D J Torgerson

Summary

Affiliation: University of York
Country: UK

Publications

  1. pmc Hydroxychloroquine effectiveness in reducing symptoms of hand osteoarthritis (HERO): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
    Sarah R Kingsbury
    Division of Rheumatic and Musculoskeletal Disease and National Institute of Health Research NIHR Leeds Musculoskeletal Biomedical Research Unit, University of Leeds, Leeds LS7 4SA, UK
    Trials 14:64. 2013
  2. pmc Protocol for the ProFHER (PROximal Fracture of the Humerus: Evaluation by Randomisation) trial: a pragmatic multi-centre randomised controlled trial of surgical versus non-surgical treatment for proximal fracture of the humerus in adults
    Helen Handoll
    Centre for Rehabilitation Sciences, Health Sciences and Social Care Institute, Teesside University, Middlesbrough, Tees Valley TS1 3BA, UK
    BMC Musculoskelet Disord 10:140. 2009
  3. pmc Methodological bias in cluster randomised trials
    Seokyung Hahn
    Medical Research Collaborating Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 2nd Floor Cancer Research Institute Building, 28 Yongon Dong, Chongno Gu, Seoul 110 744, Korea
    BMC Med Res Methodol 5:10. 2005
  4. pmc Improving response rates using a monetary incentive for patient completion of questionnaires: an observational study
    Stephen D Brealey
    Department of Health Sciences, York Trials Unit, Seebohm Rowntree Building, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD, UK
    BMC Med Res Methodol 7:12. 2007
  5. pmc Increasing recruitment to randomised trials: a review of randomised controlled trials
    Judith M Watson
    York Trials Unit, Department of Health Sciences, University of York, York, YO10 5DD, UK
    BMC Med Res Methodol 6:34. 2006
  6. pmc A randomised controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of offering study results as an incentive to increase response rates to postal questionnaires [ISRCTN26118436]
    Sarah Cockayne
    Department of Health Sciences, University of York, Area 4 Seebohm Rowntree Building, York, UK
    BMC Med Res Methodol 5:34. 2005
  7. pmc A randomised controlled trial of patient led training in medical education: protocol
    Anna E Winterbottom
    Bradford Institute for Health Research, Bradford Royal Infirmary, Bradford, UK
    BMC Med Educ 10:90. 2010
  8. pmc The DAMASK trial protocol: a pragmatic randomised trial to evaluate whether GPs should have direct access to MRI for patients with suspected internal derangement of the knee
    Stephen D Brealey
    Department of Health Sciences, York Trials Unit, Seebohm Rowntree Building, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD, UK
    BMC Health Serv Res 6:133. 2006
  9. pmc Resource use data by patient report or hospital records: do they agree?
    Andrew D M Kennedy
    Health Economics Research Group, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex, UK
    BMC Health Serv Res 2:2. 2002
  10. pmc Acupuncture for irritable bowel syndrome: a protocol for a pragmatic randomised controlled trial
    Hugh MacPherson
    Department of Health Sciences, University of York, UK
    BMC Gastroenterol 10:63. 2010

Detail Information

Publications69

  1. pmc Hydroxychloroquine effectiveness in reducing symptoms of hand osteoarthritis (HERO): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
    Sarah R Kingsbury
    Division of Rheumatic and Musculoskeletal Disease and National Institute of Health Research NIHR Leeds Musculoskeletal Biomedical Research Unit, University of Leeds, Leeds LS7 4SA, UK
    Trials 14:64. 2013
    ..We propose that treating patients with symptomatic hand OA with hydroxychloroquine will be a practical and safe treatment to reduce synovitis and pain...
  2. pmc Protocol for the ProFHER (PROximal Fracture of the Humerus: Evaluation by Randomisation) trial: a pragmatic multi-centre randomised controlled trial of surgical versus non-surgical treatment for proximal fracture of the humerus in adults
    Helen Handoll
    Centre for Rehabilitation Sciences, Health Sciences and Social Care Institute, Teesside University, Middlesbrough, Tees Valley TS1 3BA, UK
    BMC Musculoskelet Disord 10:140. 2009
    ..In particular it is not clear whether surgery gives better outcomes than non-surgical management. Currently there is much variation in the use of surgery and a lack of good quality evidence to inform this decision...
