D R Tocher

Summary

Affiliation: University of Stirling
Country: UK

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Substituting fish oil with crude palm oil in the diet of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) affects muscle fatty acid composition and hepatic fatty acid metabolism
    J Gordon Bell
    Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA, Scotland, UK
    J Nutr 132:222-30. 2002
  2. ncbi request reprint Dietary rapeseed oil affects the expression of genes involved in hepatic lipid metabolism in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)
    Ann Elise O Jordal
    National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research, N 5817 Bergen, Norway
    J Nutr 135:2355-61. 2005
  3. ncbi request reprint Cloning and functional characterisation of polyunsaturated fatty acid elongases of marine and freshwater teleost fish
    Morris K Agaba
    Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland, United Kingdom
    Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 142:342-52. 2005
  4. ncbi request reprint Fatty acid utilisation and metabolism in caecal enterocytes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed dietary fish or copepod oil
    Anthony Oxley
    Institute of Marine Research, Matre Aquaculture Research Station, N 5984 Matredal, Norway
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1737:119-29. 2005
  5. ncbi request reprint Tailoring of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) flesh lipid composition and sensory quality by replacing fish oil with a vegetable oil blend
    Bente E Torstensen
    National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research, N 5817 Bergen, Norway
    J Agric Food Chem 53:10166-78. 2005
  6. pmc Effects of functional feeds on the lipid composition, transcriptomic responses and pathology in heart of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) before and after experimental challenge with Piscine Myocarditis Virus (PMCV)
    Laura Martinez-Rubio
    Institute of Aquaculture, School of Natural Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland, UK
    BMC Genomics 15:462. 2014
  7. pmc Hepatic transcriptome analysis of inter-family variability in flesh n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid content in Atlantic salmon
    Sofia Morais
    Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling, Scotland, UK
    BMC Genomics 13:410. 2012
  8. pmc Effects of genotype and dietary fish oil replacement with vegetable oil on the intestinal transcriptome and proteome of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)
    Sofia Morais
    Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA Scotland, UK
    BMC Genomics 13:448. 2012
  9. pmc An evolutionary perspective on Elovl5 fatty acid elongase: comparison of Northern pike and duplicated paralogs from Atlantic salmon
    Greta Carmona-Antoñanzas
    Institute of Aquaculture, School of Natural Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, Scotland FK9 4LA, UK
    BMC Evol Biol 13:85. 2013
  10. pmc Genotype-specific responses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) subject to dietary fish oil replacement by vegetable oil: a liver transcriptomic analysis
    Sofia Morais
    Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, UK
    BMC Genomics 12:255. 2011

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications47

  1. ncbi request reprint Substituting fish oil with crude palm oil in the diet of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) affects muscle fatty acid composition and hepatic fatty acid metabolism
    J Gordon Bell
    Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA, Scotland, UK
    J Nutr 132:222-30. 2002
    ....
  2. ncbi request reprint Dietary rapeseed oil affects the expression of genes involved in hepatic lipid metabolism in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)
    Ann Elise O Jordal
    National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research, N 5817 Bergen, Norway
    J Nutr 135:2355-61. 2005
    ..This partially validated microarray may be used for further gene expression profiling using other dietary comparisons, and for further characterization of selected genes...
  3. ncbi request reprint Cloning and functional characterisation of polyunsaturated fatty acid elongases of marine and freshwater teleost fish
    Morris K Agaba
    Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland, United Kingdom
    Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 142:342-52. 2005
    ..The fish elongases generally showed greater activity or similar activities with n-3 than with n-6 homologues, with the exception of the cod enzyme which was more active towards n-6 fatty acids...
  4. ncbi request reprint Fatty acid utilisation and metabolism in caecal enterocytes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed dietary fish or copepod oil
    Anthony Oxley
    Institute of Marine Research, Matre Aquaculture Research Station, N 5984 Matredal, Norway
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1737:119-29. 2005
    ..However, the fatty acid composition of pyloric caeca was not influenced by dietary copepod oil...
