J M Starr

Summary

Affiliation: University of Edinburgh
Country: UK

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Changes in dementia prevalence: implications for public health
    J M Starr
    JM Starr Alzheimer Scotland Dementia Research Centre 7 George Square Edinburgh EH8 9JZ tel 44 0 131 650 4340 e mail
    J R Coll Physicians Edinb 44:29. 2014
  2. pmc Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and cognitive ability in older people: the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 study
    Augustinus Laude
    Princess Alexandra Eye Pavilion, NHS Lothian, Scotland, UK
    BMC Ophthalmol 13:28. 2013
  3. pmc Neck muscle cross-sectional area, brain volume and cognition in healthy older men: a cohort study
    Alixe H M Kilgour
    Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, The University of Edinburgh, 7 George Square, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK
    BMC Geriatr 13:20. 2013
  4. pmc Profiles of physical, emotional and psychosocial wellbeing in the Lothian birth cohort 1936
    Andrea R Zammit
    Department of Psychology, Centre for Cognitive Aging and Cognitive Epidemiology, University of Edinburgh, 7 George Square, Edinburgh, EH8 9JZ, Scotland, UK
    BMC Geriatr 12:64. 2012
  5. pmc Calibrating ADL-IADL scales to improve measurement accuracy and to extend the disability construct into the preclinical range: a systematic review
    Robert A Fieo
    Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, UK
    BMC Geriatr 11:42. 2011
  6. pmc The Lothian Birth Cohort 1936: a study to examine influences on cognitive ageing from age 11 to age 70 and beyond
    Ian J Deary
    Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, 7 George Square, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK
    BMC Geriatr 7:28. 2007
  7. pmc Maximum (prior) brain size, not atrophy, correlates with cognition in community-dwelling older people: a cross-sectional neuroimaging study
    Susan D Shenkin
    Geriatric Medicine, Division of Clinical and Surgical Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    BMC Geriatr 9:12. 2009
  8. pmc A genetic association analysis of cognitive ability and cognitive ageing using 325 markers for 109 genes associated with oxidative stress or cognition
    Sarah E Harris
    Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    BMC Genet 8:43. 2007
  9. pmc Differences in the haematological profile of healthy 70 year old men and women: normal ranges with confirmatory factor analysis
    Rowan McIlhagger
    Geriatric Medicine Unit, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    BMC Blood Disord 10:4. 2010
  10. ncbi request reprint Predictors and correlates of edentulism in healthy older people
    John M Starr
    Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, Geriatric Medicine Unit, University of Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
    Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 13:19-23. 2010

Detail Information

Publications126 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi request reprint Changes in dementia prevalence: implications for public health
    J M Starr
    JM Starr Alzheimer Scotland Dementia Research Centre 7 George Square Edinburgh EH8 9JZ tel 44 0 131 650 4340 e mail
    J R Coll Physicians Edinb 44:29. 2014
    ..JOURNAL Lancet 2014; 382: 1405-12. ..
  2. pmc Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and cognitive ability in older people: the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 study
    Augustinus Laude
    Princess Alexandra Eye Pavilion, NHS Lothian, Scotland, UK
    BMC Ophthalmol 13:28. 2013
    ..This study aims to examine the relationship between the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness as measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and lifetime cognitive change in healthy older people...
  3. pmc Neck muscle cross-sectional area, brain volume and cognition in healthy older men: a cohort study
    Alixe H M Kilgour
    Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, The University of Edinburgh, 7 George Square, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK
    BMC Geriatr 13:20. 2013
    ..However, studies investigating these relationships at older ages are lacking and rarely include a measure of muscle size. Here we test whether neck muscle size is positively associated with cognition and brain structure in older men...
  4. pmc Profiles of physical, emotional and psychosocial wellbeing in the Lothian birth cohort 1936
    Andrea R Zammit
    Department of Psychology, Centre for Cognitive Aging and Cognitive Epidemiology, University of Edinburgh, 7 George Square, Edinburgh, EH8 9JZ, Scotland, UK
    BMC Geriatr 12:64. 2012
    ....
  5. pmc Calibrating ADL-IADL scales to improve measurement accuracy and to extend the disability construct into the preclinical range: a systematic review
    Robert A Fieo
    Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, UK
    BMC Geriatr 11:42. 2011
    ....
  6. pmc The Lothian Birth Cohort 1936: a study to examine influences on cognitive ageing from age 11 to age 70 and beyond
    Ian J Deary
    Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, 7 George Square, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK
    BMC Geriatr 7:28. 2007
    ..A limitation of many studies is the lack of a sufficiently long period between cognitive assessments to examine determinants. Here, the aim is to examine influences on cognitive ageing between childhood and old age...
  7. pmc Maximum (prior) brain size, not atrophy, correlates with cognition in community-dwelling older people: a cross-sectional neuroimaging study
    Susan D Shenkin
    Geriatric Medicine, Division of Clinical and Surgical Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    BMC Geriatr 9:12. 2009
    ..However, an association between brain size and intelligence may be due to the persistence of this relationship from earlier life...
