B R Walker
Affiliation: University of Edinburgh
- Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in obesity: cause or consequence?B R Walker
Department of Medical Sciences, Western General Hospital, University of Edinburgh, UK
Growth Horm IGF Res 11:S91-5. 2001..Selective inhibition of 11beta-HSD1 provides a novel therapeutic target for lowering intra-adipose cortisol concentrations and effect, without inducing other adverse effects of cortisol deficiency...
- Increased glucocorticoid activity in men with cardiovascular risk factorsB R Walker
University of Edinburgh, Department of Medicine, Western General Hospital, UK
Hypertension 31:891-5. 1998..It may be mediated by an abnormal glucocorticoid receptor, and it may contribute to the association between hypertension and insulin resistance...
- Cortisol metabolism in healthy young adults: sexual dimorphism in activities of A-ring reductases, but not 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenasesM J Finken
University of Edinburgh, Department of Medical Sciences, Western General Hospital, United Kingdom
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84:3316-21. 1999..A-Ring reductases may have an equally important influence on metabolic clearance of cortisol and intracellular cortisol concentrations...
- Activation of the endothelin system in insulin resistanceR J Irving
University of Edinburgh, Department of Medical Sciences, Western General Hospital, Crewe Road South, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, Scotland, UK
QJM 94:321-6. 2001..30, p<0.005). Endothelin-1 levels are not related to blood pressure, but are higher in healthy young men with insulin resistance and obesity...
- Increased vasoconstrictor sensitivity to glucocorticoids in essential hypertensionB R Walker
Department of Medicine, Western General Hospital, University of Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
Hypertension 27:190-6. 1996....
- 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in vascular smooth muscle and heart: implications for cardiovascular responses to glucocorticoidsB R Walker
University of Edinburgh, Department of Medicine, Western General Hospital, United Kingdom
Endocrinology 129:3305-12. 1991..Thus, 11 beta-OHSD is appropriately sited to modulate access of corticosterone to vascular receptors and could influence vascular resistance, cardiac output and thereby blood pressure...
- Glucocorticoids and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in obesity and the metabolic syndromeR H Stimson
Endocrinology Unit, Centre for Cardiovascular Science, Queen s Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
Minerva Endocrinol 32:141-59. 2007..Trials in humans though will be the ultimate test to determine if inhibition of 11beta-HSD1 offers a new tool in the treatment of metabolic disease...
- Altered vascular contractility in adult female rats with hypertension programmed by prenatal glucocorticoid exposureP W F Hadoke
Endocrinology Unit, Centre for Cardiovascular Science, University of Edinburgh, The Queen s Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, UK
J Endocrinol 188:435-42. 2006....
- Endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor and potassium use different mechanisms to induce relaxation of human subcutaneous resistance arteriesC A McIntyre
Department of Medical Sciences, Western General Hospital, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh
Br J Pharmacol 133:902-8. 2001....
- Independent effects of obesity and cortisol in predicting cardiovascular risk factors in men and womenB R Walker
University of Edinburgh, Department of Medicine, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, UK
J Intern Med 247:198-204. 2000..This study sought to establish whether plasma cortisol is associated with cardiovascular risk factors in women as it is in men, and whether these relationships in either sex are confounded by obesity...
- Symptoms of depression but not anxiety are associated with central obesity and cardiovascular disease in people with type 2 diabetes: the Edinburgh Type 2 Diabetes StudyJ Labad
Endocrinology Unit, Centre for Cardiovascular Science, Queen s Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, UK
Diabetologia 53:467-71. 2010..The aim of the study was to identify risk factors for depression and anxiety in a well-characterised cohort of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus...
- Platelet aggregation in young men with contrasting predisposition to high blood pressureM E Dockrell
University of Edinburgh, Department of Medicine, Western General Hospital, Scotland
Am J Hypertens 12:115-9. 1999..We conclude that enhanced platelet sensitivity to endothelin-1 appears to be a feature of the familial predisposition to hypertension, rather than a nonspecific consequence of high blood pressure...
- Growth hormone replacement inhibits renal and hepatic 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases in ACTH-deficient patientsB R Walker
University of Edinburgh, Department of Medicine, Western General Hospital, UK
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 49:257-63. 1998..In this study, we examined the effects of GH replacement on cortisol metabolism...
- Cortisol secretion and rate of bone loss in a population-based cohort of elderly men and womenR M Reynolds
Endocrinology Unit, University of Edinburgh, Queens Medical Research Institute, EH16 4TJ Edinburgh, UK
Calcif Tissue Int 77:134-8. 2005..These data provide evidence that circulating endogenous glucocorticoids influence the rate of involutional bone loss in healthy individuals...