  5. ncbi request reprint Tailoring of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) flesh lipid composition and sensory quality by replacing fish oil with a vegetable oil blend
    Bente E Torstensen
    National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research, N 5817 Bergen, Norway
    J Agric Food Chem 53:10166-78. 2005
    ..At the same time, 75% of the dietary fish oil can be replaced without compromising flesh VLCn-3 PUFA content, thereby providing a beneficial nutritional profile for human consumption...
  6. pmc Effects of functional feeds on the lipid composition, transcriptomic responses and pathology in heart of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) before and after experimental challenge with Piscine Myocarditis Virus (PMCV)
    Laura Martinez-Rubio
    Institute of Aquaculture, School of Natural Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland, UK
    BMC Genomics 15:462. 2014
    ....
  7. pmc Hepatic transcriptome analysis of inter-family variability in flesh n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid content in Atlantic salmon
    Sofia Morais
    Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling, Scotland, UK
    BMC Genomics 13:410. 2012
    ..Liver transcriptome was analyzed and compared in four families presenting higher or lower n-3 LC-PUFA contents at two contrasting flesh total lipid levels...
  8. pmc Effects of genotype and dietary fish oil replacement with vegetable oil on the intestinal transcriptome and proteome of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)
    Sofia Morais
    Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA Scotland, UK
    BMC Genomics 13:448. 2012
    ..This study employed transcriptomic and proteomic analyses to study effects of dietary VO in two family groups of Atlantic salmon selected for flesh lipid content, 'Lean' or 'Fat'...
  9. pmc An evolutionary perspective on Elovl5 fatty acid elongase: comparison of Northern pike and duplicated paralogs from Atlantic salmon
    Greta Carmona-Antoñanzas
    Institute of Aquaculture, School of Natural Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, Scotland FK9 4LA, UK
    BMC Evol Biol 13:85. 2013
    ..Here we characterise a pike fatty acyl elongase, elovl5, and compare it to Atlantic salmon elovl5a and elovl5b duplicates...
  10. pmc Genotype-specific responses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) subject to dietary fish oil replacement by vegetable oil: a liver transcriptomic analysis
    Sofia Morais
    Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, UK
    BMC Genomics 12:255. 2011
    ..This study investigates the influence of genotype on transcriptomic responses to sustainable feeds in Atlantic salmon...
  11. ncbi request reprint Fatty acid metabolism in marine fish: low activity of fatty acyl delta5 desaturation in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) cells
    D R Tocher
    Unit of Aquatic Biochemistry, Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Scotland
    Lipids 34:433-40. 1999
    ....
  12. ncbi request reprint Effects of water temperature and diets containing palm oil on fatty acid desaturation and oxidation in hepatocytes and intestinal enterocytes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
    Douglas R Tocher
    Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland, UK
    Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 137:49-63. 2004
    ..The highest beta-oxidation activities were generally observed in fish fed FO alone in both hepatocytes and enterocytes with palm oil having differential effects in the two cell types...
  13. ncbi request reprint Hepatocyte fatty acid desaturation and polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of liver in salmonids: effects of dietary vegetable oil
    D R Tocher
    Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland, UK
    Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 130:257-70. 2001
    ....
  14. ncbi request reprint Effect of diets enriched in Delta6 desaturated fatty acids (18:3n-6 and 18:4n-3), on growth, fatty acid composition and highly unsaturated fatty acid synthesis in two populations of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus L.)
    Douglas R Tocher
    Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland, United Kingdom
    Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 144:245-53. 2006
    ..This has been observed previously in salmonids fed vegetable oils, and thus the increased levels of Delta6 desaturated fatty acids in EO did not effectively compensate for the lack of dietary HUFA...
  15. ncbi request reprint Effects of essential fatty acid deficiency and supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) on cellular fatty acid compositions and fatty acyl desaturation in a cell culture model
    D R Tocher
    Lipid Nutrition Group, Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland, UK
    Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 64:11-22. 2001
    ..A possible explanation is that greatly increased levels of EPA, derived from retroconversion of the added DHA, acts to offset the suppression of the pathway by DHA by stimulating conversion of EPA to DHA in DHA-supplemented EPC cells...
