discuss what biological and clinical implications these could have in the mammary gland...
  37. ncbi request reprint The erbB/HER type 1 tyrosine kinase receptor family
    R A Walker
    J Pathol 185:234-5. 1998
    ..The different distributions could be of particular importance in cancer if therapeutic modalities are identified to inhibit or stimulate the different ligands...
  38. ncbi request reprint Immunohistological localization of pregnancy-associated endometrial alpha 2-globulin (alpha 2-PEG) in endometrial adenocarcinoma and effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate
    P L Wood
    Leicester Royal Infirmary
    Br J Obstet Gynaecol 95:1292-8. 1988
    ..Non-malignant endometrium in postmenopausal women appears to be fully capable of alpha 2-PEG production after stimulation with an oral progestogen...
  39. pmc The NHS breast screening programme (pathology) EQA: experience in recent years relating to issues involved in individual performance appraisal
    D M Parham
    Department of Pathology, Royal Bournemouth Hospital, Bournemouth, Dorset BH7 7DW, UK
    J Clin Pathol 59:130-7. 2006
    ....
  40. pmc P-cadherin as a marker in the differential diagnosis of breast lesions
    A Kovacs
    Semmelweis Hospital, Department of Pathology, Miskolc PF 187 3501, Hungary
    J Clin Pathol 56:139-41. 2003
    ..To assess the value of the calcium dependent cell adhesion molecule P-cadherin as a myoepithelial marker in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant breast lesions...
  41. pmc Expression of P-cadherin, but not E-cadherin or N-cadherin, relates to pathological and functional differentiation of breast carcinomas
    A Kovacs
    Semmelweis Hospital, Department of Pathology, Miskolc, Hungary
    Mol Pathol 56:318-22. 2003
    ....
  42. pmc Impact of a national external quality assessment scheme for breast pathology in the UK
    I O Ellis
    Department of Histopathology, Nottingham City Hospital, Hucknall Road, Nottingham NG5 1PB, UK
    J Clin Pathol 59:138-45. 2006
    ..This article presents the results and observed effects of the UK National Health Service Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP) external quality assurance scheme in breast histopathology...