  8. pmc A genetic association analysis of cognitive ability and cognitive ageing using 325 markers for 109 genes associated with oxidative stress or cognition
    Sarah E Harris
    Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    BMC Genet 8:43. 2007
    ..Non-pathological cognitive ageing is a distressing condition affecting an increasing number of people in our 'ageing society'. Oxidative stress is hypothesised to have a major role in cellular ageing, including brain ageing...
  9. pmc Differences in the haematological profile of healthy 70 year old men and women: normal ranges with confirmatory factor analysis
    Rowan McIlhagger
    Geriatric Medicine Unit, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    BMC Blood Disord 10:4. 2010
    ..Reference ranges are available for different blood cell counts. These ranges treat each cell type independently and do not consider possible correlations between cell types...
  10. ncbi request reprint Predictors and correlates of edentulism in healthy older people
    John M Starr
    Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, Geriatric Medicine Unit, University of Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
    Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 13:19-23. 2010
    ..To review peer-reviewed, original research studies published in 2008-2009 that present data relating to the predictors and correlates of edentulism and tooth loss in older adults...
  11. doi request reprint Blood pressure, socio-economic status and health in the Lothian 1921 birth cohort: a longitudinal study
    J M Starr
    Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, Geriatric Medicine Unit, University of Edinburgh, Royal Victoria Hospital, Craigleith Road, Edinburgh EH4 2DN, Scotland, UK
    Public Health 125:196-200. 2011
    ..To test whether socio-economic status and disease burden influence blood pressure in older adults...
  12. ncbi request reprint Spatio-temporal stochastic modelling of Clostridium difficile
    J M Starr
    Geriatric Medicine Unit, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    J Hosp Infect 71:49-56. 2009
    ..Simulation of different interventions indicates that for the same effect size, reducing patient susceptibility to infection is more effective in reducing the number of CDAD cases than lowering transmission rates...
  13. doi request reprint Sex differences in blood cell counts in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921 between 79 and 87 years
    John M Starr
    Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, Geriatric Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Royal Victoria Hospital, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
    Maturitas 69:373-6. 2011
    ..In older adults there are few data that inform about normal ranges and the change in blood cell counts with ageing. These few data indicate that sex differences in blood cell counts persist beyond 70 years...
  14. pmc All-cause mortality in the Aberdeen 1921 birth cohort: effects of socio-demographic, physical and cognitive factors
    John M Starr
    Geriatric Medicine Unit, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    BMC Public Health 8:307. 2008
    ..Childhood intelligence predicts mortality throughout most of the life span. However, it is unknown whether its effect persists into advanced old age...
  15. pmc Estimated pre-morbid IQ effects on cognitive and functional outcomes in Alzheimer disease: a longitudinal study in a treated cohort
    John M Starr
    Geriatric Medicine Unit, University of Edinburgh, Craigleith Road, Edinburgh, UK
    BMC Psychiatry 8:27. 2008
    ..Its effect on the subsequent course of AD is less clear. Pre-morbid IQ is a useful measure of cognitive reserve...
  16. ncbi request reprint COMT genotype and cognitive ability: a longitudinal aging study
    John M Starr
    Department of Geriatric Medicine, Royal Victoria Hospital, Craigleith Road, Edinburgh EH4 2DN, UK
    Neurosci Lett 421:57-61. 2007
    ..9 (95% C.I. 34.3-35.5), and Met/Met 34.9 (95% C.I. 34.1-35.8). This study adds to the evidence that the Val/Val polymorphism has a detrimental effect on cognition, extending upwards the age range in which such an effect has been detected...
  17. doi request reprint Characterisation of user-defined health status in older adults with intellectual disabilities
    J M Starr
    Geriatric Medicine Unit, Edinburgh University, Edinburgh, UK
    J Intellect Disabil Res 52:483-9. 2008
    ..We sought to characterise user-defined health status in a sample of older adults with ID...
  18. ncbi request reprint Oxidative stress, telomere length and biomarkers of physical aging in a cohort aged 79 years from the 1932 Scottish Mental Survey
    John M Starr
    MRC Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, University of Edinburgh, Royal Victoria Hospital, Edinburgh EH4 2DN, UK
    Mech Ageing Dev 129:745-51. 2008
    ..Oxidative stress may explain, at least in part, associations between telomere shortening and physiological aging...
  19. ncbi request reprint Blood pressure and cognition in the Aberdeen 1936 birth cohort
    John M Starr
    University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    Gerontology 53:432-7. 2007
    ..Longitudinal studies in which mental ability earlier in life is known are needed to clarify the relationship...
  20. ncbi request reprint Predictors of tooth loss in the 1921 Lothian Birth Cohort
    John M Starr
    Geriatric Medicine Unit, University of Edinburgh, Royal Victoria Hospital, Edinburgh, EH4 2DN, UK
    Age Ageing 37:111-4. 2008
  21. ncbi request reprint Association between telomere length and heart disease in a narrow age cohort of older people
    John M Starr
    Geriatric Medicine Unit, University of Edinburgh, The Royal Victoria Hospital, Craigleith Road, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
    Exp Gerontol 42:571-3. 2007
    ..Telomere shortening in peripheral blood leukocytes is a promising index of ischemic heart disease risk in older people and deserves further investigation as a potential mechanism...
