Tom Solomon

Summary

Affiliation: University of Liverpool
Country: UK

Publications

  1. doi request reprint Management of suspected viral encephalitis in adults--Association of British Neurologists and British Infection Association National Guidelines
    T Solomon
    Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, The Apex Building, West Derby Street, Liverpool, UK
    J Infect 64:347-73. 2012
  2. pmc Clinical and prognostic features among children with acute encephalitis syndrome in Nepal; a retrospective study
    Ajit Rayamajhi
    Department of Paediatrics, Kanti Children s Hospital, Maharajgunj, Kathmandu, Nepal
    BMC Infect Dis 11:294. 2011
  3. ncbi request reprint Infectious causes of acute flaccid paralysis
    Tom Solomon
    Department of Neurological Science, and Medical Microbiology, University of Liverpool, Walton Centre for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Liverpool, UK
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 16:375-81. 2003
  4. ncbi request reprint Exotic and emerging viral encephalitides
    Tom Solomon
    Department of Neurological Science, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Curr Opin Neurol 16:411-8. 2003
  5. ncbi request reprint Natural and nosocomial infection in a patient with West Nile encephalitis and extrapyramidal movement disorders
    Tom Solomon
    Department of Pathology, University Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA and Departments of Neurological Science and Medical Microbiology, University of Liverpool, United Kingdom
    Clin Infect Dis 36:E140-5. 2003
  6. ncbi request reprint Recent advances in Japanese encephalitis
    Tom Solomon
    Departments of Neurological Science and Medical Microbiology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    J Neurovirol 9:274-83. 2003
  7. pmc West Nile encephalitis
    Tom Solomon
    Department of Neurological Science, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L9 7LJ, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia
    BMJ 326:865-9. 2003
  8. ncbi request reprint Acute flaccid paralysis caused by West Nile virus
    T Solomon
    Department of Neurological Science, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Lancet Infect Dis 3:189; discussion 189-90. 2003
  9. ncbi request reprint Flavivirus encephalitis
    Tom Solomon
    Department of Neurological Science, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    N Engl J Med 351:370-8. 2004
  10. ncbi request reprint Neurological infection in The Lancet Neurology
    Tom Solomon
    University of Liverpool, UK
    Lancet Neurol 4:139. 2005