  3. pmc Methodological bias in cluster randomised trials
    Seokyung Hahn
    Medical Research Collaborating Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 2nd Floor Cancer Research Institute Building, 28 Yongon Dong, Chongno Gu, Seoul 110 744, Korea
    BMC Med Res Methodol 5:10. 2005
    ..Cluster randomised trials can be susceptible to a range of methodological problems. These problems are not commonly recognised by many researchers. In this paper we discuss the issues that can lead to bias in cluster trials...
  4. pmc Improving response rates using a monetary incentive for patient completion of questionnaires: an observational study
    Stephen D Brealey
    Department of Health Sciences, York Trials Unit, Seebohm Rowntree Building, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD, UK
    BMC Med Res Methodol 7:12. 2007
    ..To improve response rates in our trial in primary care we tested the effect of introducing an unconditional direct payment of 5 pounds for the completion of postal questionnaires...
  5. pmc Increasing recruitment to randomised trials: a review of randomised controlled trials
    Judith M Watson
    York Trials Unit, Department of Health Sciences, University of York, York, YO10 5DD, UK
    BMC Med Res Methodol 6:34. 2006
    ..With poor recruitment being such an important issue with respect to the conduct of randomised trials, a systematic review of controlled trials on recruitment methods was undertaken in order to identify strategies that are effective...
  6. pmc A randomised controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of offering study results as an incentive to increase response rates to postal questionnaires [ISRCTN26118436]
    Sarah Cockayne
    Department of Health Sciences, University of York, Area 4 Seebohm Rowntree Building, York, UK
    BMC Med Res Methodol 5:34. 2005
    ..The aim of this study was to assess whether offering participants study results increases the response rates to postal questionnaires...
  7. pmc A randomised controlled trial of patient led training in medical education: protocol
    Anna E Winterbottom
    Bradford Institute for Health Research, Bradford Royal Infirmary, Bradford, UK
    BMC Med Educ 10:90. 2010
    ..The present study aims to undertake a randomised controlled trial of patient-led teaching of junior doctors about patient safety...
  8. pmc The DAMASK trial protocol: a pragmatic randomised trial to evaluate whether GPs should have direct access to MRI for patients with suspected internal derangement of the knee
    Stephen D Brealey
    Department of Health Sciences, York Trials Unit, Seebohm Rowntree Building, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD, UK
    BMC Health Serv Res 6:133. 2006
    ..The objective of this study was to resolve uncertainty whether GPs should refer patients with suspected internal derangement of the knee for MRI or to an orthopaedic specialist in secondary care...
  9. pmc Resource use data by patient report or hospital records: do they agree?
    Andrew D M Kennedy
    Health Economics Research Group, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex, UK
    BMC Health Serv Res 2:2. 2002
    ..Cost data are often collected through the use of postal questionnaires; however, the accuracy of this method is uncertain. We compared postal questionnaires with hospital records for collecting data on physiotherapy service use...
  10. pmc Acupuncture for irritable bowel syndrome: a protocol for a pragmatic randomised controlled trial
    Hugh MacPherson
    Department of Health Sciences, University of York, UK
    BMC Gastroenterol 10:63. 2010
    ..Building on the positive findings from a pilot study, in this paper we present the protocol for a fully-powered trial designed to establish whether or not acupuncture is effective and cost-effective...
  11. pmc Pharmaceutical treatment of symptomatic vertebral fractures in primary care
    D J Torgerson
    Department of Health Sciences, University of York, York YO10 5DD
    Ann Rheum Dis 63:853-6. 2004
    ..Previous work has shown that up to 60% of patients with a vertebral fracture identified in primary care remain untreated...
  12. ncbi request reprint Randomized trial of osteoporosis screening. Use of hormone replacement therapy and quality-of-life results
    D J Torgerson
    National Primary Care Research and Development Centre, University of York, England
    Arch Intern Med 157:2121-5. 1997
    ..The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a screening program on HRT use of quality of life...
  13. ncbi request reprint The pharmacoeconomics of hormone replacement therapy
    D J Torgerson
    Department of Health Studies, University of York, England
    Pharmacoeconomics 16:9-16. 1999
    ..Therefore, SERMs are more likely to be a competitor to existing and forthcoming bisphosphonates rather than HRT...
  14. pmc Submission to multiple journals: a method of reducing time to publication?