  22. doi request reprint Replication study of candidate genes for cognitive abilities: the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936
    L M Houlihan
    Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    Genes Brain Behav 8:238-47. 2009
    ..All results are also presented so that they are valuable for future meta-analyses of candidate genes for cognition...
  23. ncbi request reprint Familial or sporadic clusters of presenile dementia in Scotland: I. Parental causes of death in Alzheimer and vascular presenile dementias
    J M Starr
    Department of Geriatric Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Royal Victoria Hospital, UK
    Psychiatr Genet 7:141-6. 1997
    ..28, p < 0.05). There was no increased incidence of other vascular disease or bronchogenic carcinoma in cases' parents compared with control individuals' parents...
  24. doi request reprint Reverse causation in the association between C-reactive protein and fibrinogen levels and cognitive abilities in an aging sample
    Michelle Luciano
    Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, 7 George Square, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK
    Psychosom Med 71:404-9. 2009
    ..Blood inflammatory markers have been shown to predict late-life cognition, although the mechanism through which this occurs is unknown...
  25. ncbi request reprint Caffeine consumption and cognitive function at age 70: the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 study
    Janie Corley
    Department of Psychology, Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, University of Edinburgh, 7 George Square, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, Scotland, UK
    Psychosom Med 72:206-14. 2010
    ..To investigate the association between caffeine consumption and cognitive outcomes in later life...
  26. ncbi request reprint Apolipoprotein E is not related to memory abilities at 70 years of age
    Michelle Luciano
    Department of Psychology, Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, University of Edinburgh, 7 George Square, Edinburgh, EH8 9JZ, UK
    Behav Genet 39:6-14. 2009
    ..04) in the analysis not controlling for IQ. Neither of these tests was significant when a correction for multiple testing was applied. APOE e4 does not influence memory abilities in a normal population of 70-year-olds...
  27. doi request reprint Neuroticism, depressive symptoms and white-matter integrity in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936
    A M McIntosh
    Division of Psychiatry, University of Edinburgh, UK
    Psychol Med 43:1197-206. 2013
    ..We tested whether depressive symptoms were related to reduced white-matter tract fractional anisotropy (FA), a measure of integrity, and then examined whether high neuroticism or low extraversion mediated this relationship...
  28. ncbi request reprint The brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism is associated with age-related change in reasoning skills
    S E Harris
    Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    Mol Psychiatry 11:505-13. 2006
    ..This study indicates that BDNF genotype contributes to age-related changes in reasoning skills, which are closely related to general intelligence...
  29. ncbi request reprint Variation in the dysbindin gene and normal cognitive function in three independent population samples
    M Luciano
    Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    Genes Brain Behav 8:218-27. 2009
    ..Our results therefore support involvement of the dysbindin gene in cognitive function, but further work is needed to clarify the specific functional variants involved and the cognitive abilities with which they are associated...
  30. ncbi request reprint Cognitive ability at age 11 and 70 years, information processing speed, and APOE variation: the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 study
    Michelle Luciano
    Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland
    Psychol Aging 24:129-38. 2009
    ..05): The correlation between childhood ability and speed was lower in e4 allele carriers. APOE has an influence on nonverbal cognition in old age and interacts with childhood IQ to influence processing speed...
  31. ncbi request reprint The functional COMT polymorphism, Val 158 Met, is associated with logical memory and the personality trait intellect/imagination in a cohort of healthy 79 year olds
    Sarah E Harris
    Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, 7 George Square, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK
    Neurosci Lett 385:1-6. 2005
    ..Therefore, COMT genotype may contribute to differences in normal cognitive aging and to differences in some of the major personality traits in old age...
  32. ncbi request reprint Childhood IQ, smoking, and cognitive change from age 11 to 64 years
    Lawrence J Whalley
    Department of Mental Health, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK
    Addict Behav 30:77-88. 2005
    ..In this sample, smoking makes a small (<1% variance) independent negative contribution to cognitive aging...
  33. doi request reprint Brain white matter tract integrity as a neural foundation for general intelligence
    L Penke
    Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    Mol Psychiatry 17:1026-30. 2012
    ....
  34. pmc Birth weight and cognitive function at age 11 years: the Scottish Mental Survey 1932
    S D Shenkin
    Geriatric Medicine, Department of Clinical and Surgical Sciences, University of Edinburgh, 21 Chalmers Street, Edinburgh EH3 9EW, UK
    Arch Dis Child 85:189-96. 2001
    ..CONCLUSION: In this 1921 birth cohort, social class and birth weight have independent effects on cognitive function at age 11. Future research will relate these childhood data to health and cognition in old age...