- Pathophysiology of modulation of local glucocorticoid levels by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenasesT C Sandeep
Endocrinology Unit, Dept of Medical Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, UK EH4 2XU
Trends Endocrinol Metab 12:446-53. 2001..These data provide encouragement that novel therapies will arise from a fuller understanding of the 11beta HSD system...
- Endogenous inhibitors of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 do not explain abnormal cortisol metabolism in polycystic ovary syndromeB R Walker
University of Edinburgh, Endocrinology Unit, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, UK
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 52:77-80. 2000..Endogenous inhibitors of hepatic 11beta-HSD1 can be extracted from urine. We have tested the hypothesis that these are increased in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome...
- Cortisol--cause and cure for metabolic syndrome?B R Walker
Endocrinology Unit, Centre for Cardiovascular Science, University of Edinburgh, Queen s Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh, UK
Diabet Med 23:1281-8. 2006..Thus, glucocorticoid signalling provides a potentially tractable system to influence both risk factors for, and the outcome of, Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease...
- Minireview: 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1- a tissue-specific amplifier of glucocorticoid actionJ R Seckl
Endocrinology Unit, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, Scotland, United Kingdom
Endocrinology 142:1371-6. 2001..Inhibition of 11beta-HSD1 represents a potential target for therapy of disorders that might be ameliorated by local reduction of glucocorticoid action, including type 2 diabetes, obesity, and age-related cognitive dysfunction...
- 5α-reduced glucocorticoids exhibit dissociated anti-inflammatory and metabolic effectsC Yang
Centre for Cardiovascular Science, Queen s Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
Br J Pharmacol 164:1661-71. 2011..5α-Tetrahydro-corticosterone (5αTHB), produced from corticosterone by 5α-reductases, activates glucocorticoid receptors. This study compares the effects of 5αTHB on inflammation and metabolism in vitro and in vivo...
- Idiopathic intracranial hypertension: can studies of obesity provide the key to understanding pathogenesis?L Y Ooi
Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Western General Hospital and Endocrinology Unit, Centre for Cardiovascular Science, Queen s Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
Br J Neurosurg 22:187-94. 2008....
- Steroid metabolism in metabolic syndrome XB R Walker
The University of Edinburgh, Endocrinology Unit, Department of Medical Sciences, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, Scotland, EH4 2XU, UK
Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 15:111-22. 2001..Some of these changes in steroid metabolism lend themselves to therapeutic manipulation which may provide novel strategies to reduce cardiovascular risk...
- Microvascular correlates of blood pressure, plasma glucose, and insulin resistance in healthR J Irving
Department of Medical Sciences, Western General Hospital, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK
Cardiovasc Res 53:271-6. 2002..Altered microvascular structure and function could contribute by increasing peripheral vascular resistance and decreasing tissue delivery of glucose. We addressed this hypothesis in a sample of healthy men...
- Glucocorticoid metabolism and the Metabolic Syndrome: associations in an elderly cohortR Andrew
Endocrinology Unit, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Crewe Road, Edinburgh, EH4 2XU
Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 110:284-90. 2002..We have investigated relationships between glucocorticoid production and features of the Metabolic Syndrome in a cohort of elderly subjects...
- Circulating plasma cortisol concentrations are not associated with coronary artery disease or peripheral vascular diseaseR M Reynolds
Centre for Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Queen s Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
QJM 102:469-75. 2009..This may be due to different sampling conditions, reflecting basal cortisol levels, vs. responsiveness of HPA axis activity, which may have diverse influences on the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis...
- Is "Cushing's disease of the omentum" an affliction of mouse and men?B R Walker
Endocrinology Unit, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, EH4 2XU, Edinburgh, UK
Diabetologia 47:767-9. 2004
- The utility of three different methods for measuring urinary 18-hydroxycortisol in the differential diagnosis of suspected primary hyperaldosteronismR M Reynolds
Endocrinology Unit, School of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK
Eur J Endocrinol 152:903-7. 2005..We have evaluated three urine 18-OHF methods using a panel of urine samples from patients with hypertension...
- Endothelial cell dysfunction in mice after transgenic knockout of type 2, but not type 1, 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenaseP W Hadoke
Endocrinology, Endothelial Cell Biology, and Molecular Physiology groups, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
Circulation 104:2832-7. 2001..Both are present in the vessel wall; here, using mice with selective inactivation of 11betaHSD isozymes, we test the hypothesis that 11betaHSDs influence vascular function...
- Increased glucocorticoid production and altered cortisol metabolism in women with mild to moderate Alzheimer's diseaseS Rasmuson
Department of Geriatric Medicine, , , Sweden
Biol Psychiatry 49:547-52. 2001..CONCLUSIONS: An increased glucocorticoid production is an early feature of Alzheimer's disease and may be secondary to enhanced metabolic clearance of cortisol by A-ring reduction...