    David J Torgerson
    York Trials Unit, Department of Health Sciences, University of York, York YO10 5DD
    BMJ 330:305-7. 2005
  15. ncbi request reprint HRT and its impact on the menopause, osteoporosis and breast cancer
    D J Torgerson
    Department of Health Studies, University of York, York YO10 5DD, UK
    Expert Opin Pharmacother 1:1163-9. 2000
    ..HRT also increases the risk of breast cancer, which may negate much of its health benefit...
  16. pmc Economic modelling before clinical trials
    David J Torgerson
    Department of Health Sciences and Centre for Health Economics, University of York, York YO1 5DD
    BMJ 325:98. 2002
  17. ncbi request reprint Hormone replacement therapy and prevention of nonvertebral fractures: a meta-analysis of randomized trials
    D J Torgerson
    University of York, Genesis 6, University Road, Heslington, YO10 5DQ England
    JAMA 285:2891-7. 2001
    ..Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is widely considered to reduce fractures, but this belief is based on observational data; evidence from randomized trials is lacking...
  18. ncbi request reprint Simple sample size calculation
    David J Torgerson
    York Trials Unit, Department of Health Sciences, University of York, York, UK
    J Eval Clin Pract 13:952-3. 2007
  19. ncbi request reprint Vitamin K and the prevention of fractures: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
    Sarah Cockayne
    York Trials Unit, Department of Health Sciences, University of York, York YO10 5DD, England
    Arch Intern Med 166:1256-61. 2006
    ..Observational and some experimental data suggest that low intake of vitamin K may be associated with an increased risk of fracture...
  20. doi request reprint VenUS II: a randomised controlled trial of larval therapy in the management of leg ulcers
    J C Dumville
    Department of Health Sciences, University of York, UK
    Health Technol Assess 13:1-182, iii-iv. 2009
    ..To compare the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of larval therapy with a standard debridement technique (hydrogel)...
  21. ncbi request reprint Randomized clinical trial of four-layer and short-stretch compression bandages for venous leg ulcers (VenUS I)
    E A Nelson
    Department of Health Sciences, Seebohm Rowntree Building Area 4, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD, UK
    Br J Surg 91:1292-9. 2004
    ..A randomized clinical trial was undertaken to determine the relative effectiveness of four-layer and short-stretch bandaging for venous ulceration...
  22. ncbi request reprint Economic analysis of VenUS I, a randomized trial of two bandages for treating venous leg ulcers
    C P Iglesias
    Department of Health Sciences, Seebohm Rowntree Building Area 4, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD, UK
    Br J Surg 91:1300-6. 2004
    ..The study investigated the cost-effectiveness of four-layer and short-stretch compression bandages for treating venous leg ulcers...
  23. ncbi request reprint Randomized trial of two physiotherapy interventions for primary care back and neck pain patients: cost effectiveness analysis
    A Manca
    Centre for Health Economics, Alcuin A Block, University of York, York YO10 5DD, UK
    Rheumatology (Oxford) 46:1495-501. 2007
    ....
  24. pmc Patient acceptability of larval therapy for leg ulcer treatment: a randomised survey to inform the sample size calculation of a randomised trial
    E S Petherick
    Centre for Evidence Based Nursing, Department of Health Sciences, University of York, Heslington, YO10 5DD, UK
    BMC Med Res Methodol 6:43. 2006
    ..Additionally there was concern that the use of larval therapy may require a larger effect size in time to healing than originally proposed by the investigators...
  25. ncbi request reprint Cost-effectiveness of hormone replacement therapy for fracture prevention in young postmenopausal women: an economic analysis based on a prospective cohort study
    R Fleurence
    Department of Health Sciences and Centre for Health Economics, University of York, York, UK
    Osteoporos Int 13:637-43. 2002
    ..Such a policy for hysterectomized women without menopausal symptoms may be cost-effective as such women are at elevated risk of fracture and need cheaper, unopposed, estrogens...
  26. doi request reprint Cost-effectiveness analysis of general anaesthesia versus local anaesthesia for carotid surgery (GALA Trial)
    M Gomes
    Department of Economics and Related Studies, University of York, York, UK
    Br J Surg 97:1218-25. 2010
    ..The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of carotid endarterectomy under LA or GA in patients with symptomatic or asymptomatic carotid stenosis for whom surgery was advised...
  27. doi request reprint The health-related quality of life and cost implications of falls in elderly women
    C P Iglesias
    Department of Health Sciences, University of York, Seebohm Rowntree Building Room 148, York YO10 5DD, UK
    Osteoporos Int 20:869-78. 2009
    ..Our results suggest that the main burden to morbidity, measured as impact on health-related quality of life, is due to fear of falling rather than falls or their sequelae, such as fractures...