  35. ncbi request reprint White matter integrity and cognition in childhood and old age
    I J Deary
    Department of Psychology, School of Philosophy, Psychology, and Language Sciences, University of Edinburgh, UK
    Neurology 66:505-12. 2006
    ..To test the hypothesis that white matter integrity, as measured by diffusion tensor and magnetization transfer MRI is significantly associated with cognitive ability measured in youth and old age...
  36. ncbi request reprint Familial or sporadic clusters of presenile Alzheimer's disease in Scotland: II. Case kinship
    J M Starr
    Department of Geriatric Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Royal Victoria Hospital, UK
    Psychiatr Genet 7:147-52. 1997
    ..13 shared great-grandmothers for dementia cases. Case-kinship is 2.35 more than expected (estimated range 1.84-3.18). We conclude that familial factors contribute to the incidence of dementia in Lanarkshire...
  37. ncbi request reprint Renal function and cognition in the 1932 Scottish Mental Survey Lothian cohort
    Latana Munang
    Royal Victoria Hospital, Edinburgh, UK
    Age Ageing 36:323-5. 2007
  38. ncbi request reprint Correlates of informant-rated cognitive decline after stroke
    J M Starr
    Department of Geriatric Medicine, University of Edinburgh, UK
    Cerebrovasc Dis 10:214-20. 2000
    ..60, p = 0.001) and with a general cognitive factor extracted from the mental ability test scores (r = -0.42, p = 0.016). We conclude that informant-rated methods offer a promising approach to measuring cognitive decline after stroke...
  39. ncbi request reprint Blood pressure and cognitive decline in the elderly
    J M Starr
    Centre for the Study of the Ageing Brain, University of Edinburgh, Scotland
    Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 8:347-51. 1999
    ..This review examines recent evidence for this hypothesis and also considers other possible causal mechanisms for the observed relationship between blood pressure and mental ability...
  40. pmc Brain white matter lesions detected by magnetic resonance [correction of resosnance] imaging are associated with balance and gait speed
    J M Starr
    Geriatric Medicine Unit, University of Edinburgh, Royal Victoria Hospital, Craigleith Road, Edinburgh EH4 2DN, Scotland, UK
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 74:94-8. 2003
    ..To investigate the relations between premorbid and current mental ability, mood, and white matter signal abnormalities detected by T2 weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and impairment of balance and mobility in older adults...
  41. ncbi request reprint Pronunciation of irregular words is preserved in dementia, validating premorbid IQ estimation
    B McGurn
    Department of Geriatric Medicine, University of Edinburgh, UK
    Neurology 62:1184-6. 2004
    ..63, p < 0.001) and without (r = 0.60, p < 0.001) dementia. These findings validate the NART as an estimator of premorbid ability in mild to moderate dementia...
  42. ncbi request reprint Childhood cognitive ability and risk of late-onset Alzheimer and vascular dementia
    Brian McGurn
    Geriatric Medicine Unit, University of Edinburgh, UK
    Neurology 71:1051-6. 2008
    ..We investigated differential effects of premorbid cognitive ability on dementia subtypes to clarify which causal pathway was predominant...
  43. doi request reprint Associations between childhood intelligence (IQ), adult morbidity and mortality
    Alixe H M Kilgour
    University of Edinburgh Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, Geriatric Medicine Unit, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
    Maturitas 65:98-105. 2010
    ..When statistical models that include childhood adversity are tested, these attenuate and sometimes remove the contribution of IQ to morbidity and premature death...
  44. ncbi request reprint Predicting cognitive ability in ageing cohorts using Type 2 diabetes genetic risk
    M Luciano
    Department of Psychology, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    Diabet Med 31:714-20. 2014
    ....
  45. ncbi request reprint Cognitive visual perceptual deficits in patients with delirium
    L J E Brown
    Geriatric Medicine Unit, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 80:594-9. 2009
    ..Psychiatric symptoms of perceptual disturbance--such as hallucinations, illusions and misperceptions--are common in delirium, suggesting that patients may have deficits in the cognitive systems underlying visual perception...
  46. pmc Childhood mental ability and smoking cessation in adulthood: prospective observational study linking the Scottish Mental Survey 1932 and the Midspan studies
    M D Taylor
    Psychology, School of Philosophy, Psychology and Language Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    J Epidemiol Community Health 57:464-5. 2003
  47. ncbi request reprint Association between genotype at an exonic SNP in DISC1 and normal cognitive aging
    P A Thomson
    Medical Genetics Section, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Molecular Medicine Centre, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK
    Neurosci Lett 389:41-5. 2005
    ..034 and 0.043, respectively). Women homozygous for the Cys allele had significantly lower cognitive ability scores than men at age 79, p = 0.003. Variation in DISC1 may therefore affect cognitive aging especially in women...
  48. ncbi request reprint Variation in the uric acid transporter gene (SLC2A9) and memory performance
    Lorna M Houlihan
    Department of Psychology, The University of Edinburgh, Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, 7 George Square, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK
    Hum Mol Genet 19:2321-30. 2010
    ..These associations were not replicated in ET2DS (all P > 0.1). If the positive associations withstand, then this study could suggest that higher uric acid levels may be associated with increased performance on memory-related tasks...