  16. ncbi request reprint Highly unsaturated fatty acid synthesis in marine fish: cloning, functional characterization, and nutritional regulation of fatty acyl delta 6 desaturase of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.)
    Douglas R Tocher
    Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland, United Kingdom
    Lipids 41:1003-16. 2006
    ..Further studies are required to determine why the delta6 desaturase appears to be barely functional in cod under the conditions tested...
  17. ncbi request reprint Effects of dietary vegetable oil on Atlantic salmon hepatocyte fatty acid desaturation and liver fatty acid compositions
    Douglas R Tocher
    Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland
    Lipids 38:723-32. 2003
    ....
  18. ncbi request reprint Fatty acyl desaturation in isolated hepatocytes from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): stimulation by dietary borage oil containing gamma-linolenic acid
    D R Tocher
    NERC Unit of Aquatic Biochemistry, Department of Biological and Molecular Sciences, University of Stirling, Scotland
    Lipids 32:1237-47. 1997
    ..The possible relationships between dietary fatty acid composition, tissue phospholipid fatty acid composition, and desaturation/elongation activities are discussed...
  19. ncbi request reprint Replacement of fish oil with rapeseed oil in diets of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) affects tissue lipid compositions and hepatocyte fatty acid metabolism
    J G Bell
    Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA, Scotland, UK
    J Nutr 131:1535-43. 2001
    ....
  20. ncbi request reprint Low C18 to C20 fatty acid elongase activity and limited conversion of stearidonic acid, 18:4(n-3), to eicosapentaenoic acid, 20:5(n-3), in a cell line from the turbot, Scophthalmus maximus
    C Ghioni
    Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, UK
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1437:170-81. 1999
    ..The results can account for the known differences in conversions of C18 to C20 PUFA by the turbot and the Atlantic salmon in vivo...
  21. pmc A vertebrate fatty acid desaturase with Delta 5 and Delta 6 activities
    N Hastings
    Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:14304-9. 2001
    ..The zebrafish Delta5/Delta6 desaturase may represent a component of a prototypic vertebrate polyunsaturated fatty acids biosynthesis pathway...
  22. ncbi request reprint Cultured fish cells metabolize octadecapentaenoic acid (all-cis delta3,6,9,12,15-18:5) to octadecatetraenoic acid (all-cis delta6,9,12,15-18:4) via its 2-trans intermediate (trans delta2, all-cis delta6,9,12,15-18:5)
    C Ghioni
    Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Scotland
    Lipids 36:145-52. 2001
    ..Thus, 2-trans 18:5n-3 is implicated as a common intermediate in the beta-oxidation of both 18:5n-3 and 18:4n-3...
  23. doi request reprint Replacement of Marine Fish Oil with de novo Omega-3 Oils from Transgenic Camelina sativa in Feeds for Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata L.)
    Mónica B Betancor
    Faculty of Natural Sciences, Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA, UK
    Lipids 51:1171-91. 2016
    ..This showed a similar pattern to that observed in WCO-fed fish reflecting the hybrid fatty acid profile of the new oils. Overall the data indicated that the GM-derived oils could be suitable alternatives to dietary FO in sea bream. ..
  24. ncbi request reprint Red blood cell fatty acid compositions in a patient with autistic spectrum disorder: a characteristic abnormality in neurodevelopmental disorders?
    J G Bell
    Nutrition Group, Institute of Aquaculture, Stirling, UK
    Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 63:21-5. 2000
    ..Indole acroyl glycine (IAG), a metabolite of IAA excreted in urine, is found in high concentrations in patients with neurodevelopmental disorders including ASD, ADHD, dyslexia, Asperger's syndrome and obsessive compulsive disorder...
  25. doi request reprint Effects of dietary fatty acids on mitochondrial phospholipid compositions, oxidative status and mitochondrial gene expression of zebrafish at different ages
    M B Betancor
    School of Natural Sciences, Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA, Scotland, UK
    Fish Physiol Biochem 41:1187-204. 2015
    ..Differences found in the effect of diet composition on mitochondrial lipids between the two age groups could be indicating age-related changes in the ability to maintain structural homeostasis of mitochondrial membranes. ..