- Tissue-specific dysregulation of cortisol metabolism in human obesityE Rask
Departments of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, , Sweden
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:1418-21. 2001....
- Glucocorticoid metabolism within superficial subcutaneous rather than visceral adipose tissue is associated with features of the metabolic syndrome in South African womenJ H Goedecke
UCT MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 65:81-7. 2006....
- Intra-vascular glucocorticoid metabolism as a modulator of vascular structure and functionP W F Hadoke
Endocrinology Unit, Centre for Cardiovascular Science, Edinburgh University, The Queen s Medical Research Institute, 47, Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, Scotland United Kingdom
Cell Mol Life Sci 63:565-78. 2006..Hence, inhibition of 11HSD isozymes may provide a novel therapeutic target in vascular disease...
- Glucocorticoid metabolism and adrenocortical reactivity to ACTH in myotonic dystrophyR Andrew
Department of Public Health, , , Sweden
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:4276-83. 2001..These disturbances may explain altered circulating cortisol levels and contribute to features of the metabolic syndrome in myotonic dystrophy...
- 11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase Type 1: genetic polymorphisms are associated with Type 2 diabetes in Pima Indians independently of obesity and expression in adipocyte and muscleS Nair
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Phoenix, Arizona, USA
Diabetologia 47:1088-95. 2004..We have shown that adipose tissue 11beta-HSD1 mRNA levels were associated with adiposity and insulinaemia. Here we conducted further expression and genetic association studies in Pima Indians...
- In the lipodystrophy associated with highly active antiretroviral therapy, pseudo-Cushing's syndrome is associated with increased regeneration of cortisol by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in adipose tissueJ Sutinen
Division of Diabetes, Department of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Diabetologia 47:1668-71. 2004....
- Adrenocortical, autonomic, and inflammatory causes of the metabolic syndrome: nested case-control studyE J Brunner
International Centre for Health and Society, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, England
Circulation 106:2659-65. 2002..We examine reversibility and the power of psychosocial and behavioral factors to explain the neuroendocrine adaptations that accompany MS...
- Use of oral glucocorticoids and risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease in a population based case-control studyP C Souverein
Department of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacotherapy, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, PO Box 80082, 3508 TB Utrecht, The Netherlands
Heart 90:859-65. 2004..To assess whether use of oral glucocorticoids is associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity...
- Short-term cortisol infusion in the brachial artery, with and without inhibiting 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, does not alter forearm vascular resistance in normotensive and hypertensive subjectsS H M van Uum
Department of Medicine, University Medical Center Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Eur J Clin Invest 32:874-81. 2002..We studied the acute effect of cortisol on forearm vascular resistance (FVR) by infusing cortisol directly into the brachial artery, both with and without inhibition of 11 beta-HSD, in normotensive and hypertensive subjects...
- The intergenerational effects of fetal programming: non-genomic mechanisms for the inheritance of low birth weight and cardiovascular riskA J Drake
Endocrinology Unit, School of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Molecular Medicine Centre, Western General Hospital, Crewe Road South, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK
J Endocrinol 180:1-16. 2004..This may represent a mechanism for the non-genetic inheritance of a predisposition to low birth weight and adverse cardiovascular risk across a number of generations...
- Homogeneous segmental profile of carbon monoxide-mediated pulmonary vasodilation in ratsJ S Naik
Vascular Physiology Group, Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131-5218, USA
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 281:L1436-43. 2001..We conclude that exogenous CO administration causes vasodilation in the pulmonary vasculature via a soluble guanylyl cyclase-dependent mechanism that does not likely involve activation of K(Ca) channels...
- The natural history of idiopathic urethrorrhagia in boysB R Walker
Division of Urology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA
J Urol 166:231-2. 2001..7% of patients at 1 and 2 years, respectively. Evaluation should be considered in patients with prolonged urethrorrhagia because urethral stricture may be identified...
- Sites and ionic mechanisms of hypoxic vasoconstriction in frog skinG M Malvin
Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87108, USA
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 280:R1308-14. 2001..In addition, because of its structural simplicity and easy accessibility, frog skin may be a useful tissue for studying this general phenomenon in vivo...
- Correlation of HO-1 expression with onset and reversal of hypoxia-induced vasoconstrictor hyporeactivityN L Jernigan
Vascular Physiology Group, Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, University of New Mexico Health Science Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131-5218, USA
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 281:H298-307. 2001..These data suggest that the onset and offset of physiologically relevant vascular HO expression occur within 2--3 days...
- Letter re: HPA axis testing after pituitary surgeryP L Padfield
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90:4981-2. 2005