  49. pmc Genome-wide association studies establish that human intelligence is highly heritable and polygenic
    G Davies
    Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
    Mol Psychiatry 16:996-1005. 2011
    ....
  50. pmc A cytogenetic abnormality and rare coding variants identify ABCA13 as a candidate gene in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression
    Helen M Knight
    Division of Psychiatry, University of Edinburgh, Royal Edinburgh Hospital, Edinburgh EH10 5HF, UK
    Am J Hum Genet 85:833-46. 2009
    ..These data identify a candidate gene, highlight the genetic overlap between schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression, and suggest that rare coding variants may contribute significantly to risk of these disorders...
  51. ncbi request reprint The association between telomere length, physical health, cognitive ageing, and mortality in non-demented older people
    Sarah E Harris
    Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, 7 George Square, Edinburgh, UK
    Neurosci Lett 406:260-4. 2006
    ..17, p=0.022) adjustment for mental ability at age 11. This might be a type 1 error. Otherwise, we find that telomere length in old age does not have a significant association with age-related physical and cognitive decline or mortality...
  52. ncbi request reprint Childhood IQ and social factors on smoking behaviour, lung function and smoking-related outcomes in adulthood: linking the Scottish Mental Survey 1932 and the Midspan studies
    Michelle D Taylor
    Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, UK
    Br J Health Psychol 10:399-410. 2005
    ..To investigate the associations of childhood IQ and adult social factors, and smoking behaviour, lung function (forced expiratory volume in one second; FEV(1)), and smoking-related outcomes in adulthood...
  53. ncbi request reprint Efficiency of temporal order discrimination as an indicator of bradyphrenia in Parkinson's disease: the inspection time loop task
    Beverly A Shipley
    Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
    Neuropsychologia 40:1488-93. 2002
    ..The PD group had a significantly lower mean score on the ITloop task than did controls (P=0.02). PD patients perform more poorly on temporal order discrimination judgements even when the task makes no motor demands...
  54. ncbi request reprint Plasma cortisol levels, brain volumes and cognition in healthy elderly men
    Alasdair M J MacLullich
    Geriatric Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Room SU220, The Chancellor s Building, 49 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4SB, UK
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 30:505-15. 2005
    ..This study examined the hypotheses that higher plasma cortisol levels and altered sensitivity to glucocorticoids are associated with worse cognition and more brain atrophy in elderly men...
  55. doi request reprint A genome-wide association study implicates the APOE locus in nonpathological cognitive ageing
    G Davies
    Department of Psychology, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    Mol Psychiatry 19:76-87. 2014
    ..The APOE region is significantly associated with nonpathological cognitive ageing. The identity and mechanism of one or multiple causal variants remain unclear...
  56. doi request reprint APOE E4 status predicts age-related cognitive decline in the ninth decade: longitudinal follow-up of the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921
    O J G Schiepers
    School for Mental Health and Neuroscience MHeNS European Graduate School of Neuroscience Euron, Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Mol Psychiatry 17:315-24. 2012
    ..Thus, possession of the APOE E4 allele may not only predispose to Alzheimer's disease, but also appears to be a risk factor for non-pathological decline in verbal memory and abstract reasoning in the ninth decade of life...
  57. ncbi request reprint Episodic and semantic memory tasks activate different brain regions in Alzheimer disease
    J M Starr
    Geriatric Medicine Unit, University of Edinburgh, UK
    Neurology 65:266-9. 2005
    ..To compare brain activity identified by fMRI in subjects with Alzheimer disease (AD) and older healthy controls (HCs) performing an episodic/working memory (EWM) and semantic memory (SM) task...
  58. ncbi request reprint Cognitive correlates of cerebral white matter lesions and water diffusion tensor parameters in community-dwelling older people
    S D Shenkin
    Department of Geriatric Medicine, University of Edinburgh, UK
    Cerebrovasc Dis 20:310-8. 2005
    ..Here the relationships between WML load, DT-MRI parameters and cognition in a large cohort of elderly subjects with a very narrow age range were investigated...
  59. pmc Enlarged perivascular spaces are associated with cognitive function in healthy elderly men
    A M J Maclullich
    Geriatric Medicine Unit, The University of Edinburgh, Room SU220, The Chancellor s Building, 49 Little France Crescent, EH16 4SB
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 75:1519-23. 2004
    ..It is not known whether the extent of EPVS is also associated with cognitive function. We tested the hypothesis that more EPVS would be associated with worse cognitive function...
  60. ncbi request reprint Associations with successful ageing in the "Healthy Old People in Edinburgh" cohort: being well, fit and healthy
    John M Starr
    Geriatric Medicine Unit, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    Aging Clin Exp Res 15:336-42. 2003
    ..Participants were followed up in 1994-5, 1997-8 and in this fourth wave of the project, 1999-2000, to determine key predictors of, and associations with successful ageing...