  28. pmc Reporting attrition in randomised controlled trials
    Jo C Dumville
    York Trials Unit, University of York, York YO10 5DD
    BMJ 332:969-71. 2006
  29. pmc Cost effectiveness analysis of larval therapy for leg ulcers
    Marta O Soares
    Department of Health Sciences, University of York, York YO10 5DD, UK
    BMJ 338:b825. 2009
    ..To assess the cost effectiveness of larval therapy compared with hydrogel in the management of leg ulcers...
  30. ncbi request reprint Randomized trial of a brief physiotherapy intervention compared with usual physiotherapy for neck pain patients: cost-effectiveness analysis
    Andrea Manca
    Centre for Health Economics, University of York, UK
    Int J Technol Assess Health Care 22:67-75. 2006
    ..To assess the cost-effectiveness of brief physiotherapy intervention versus usual physiotherapy management in patients with neck pain of musculoskeletal origin in the community setting...
  31. doi request reprint Individual allocation had an advantage over cluster randomization in statistical efficiency in some circumstances
    Catherine E Hewitt
    York Trials Unit, Department of Health Sciences, University of York, YO10 5DD, UK
    J Clin Epidemiol 61:1004-8. 2008
    ....
  32. doi request reprint Potential for technical errors and subverted allocation can be reduced if certain guidelines are followed: examples from a web-based survey
    Catherine E Hewitt
    York Trials Unit, Department of Health Sciences, University of York, York, United Kingdom
    J Clin Epidemiol 62:261-9. 2009
    ..To elicit researchers' experiences and knowledge of how the randomization process can be undermined...
  33. ncbi request reprint Health care costs of women with symptomatic vertebral fractures
    Suezann Puffer
    York Trials Unit, Department of Health Sciences, York University, York YO10 5DD, UK
    Bone 35:383-6. 2004
    ..In this paper, we examine the health care costs of symptomatic vertebral fractures occurring in women aged 50 years and above in the UK...
  34. pmc Larval therapy for leg ulcers (VenUS II): randomised controlled trial
    Jo C Dumville
    Department of Health Sciences, University of York, York YO10 5DD, UK
    BMJ 338:b773. 2009
    ..To compare the clinical effectiveness of larval therapy with a standard debridement technique (hydrogel) for sloughy or necrotic leg ulcers...
  35. pmc Adequacy and reporting of allocation concealment: review of recent trials published in four general medical journals
    Catherine Hewitt
    York Trials Unit, Department of Health Sciences, University of York, York YO10 5DD
    BMJ 330:1057-8. 2005
  36. ncbi request reprint Regression to the mean: treatment effect without the intervention
    Veronica Morton
    York Trials Unit, Department of Health Sciences, University of York, York, UK
    J Eval Clin Pract 11:59-65. 2005
    ..This paper highlights the importance of the issue and its effects on many common clinical, public health and managerial decisions...
  37. ncbi request reprint Randomised controlled trial of hip protectors for the prevention of second hip fractures
    Yvonne F Birks
    Department of Health Sciences Research, Seebhom Rowntree Building, University of York, York YO10 5DD, UK
    Age Ageing 32:442-4. 2003
    ..to assess whether the use of Safehip hip protectors would prevent second hip fractures among men and women living in the community...
  38. doi request reprint Assessing the impact of attrition in randomized controlled trials
    Catherine E Hewitt
    Department of Health Sciences, University of York, Heslington, York, UK
    J Clin Epidemiol 63:1264-70. 2010
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of attrition on baseline imbalance within individual trials and across multiple trials...
  39. ncbi request reprint Risk factors for fracture in a UK population: a prospective cohort study
    J Porthouse
    York Trials Unit, Department of Health Sciences, Area 4, Seebohm Rowntree Building, University of York, York YO10 5DD, UK
    QJM 97:569-74. 2004
    ..Common clinical risk factors for fracture in older women have been identified. To date, most of these risk factors have not been confirmed in a UK population...
  40. ncbi request reprint Improving the measurement of quality of life in older people: the York SF-12
    C P Iglesias
    Department of Health Studies, University of York, York, UK
    QJM 94:695-8. 2001
    ..The York version of the SF-12 is an improvement on the original questionnaire. We recommend that the York SF-12 be used in preference to the SF-12 when surveying an older population...