  26. doi request reprint Lipid and fatty acid composition, and persistent organic pollutant levels in tissues of migrating Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus, L.) broodstock
    M Sprague
    Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland, UK
    Environ Pollut 171:61-71. 2012
    ..The perceived POP risk from ABT consumption should be balanced by the well-established beneficial effects on human health of omega-3 fatty acids...
  27. doi request reprint Lipid and fatty acid composition of parasitic caligid copepods belonging to the genus Lepeophtheirus
    J A Tocher
    Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling FK94LA, Scotland, United Kingdom
    Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 156:107-14. 2010
    ..salmonis. The results demonstrate that the fatty acid compositions of lice obtained from wild and farmed salmon differ and that changes to the lipid and fatty acid composition of feeds for farmed salmon influence the louse compositions...
  28. ncbi request reprint Characterization and comparison of fatty acyl Delta6 desaturase cDNAs from freshwater and marine teleost fish species
    X Zheng
    Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Airthrey Road, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland, United Kingdom
    Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 139:269-79. 2004
    ....
  29. pmc Impact of sustainable feeds on omega-3 long-chain fatty acid levels in farmed Atlantic salmon, 2006-2015
    M Sprague
    Institute of Aquaculture, School of Natural Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland, UK
    Sci Rep 6:21892. 2016
    ..Our findings highlight the global shortfall of EPA and DHA and the implications this has for the human consumer and examines the potential of microalgae and genetically modified crops as future sources of these important fatty acids...
  30. doi request reprint Roles of selenoprotein antioxidant protection in zebrafish, Danio rerio, subjected to dietary oxidative stress
    M B Betancor
    School of Natural Sciences, Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA, UK
    Fish Physiol Biochem 41:705-20. 2015
    ..These data suggest that oxidative stress protection associated with a high dietary intake of Se may not be solely mediated by transcriptional changes in teleost selenoprotein expression. ..
  31. pmc A nutritionally-enhanced oil from transgenic Camelina sativa effectively replaces fish oil as a source of eicosapentaenoic acid for fish
    M B Betancor
    Institute of Aquaculture, School of Natural Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, United Kingdom
    Sci Rep 5:8104. 2015
    ..The oil had no detrimental effects on fish performance, metabolic responses or the nutritional quality of the fillets of the farmed fish. ..
  32. doi request reprint Assessment of a land-locked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) population as a potential genetic resource with a focus on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis
    M B Betancor
    Institute of Aquaculture, School of Natural Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, UK Electronic address
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1861:227-38. 2016
    ..Additionally, high lipogenic and glycolytic potentials were found in land-locked salmon, together with decreased lipolysis which in turn could indicate increased use of carbohydrates as an energy source and a sparing of lipid...
  33. ncbi request reprint Replacement of dietary fish oil with increasing levels of linseed oil: modification of flesh fatty acid compositions in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) using a fish oil finishing diet
    J Gordon Bell
    Lipid Nutrition Group, Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, FK9 4LA Scotland, United Kingdom
    Lipids 39:223-32. 2004
    ..This study suggests that LO can be used as a substitute for FO in seawater salmon feeds and that any reductions in DHA and EPA can be largely overcome with a finishing diet high in FO before harvest...
  34. ncbi request reprint Zebrafish cDNA encoding multifunctional Fatty Acid elongase involved in production of eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3) acids
    Morris Agaba
    Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland, UK
    Mar Biotechnol (NY) 6:251-61. 2004
    ..The zebrafish enzyme was also able to elongate monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids, and thus demonstrates a greater level of promiscuity in terms of substrate use than any elongase enzyme described previously...
  35. ncbi request reprint Altered fatty acid compositions in atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed diets containing linseed and rapeseed oils can be partially restored by a subsequent fish oil finishing diet
    J Gordon Bell
    Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA, Scotland, UK
    J Nutr 133:2793-801. 2003
    ....