  61. ncbi request reprint Nicastrin gene polymorphisms, cognitive ability level and cognitive ageing
    Ian J Deary
    Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, 7 George Square, Edinburgh EH89JZ, UK
    Neurosci Lett 373:110-4. 2005
    ..The possibility that this result might be a selection effect was not supported by the samples being in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium with respect to the distribution of NCSTN genotypes...
  62. ncbi request reprint Is there information contained within the sentence-writing component of the mini mental state examination? A retrospective study of community dwelling older people
    Susan D Shenkin
    Geriatric Medicine, Division of Clinical and Surgical Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
    Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 23:1283-9. 2008
    ..To investigate the relationship between features of the MMSE written sentence and cognitive function, depression and disability...
  63. ncbi request reprint Testing replication of a 5-SNP set for general cognitive ability in six population samples
    Michelle Luciano
    Department of Psychology, MRC Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    Eur J Hum Genet 16:1388-95. 2008
    ..01, P=0.57), indicating that this SNP set was not associated with general cognitive ability in the populations studied...
  64. ncbi request reprint A revised activities of daily living/instrumental activities of daily living instrument increases interpretive power: theoretical application for functional tasks exercise
    Robert Fieo
    Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, Geriatric Medicine Unit, Royal Victoria Hospital, Edinburgh, UK
    Gerontology 56:483-90. 2010
    ..A common exercise regimen employed to attenuate functional decline and disability has been resistance strength training. However, recent evidence suggests that functional tasks exercise may be more effective in preventing disability...
  65. ncbi request reprint Association of existing and new candidate genes for anxiety, depression and personality traits in older people
    Michelle Luciano
    Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, University of Edinburgh, 7 George Square, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
    Behav Genet 40:518-32. 2010
    ..No SNPs withstood the correction to significance level for multiple testing. Nevertheless, the results will be of importance to future meta-analyses of these candidate genes in relation to psychological distress and personality...
  66. doi request reprint Birth parameters and cognitive ability in older age: a follow-up study of people born 1921-1926
    Susan D Shenkin
    Geriatric Medicine Unit, Division of Clinical and Surgical Sciences, University of Edinburgh, UK
    Gerontology 55:92-8. 2009
    ..Birth weight throughout the normal range correlates with cognitive ability in childhood. Some studies suggest this may persist into adulthood, but it is unclear whether this continues into old age...
  67. ncbi request reprint Birth weight and cognitive ability in childhood: a systematic review
    Susan D Shenkin
    Department of Clinical and Surgical Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland
    Psychol Bull 130:989-1013. 2004
    ..Parental social class accounted for a larger proportion of the variance than birth weight, and these 2 variables were largely independent...
  68. ncbi request reprint Childhood mental ability and blood pressure at midlife: linking the Scottish Mental Survey 1932 and the Midspan studies
    John M Starr
    Royal Victoria Hospital, Craigleith Road, Edinburgh EH4 2DN, Scotland, UK
    J Hypertens 22:893-7. 2004
    ..To establish the relationship between childhood mental ability and adult hypertension...
  69. ncbi request reprint Birth parameters are associated with late-life white matter integrity in community-dwelling older people
    Susan D Shenkin
    Department of Clinical and Surgical Sciences, Geriatric Medicine, University of Edinburgh Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
    Stroke 40:1225-8. 2009
    ..We investigated whether there was an association between birth parameters and imaging markers of white matter integrity in community-dwelling older people...
  70. ncbi request reprint Blood-brain barrier permeability in Alzheimer's disease: a case-control MRI study
    John M Starr
    Geriatric Medicine Unit, University of Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
    Psychiatry Res 171:232-41. 2009
    ..Though the extent of leakage was no greater than that of non-demented people of a similar age in this small sample, the temporal pattern differed, indicating different blood-brain-CSF compartmental kinetics...
  71. ncbi request reprint Life long changes in cognitive ability are associated with prescribed medications in old age
    John M Starr
    Geriatric Medicine Unit, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 19:327-32. 2004
    ..To determine the association between prescribed medication and life long changes in cognitive ability...
  72. ncbi request reprint The impact of childhood intelligence on later life: following up the Scottish mental surveys of 1932 and 1947
    Ian J Deary
    Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland
    J Pers Soc Psychol 86:130-47. 2004
    ....
  73. doi request reprint Age-associated cognitive decline
    Ian J Deary
    Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK
    Br Med Bull 92:135-52. 2009
    ..The determinants of the differences in age-related cognitive decline are not fully understood. Progress in the field is taking place across many areas of biomedical and psychosocial sciences...
  74. ncbi request reprint Size of the neocerebellar vermis is associated with cognition in healthy elderly men
    Alasdair M J MacLullich
    Geriatric Medicine Unit, University of Edinburgh, Room SU220, The Chancellor s Building, 49 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4SB, UK
    Brain Cogn 56:344-8. 2004
    ..Total cerebellar volumes correlated significantly with a test of nonverbal reasoning (r=.030, p=.42). These findings suggest a specific association of neocerebellar vermis size with variations in cognitive ability in older adults...