  41. ncbi request reprint The use of unequal randomisation ratios in clinical trials: a review
    J C Dumville
    Area 4, York Trials Unit, Department of Health Sciences, University of York, York, YO10 5DD, United Kingdom
    Contemp Clin Trials 27:1-12. 2006
    ..To examine reasons given for the use of unequal randomisation in randomised controlled trials (RCTs)...
  42. ncbi request reprint Cost-effectiveness analysis of open colposuspension versus laparoscopic colposuspension in the treatment of urodynamic stress incontinence
    J C Dumville
    York Trials Unit, Department of Health Sciences, University of York, York, UK
    BJOG 113:1014-22. 2006
    ..To compare the cost effectiveness of laparoscopic versus open colposuspension for the treatment of female urinary stress incontinence...
  43. pmc Economics notes: Converting international cost effectiveness data to UK prices
    Toby B Gosden
    National Primary Care Research and Development Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
    BMJ 325:275-6. 2002
  44. ncbi request reprint Randomized controlled trial of hip protectors among women living in the community
    Yvonne F Birks
    Primary Care Hip Protector Trial Group, York Trials Unit, Department of Health Sciences, York University, Area 4, Seebhom Rowntree Building, YO10 5DD, UK
    Osteoporos Int 15:701-6. 2004
    ..To assess whether hip protectors used among women living in the community in the United Kingdom and at high risk of hip fracture, lead to a reduction in hip fracture...
  45. ncbi request reprint A systematic review of the effects of calcium supplementation on body weight
    Rebecca Trowman
    Department of Health Sciences, University of York, York YO10 5DD, UK
    Br J Nutr 95:1033-8. 2006
    ..19 and 0.85, respectively). We therefore concluded that Ca supplementation has no statistically significant association with a reduction in body weight...
  46. ncbi request reprint VenUS I: a randomised controlled trial of two types of bandage for treating venous leg ulcers
    C Iglesias
    Department of Health Sciences, University of York, UK
    Health Technol Assess 8:iii, 1-105. 2004
    ..To compare the clinical and cost-effectiveness of two different compression bandages for the healing of venous leg ulcers...
  47. ncbi request reprint The cost utility of bisphosphonate treatment in established osteoporosis
    C P Iglesias
    Department of Health Sciences and Centre for Health Economics, University of York, York
    QJM 95:305-11. 2002
    ..Hip fracture is an important and costly problem. Bisphosphonate therapy prevents hip and other fractures among women with established osteoporosis, but there are few published economic evaluations of this treatment...
  48. ncbi request reprint A systematic review of oral treatments for fungal infections of the skin of the feet
    S E Bell-Syer
    Department of Health Studies and Centre for Health Economics, University of York, UK
    J Dermatolog Treat 12:69-74. 2001
    ..To synthesize the evidence for the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of oral treatments for fungal infections of the skin of the feet...
  49. doi request reprint Cost-effectiveness analysis and health policy
    David J Torgerson
    York Trials Unit, Department of Health Sciences, University of York, York, UK
    Nestle Nutr Workshop Ser Clin Perform Programme 12:95-104. 2009
    ..Currently, economic evaluations play a limited role in decision-making but may increase in importance as healthcare costs continue to rise...
  50. pmc Should we pay the patient? Review of financial incentives to enhance patient compliance
    A Giuffrida
    National Primary Care Research and Development Centre, University of York
    BMJ 315:703-7. 1997
    ..To determine whether financial incentives increase patients' compliance with healthcare treatments...
  51. pmc Randomised controlled trial of calcium and supplementation with cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) for prevention of fractures in primary care
    Jill Porthouse
    York Trials Unit, Department of Health Sciences, University of York, York YO10 5DD
    BMJ 330:1003. 2005
    ..To assess whether supplementation with calcium and cholecaliferol (vitamin D3) reduces the risk of fracture in women with one or more risk factors for fracture of the hip...
  52. ncbi request reprint Cluster randomized controlled trials
    Suezann Puffer
    York Trials Unit, Department of Health Sciences, University of York, York, UK
    J Eval Clin Pract 11:479-83. 2005
    ..In this paper we discuss the issues that can lead to bias in cluster randomized trials and conclude with some suggestions for avoiding these problems...