  36. ncbi request reprint Environmental and dietary influences on highly unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis and expression of fatty acyl desaturase and elongase genes in liver of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)
    Xiaozhong Zheng
    Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland, UK
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1734:13-24. 2005
    ..In conclusion, these studies showed that both nutritional and environmental modulation of HUFA biosynthesis in Atlantic salmon involved the regulation of fatty acid desaturase gene expression...
  37. ncbi request reprint Influence of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on lipid and fatty acid composition in liver and flesh of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)
    Sean R Kennedy
    Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, UK
    Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 141:168-78. 2005
    ....
  38. ncbi request reprint Molecular cloning and functional characterization of fatty acyl desaturase and elongase cDNAs involved in the production of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids from alpha-linolenic acid in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)
    Nicola Hastings
    Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, FK9 4LA, Scotland, UK
    Mar Biotechnol (NY) 6:463-74. 2004
    ..Thus this one polypeptide product displays all fatty acid elongase activities required for the biosynthesis of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) from 18:3n-3...
  39. ncbi request reprint Molecular characterization of three peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors from the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)
    Evridiki Boukouvala
    National Agricultural Research Foundation Fisheries Research Institute, Nea Peramos, 64007 Kavala, Greece
    Lipids 39:1085-92. 2004
    ..This suggests that the sea bass PPAR act through similar mechanisms and perform the same critical lipid metabolism functions as mammalian PPAR...
  40. ncbi request reprint Highly unsaturated fatty acid synthesis in vertebrates: new insights with the cloning and characterization of a delta6 desaturase of Atlantic salmon
    Xiaozhong Zheng
    Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland, United Kingdom
    Lipids 40:13-24. 2005
    ..Furthermore, expression of both delta6 and delta5 fatty acyl desaturase genes in intestine, liver, red muscle, and adipose tissue was higher in salmon fed a diet containing vegetable oil than in fish fed a diet containing fish oil...
  41. ncbi request reprint Effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on lipid composition, metabolism and gene expression in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) tissues
    Michael J Leaver
    Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, UK
    Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 145:258-67. 2006
    ....
  42. ncbi request reprint Influence of dietary oil content and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on lipid metabolism enzyme activities and gene expression in tissues of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)
    Sean R Kennedy
    Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland, United Kingdom
    Lipids 41:423-36. 2006
    ..However, further work is required to assess the potential of CLA as a dietary supplement, and the role of PPAR in the regulation of lipid metabolism in fish...
  43. ncbi request reprint Three peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor isotypes from each of two species of marine fish
    Michael J Leaver
    Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, UK
    Endocrinology 146:3150-62. 2005
    ....
  44. ncbi request reprint Multiple peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta subtypes from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)
    Michael J Leaver
    Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling, UK
    J Mol Endocrinol 38:391-400. 2007
    ..The results indicate unexpected levels of variety and complexity in PPAR subtype and mechanism of action in lower vertebrates...
  45. ncbi request reprint Conjugated linoleic acid affects lipid composition, metabolism, and gene expression in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L)
    Amalia Diez
    Departamento de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular IV, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Veterinaria, Madrid, Spain
    J Nutr 137:1363-9. 2007
    ..The data suggest that CLA intake in sea bream has little effect on hepatic lipogenesis, channels dietary lipid from adipose tissue to the liver, and switches hepatic mitochondrial to peroxisomal beta-oxidation...
  46. pmc Functional genomics reveals increases in cholesterol biosynthetic genes and highly unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis after dietary substitution of fish oil with vegetable oils in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)
    Michael J Leaver
    Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, UK
    BMC Genomics 9:299. 2008
    ..FO was replaced with VO, added to diets as rapeseed (RO), soybean (SO) or linseed (LO) oils...
  47. ncbi request reprint Fatty acid metabolism in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) hepatocytes and influence of dietary vegetable oil
    Ingunn Stubhaug
    National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research NIFES, PO Box 2029, Nordnes, 5817 Bergen, Norway
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1734:277-88. 2005
    ....