  75. ncbi request reprint Apolipoprotein e gene variability and cognitive functions at age 79: a follow-up of the Scottish mental survey of 1932
    Ian J Deary
    Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland
    Psychol Aging 19:367-71. 2004
    ..Neither nonverbal reasoning nor verbal fluency were affected. In this sample, APOE genotype contributed to verbal memory in old age...
  76. ncbi request reprint Predictors and correlates of edentulism in the healthy old people in Edinburgh (HOPE) study
    John M Starr
    Geriatric Medicine Unit, University of Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
    Gerodontology 25:199-204. 2008
    ..To determine the extent to which correlates of edentulism are explained by an association between tooth loss and cognitive ability...
  77. ncbi request reprint Risk factors for Clostridium difficile colonisation and toxin production
    John M Starr
    Geriatric Medicine Unit, Edinburgh University, Royal Victoria Hospital, Craigleith Road, Edinburgh EH4 2DN, UK
    Age Ageing 32:657-60. 2003
    ..to examine risk factors for patients becoming Clostridium difficile culture and toxin positive...
  78. ncbi request reprint Smaller left anterior cingulate cortex volumes are associated with impaired hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation in healthy elderly men
    Alasdair M J MacLullich
    Endocrinology Unit, Center for Cardiovascular Science, University of Edinburgh, Queen s Medical Research Institute, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, Scotland, United Kingdom
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91:1591-4. 2006
    ..Studies in animals suggest that the limbic prefrontal cortex, including the anterior cingulate cortex, is involved in regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, but human data are lacking...
  79. ncbi request reprint Physical fitness and lifetime cognitive change
    Ian J Deary
    Department of Psychology, School of Philosophy, Psychology and Language Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    Neurology 67:1195-200. 2006
    ..To test the hypothesis that physical fitness is associated with more successful cognitive aging...
  80. ncbi request reprint Polymorphisms in the gene encoding 11B-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (HSD11B1) and lifetime cognitive change
    Ian J Deary
    Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, 7 George Square, UK
    Neurosci Lett 393:74-7. 2006
    ..91) and rs846910-A/G (p=.90) between the groups. We conclude that these variants in HSD11B1 are not significant contributors to the range of cognitive ageing examined here...
  81. ncbi request reprint Cognitive change and the APOE epsilon 4 allele
    Ian J Deary
    Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, 7 George Square, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK
    Nature 418:932. 2002
    ..This effect of the APOE epsilon 4 allele on normal cognitive ageing may be mediated by a mechanism that is at least partly independent of its predisposing effect towards Alzheimer's disease...
  82. ncbi request reprint Searching for genetic influences on normal cognitive ageing
    Ian J Deary
    Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, 7 George Square, Edinburgh, EH8 9JZ, UK
    Trends Cogn Sci 8:178-84. 2004
    ..However, current progress in genetic knowledge, technology and informatics will contribute to progress in this important area...
  83. ncbi request reprint No association of CETP genotype with cognitive function or age-related cognitive change
    Wendy Johnson
    Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    Neurosci Lett 420:189-92. 2007
    ..There were, however, no significant associations of CETP genotype with either childhood IQ or current cognitive function in old age, or with lifetime change in cognitive function...
  84. ncbi request reprint Association of KIBRA and memory
    Timothy C Bates
    Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, 7 George Square, EH89JZ, Scotland, UK
    Neurosci Lett 458:140-3. 2009
    ....
  85. ncbi request reprint Relationship between behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia and cognition in Alzheimer's disease
    John M Starr
    Geriatric Medicine Unit, Royal Victoria Hospital, Edinburgh, UK
    Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 24:343-7. 2007
    ..Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSDs) are common. It is unclear whether associations are stronger with the absolute cognitive level or that relative to premorbid mental ability...
  86. ncbi request reprint Carotid intima-media thickness and cerebrovascular disease in community-dwelling older people without stroke
    Susan D Shenkin
    Geriatric Medicine, Department of Clinical and Surgical Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Scotland
    Stroke 41:2083-6. 2010
    ..Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) is a noninvasive measure of atherosclerosis, but it is unclear whether it is a stronger risk factor for large vessel disease or small vessel disease...
  87. ncbi request reprint Differential cognitive outcomes in the Hypertensive Old People in Edinburgh study
    John M Starr
    Geriatric Medicine Unit, Edinburgh University, United Kingdom
    J Neurol Sci 229:103-7. 2005
    ..Future trials of the effects of antihypertensive therapy on cognition should focus more on outcomes other than memory. Early differential effects of therapeutic agents may not be maintained...
  88. ncbi request reprint A general factor of brain white matter integrity predicts information processing speed in healthy older people
    Lars Penke
    Department of Psychology, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 30:7569-74. 2010
    ..Further studies should investigate whether these findings relate more to the role of tract integrity and information processing speed in nonpathological cognitive aging or in lifelong-stable processes...