  53. pmc Listen to the data when results are not significant
    Catherine E Hewitt
    York Trials Unit, Department of Health Sciences, University of York, York YO10 5DD
    BMJ 336:23-5. 2008
  54. ncbi request reprint Review of randomised trials using the post-randomised consent (Zelen's) design
    Joy Adamson
    York Trials Unit, Department of Health Sciences, University of York, York YO10 5DD, UK
    Contemp Clin Trials 27:305-19. 2006
    ..This paper reviews recent published trials using this method and describes the reasons authors gave for using the method, examines the crossover rates, and looks at the quality of identified trials...
  55. ncbi request reprint Setting priorities for research
    Rachael L Fleurence
    Department of Health Sciences, Seebohm Rowntree Building, Area 4, University of York, York YO10 5DQ, UK
    Health Policy 69:1-10. 2004
    ..However, this method still requires further work to evaluate how research outcomes can then be communicated to clinical practitioners and how practitioners can be encouraged to implement them...
  56. ncbi request reprint The need for randomized controlled trials in podiatric medical research
    Jill Porthouse
    York Trials Unit, Department of Health Sciences, University of York, York, England
    J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 94:221-8. 2004
    ..To date, the clinical practice of podiatric medicine is not adequately informed by the best available evidence. We call for more high-quality randomized controlled trials to be undertaken in podiatric medical research...
  57. pmc Is restricted randomisation necessary?
    Catherine E Hewitt
    York Trials Unit, Department of Health Sciences, University of York, York YO10 5DD
    BMJ 332:1506-8. 2006
  58. pmc Effect of regression to the mean on decision making in health care
    Veronica Morton
    York Trials Unit, Department of Health Sciences, University of York, York YO10 5DD
    BMJ 326:1083-4. 2003
  59. pmc Is there another way to take account of noncompliance in randomized controlled trials?
    Catherine E Hewitt
    York Trials Unit, Department of Health Sciences, University of York, York, United Kingdom
    CMAJ 175:347. 2006
  60. ncbi request reprint Regarding the systematic review of hip protectors undertaken by Waldegger et al
    Yvonne Birks
    Osteoporos Int 14:868-9; author reply 870. 2003
  61. ncbi request reprint A randomized trial comparing a group exercise programme for back pain patients with individual physiotherapy in a severely deprived area
    Jane L Carr
    Institute of Rehabilitation, University of Hull, UK
    Disabil Rehabil 27:929-37. 2005
    ..To compare a group exercise programme known as the Back to Fitness programme with individual physiotherapy for patients with non-specific low back pain from a materially deprived area...
  62. pmc Randomise foundation trusts
    David J Torgerson
    BMJ 327:291. 2003
  63. ncbi request reprint Increasing response rates to postal questionnaires. Effect of incentives on response rates must be considered
    Paula J Roberts
    BMJ 325:444. 2002
  64. ncbi request reprint Using dietetic assistants to improve the outcome of hip fracture
    Catherine E Hewitt
    Age Ageing 35:544-5; author reply 545. 2006
  65. ncbi request reprint Economic evaluations of interventions for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis: a structured review of the literature
    Rachael L Fleurence
    The MEDTAP Institute at UBC, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA
    Osteoporos Int 17:29-40. 2006
    ..Such changes are reflected in the studies that were reviewed. The development of economic models should be an iterative process that incorporates new information, whether clinical or methodological, as it becomes available...
  66. ncbi request reprint Active exercise, education, and cognitive behavioral therapy for persistent disabling low back pain: a randomized controlled trial
    Ruth E Johnson
    Division of Clinical Psychology, Medical School, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 32:1578-85. 2007
    ..A randomized controlled trial...
  67. pmc Randomised trial of a brief physiotherapy intervention compared with usual physiotherapy for neck pain patients: outcomes and patients' preference
    Jennifer A Klaber Moffett
    Institute of Rehabilitation, University of Hull, Hull HU3 2PG
    BMJ 330:75. 2005
    ..Firstly, to compare the effectiveness of a brief physiotherapy intervention with "usual" physiotherapy for patients with neck pain. Secondly, to evaluate the effect of patients' preferences on outcome...
  68. ncbi request reprint The impact of trial baseline imbalances should be considered in systematic reviews: a methodological case study
    Rebecca Trowman
    Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9LN, UK
    J Clin Epidemiol 60:1229-33. 2007
    ..If trials with baseline imbalances are combined in a meta-analysis, then this may result in misleading conclusions...
  69. pmc Increasing response rates to postal questionnaires. Changing layout of questionnaires increases response rates
    Cynthia P Iglesias
    BMJ 325:444. 2002