  89. pmc Common variants of large effect in F12, KNG1, and HRG are associated with activated partial thromboplastin time
    Lorna M Houlihan
    Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, Department of Psychology, The University of Edinburgh, 7 George Square, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK
    Am J Hum Genet 86:626-31. 2010
    ..16 x 10(-30)), KNG1 (rs710446, combined p = 9.52 x 10(-22)), and HRG (rs9898, combined p = 1.34 x 10(-11)). These three SNPs explain approximately 18% of phenotypic variance in aPTT in the Lothian Birth Cohorts...
  90. ncbi request reprint PPARG Pro12Ala genotype and risk of cognitive decline in elders? Maybe with diabetes
    Wendy Johnson
    Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, 7 George Square, Edinburgh, EH8 9JZ, UK
    Neurosci Lett 434:50-5. 2008
    ..The data did suggest that risk of cognitive decline is greater when Pro12Ala carriers contract diabetes...
  91. ncbi request reprint KLOTHO genotype and cognitive ability in childhood and old age in the same individuals
    Ian J Deary
    Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, 7 George Square, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK
    Neurosci Lett 378:22-7. 2005
    ..Variation in the KLOTHO gene is a possible contributor to life-long reasoning differences in humans and/or to the ageing of non-verbal reasoning, especially in women...
  92. ncbi request reprint Are processing speed tasks biomarkers of cognitive aging?
    Ian J Deary
    Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, 7 George Square, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, Scotland, United Kingdom
    Psychol Aging 25:219-28. 2010
    ..Inspection time, the marker that was least dependent on childhood intelligence, should be considered further as one biomarker of cognitive aging...
  93. ncbi request reprint Smoking and cognitive change from age 11 to 66 years: a confirmatory investigation
    John M Starr
    Department of Geriatric Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
    Addict Behav 32:63-8. 2007
    ..These data confirm the adverse effect of smoking on information processing speed, and provide new evidence for a similar adverse effect on memory for people in their mid-sixties...
  94. doi request reprint Psychological and physical health at age 70 in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936: links with early life IQ, SES, and current cognitive function and neighborhood environment
    Wendy Johnson
    Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, 7 George Square, Edinburgh, UK
    Health Psychol 30:1-11. 2011
    ..Here, we evaluated the effects of early-life IQ on mental and physical health outcomes at age 70, in the context of effects of SES...
  95. doi request reprint Stability and change in intelligence from age 11 to ages 70, 79, and 87: the Lothian Birth Cohorts of 1921 and 1936
    Alan J Gow
    Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, Scotland
    Psychol Aging 26:232-40. 2011
    ..It did not. Higher intelligence from early life was apparently protective of intelligence in old age due to the stability of cognitive function across the lifespan, rather than because it slowed the decline experienced in later life...
  96. pmc Human cognitive ability is influenced by genetic variation in components of postsynaptic signalling complexes assembled by NMDA receptors and MAGUK proteins
    W D Hill
    Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    Transl Psychiatry 4:e341. 2014
    ..The results suggest that genetic variation in the macromolecular machines formed by membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) scaffold proteins and their interaction partners contributes to variation in intelligence. ..
  97. ncbi request reprint Intracranial capacity and brain volumes are associated with cognition in healthy elderly men
    A M J Maclullich
    Geriatric Medicine Unit, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
    Neurology 59:169-74. 2002
    ..Brain size and intracranial capacity are correlated with cognitive performance in young healthy adults, but data are lacking on these relationships in older healthy adults...
  98. ncbi request reprint Mathematical modeling of Clostridium difficile infection
    J M Starr
    Geriatric Medicine Unit, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    Clin Microbiol Infect 7:432-7. 2001
    ..difficile epidemiology. This is illustrated by a reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo model based on the herd immunity hypothesis of C. difficile outbreaks...
  99. ncbi request reprint Genetic influences on oxidative stress and their association with normal cognitive ageing
    Swati J Kachiwala
    Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, 7 George Square, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK
    Neurosci Lett 386:116-20. 2005
    ..An interaction between PRNP and klotho (KL) genotypes was also identified (p=0.015), highlighting the importance of analysing gene interactions when investigating associations with quantitative traits...
  100. pmc Increased blood-brain barrier permeability in type II diabetes demonstrated by gadolinium magnetic resonance imaging
    J M Starr
    SHEFC Centre for the Study of the Ageing Brain, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 74:70-6. 2003
    ..Magnetic resonance (MR) brain imaging with intravenous gadolinium (Gd) diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) was used to identify increased BBB permeability...
  101. ncbi request reprint Parental causes of death in primary intracerebral haemorrhage
    J M Starr
    Geriatric Medicine Unit, Edinburgh University, Edinburgh, UK
    Cerebrovasc Dis 12:313-7. 2001
    ..40-1.40). Other forms of vascular disease in parents were not associated with significant risk either (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.51-1.68). We conclude that familial factors do not contribute substantially to risk in most cases of PICH...