Detail Information

Publications67

  1. doi request reprint Management of suspected viral encephalitis in adults--Association of British Neurologists and British Infection Association National Guidelines
    T Solomon
    Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, The Apex Building, West Derby Street, Liverpool, UK
    J Infect 64:347-73. 2012
    ....
  2. pmc Clinical and prognostic features among children with acute encephalitis syndrome in Nepal; a retrospective study
    Ajit Rayamajhi
    Department of Paediatrics, Kanti Children s Hospital, Maharajgunj, Kathmandu, Nepal
    BMC Infect Dis 11:294. 2011
    ..Japanese Encephalitis (JE) accounts for approximately one-quarter of cases. Although poor prognostic features for JE have been identified, and guide management, relatively little is reported on the remaining three-quarters of AES cases...
  3. ncbi request reprint Infectious causes of acute flaccid paralysis
    Tom Solomon
    Department of Neurological Science, and Medical Microbiology, University of Liverpool, Walton Centre for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Liverpool, UK
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 16:375-81. 2003
    ..Starting with anatomical and neurophysiological considerations, this article examines data on AFP caused by WNV, and considers recent data on paralysis caused by enteroviruses, and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS)...
  4. ncbi request reprint Exotic and emerging viral encephalitides
    Tom Solomon
    Department of Neurological Science, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Curr Opin Neurol 16:411-8. 2003
    ....
  5. ncbi request reprint Natural and nosocomial infection in a patient with West Nile encephalitis and extrapyramidal movement disorders
    Tom Solomon
    Department of Pathology, University Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA and Departments of Neurological Science and Medical Microbiology, University of Liverpool, United Kingdom
    Clin Infect Dis 36:E140-5. 2003
    ..Detailed molecular analysis suggested that, although our patient received a blood transfusion infected with WNV, the virus that caused his initial infection and encephalitis was probably acquired naturally from a mosquito...
  6. ncbi request reprint Recent advances in Japanese encephalitis
    Tom Solomon
    Departments of Neurological Science and Medical Microbiology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    J Neurovirol 9:274-83. 2003
    ..Interferon alpha was the most promising drug in small open trials, but a recent double-blind placebo controlled trial showed that it did not affect the outcome in children with JE...
  7. pmc West Nile encephalitis
    Tom Solomon
    Department of Neurological Science, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L9 7LJ, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia
    BMJ 326:865-9. 2003
  8. ncbi request reprint Acute flaccid paralysis caused by West Nile virus
    T Solomon
    Department of Neurological Science, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Lancet Infect Dis 3:189; discussion 189-90. 2003
  9. ncbi request reprint Flavivirus encephalitis
    Tom Solomon
    Department of Neurological Science, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    N Engl J Med 351:370-8. 2004
  10. ncbi request reprint Neurological infection in The Lancet Neurology
    Tom Solomon
    University of Liverpool, UK
    Lancet Neurol 4:139. 2005
  11. pmc Origin and evolution of Japanese encephalitis virus in southeast Asia
    Tom Solomon
    Department of Neurological Science, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L9 7LJ, United Kingdom
    J Virol 77:3091-8. 2003
    ..Our data, together with recent evidence on the origins of other emerging viruses, including dengue virus and Nipah virus, imply that tropical southeast Asia may be an important zone for emerging pathogens...
  12. ncbi request reprint Treatment of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis with interferon-alpha, ribavirin, and inosiplex
    Tom Solomon
    Department of Neurological Science, University of Liverpool, United Kingdom
    J Child Neurol 17:703-5. 2002
    ..However, after 10 months, he deteriorated suddenly and died before further intraventricular treatment could be instituted. Further trials are needed to evaluate long-term combination therapy in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis...
  13. ncbi request reprint Interferon alfa-2a in Japanese encephalitis: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial
    Tom Solomon
    Department of Neurological Science, University of Liverpool, Walton Centre for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Liverpool, UK
    Lancet 361:821-6. 2003
    ..Results from in-vitro studies and work in animals have shown inteferon alfa has antiviral activity on Japanese encephalitis and other flaviviruses; therefore, we aimed to assess the efficacy of inteferon alfa-2a in Japanese encephalitis...
  14. pmc Paralytic rabies after a two week holiday in India
    Tom Solomon
    Viral CNS Infections Group, Division of Neurological Science, University of Liverpool, Walton Centre for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Liverpool L9 7LJ
    BMJ 331:501-3. 2005
  15. ncbi request reprint Viral encephalitis: a clinician's guide
    Tom Solomon
    University of Liverpool Divisions of Neurological Science and Medical Microbiology, and The Walton Centre for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Liverpool, UK
    Pract Neurol 7:288-305. 2007
    ..liv.ac.uk/braininfections)...
  16. pmc A cohort study to assess the new WHO Japanese encephalitis surveillance standards
    Tom Solomon
    Viral Brain Infections Group, Divisions of Neurological Science, and Medical Microbiology, School of Tropical Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L9 7LJ, England
    Bull World Health Organ 86:178-86. 2008
    ..To assess the field-test version of the new WHO Japanese encephalitis (JE) surveillance standards...
  17. ncbi request reprint Dengue and other emerging flaviviruses
    T Solomon
    Department of Neurological Science, University of Liverpool, Walton Centre for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Fazakerley, Liverpool, L9 7LJ, UK
    J Infect 42:104-15. 2001
    ..The tick-borne haemorrhagic flaviviruses, Omsk haemorrhagic fever and Kyasanur Forrest disease are localized in small areas...
  18. pmc Suboptimal management of central nervous system infections in children: a multi-centre retrospective study
    Christine Kelly
    Neurological Infectious Disease, Brain Infections Group, Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    BMC Pediatr 12:145. 2012
    ..We aimed to audit the regional management of central nervous system (CNS) infection in children...
  19. pmc Enterovirus 75 encephalitis in children, southern India
    Penny Lewthwaite
    Division of Neurological Science, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Emerg Infect Dis 16:1780-2. 2010
    ..7%) children infected with enterovirus 75 among 106 children with acute encephalitis syndrome during 2005-2007 in southern India. Throat swab specimens may be useful for diagnosis of enterovirus 75 infection...
  20. doi request reprint Evaluation of two commercially available ELISAs for the diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis applied to field samples
    Penny Lewthwaite
    Brain Infections Group, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Trop Med Int Health 15:811-8. 2010
    ....
  21. pmc The effect of vaccination coverage and climate on Japanese encephalitis in Sarawak, Malaysia
    Daniel E Impoinvil
    Liverpool University Climate and Infectious Disease of Animals Group, Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Neston, Cheshire, United Kingdom
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7:e2334. 2013
    ....
  22. doi request reprint Virology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and control of enterovirus 71
    Tom Solomon
    Brain Infections Group, Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Lancet Infect Dis 10:778-90. 2010
    ..Vaccines being developed include inactivated whole-virus, live attenuated, subviral particle, and DNA vaccines...
  23. ncbi request reprint Proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in humans with Japanese encephalitis
    Peter M Winter
    Department of Neurological Science, University of Liverpool, United Kingdom
    J Infect Dis 190:1618-26. 2004
    ..The role played by the immune response in determining the outcome of human infection with JEV is poorly understood, although, in animal models of flavivirus encephalitis, unregulated proinflammatory cytokine responses can be detrimental...
  24. doi request reprint Clinical features, diagnosis, and management of enterovirus 71
    Mong How Ooi
    Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, UK
    Lancet Neurol 9:1097-105. 2010
    ..Milrinone might be helpful in patients with cardiac dysfunction...
  25. pmc Human parvovirus 4 as potential cause of encephalitis in children, India
    Laura A Benjamin
    University of Liverpool Institute of Infection and Global Health, Liverpool, UK
    Emerg Infect Dis 17:1484-7. 2011
    ..A high-throughput pyrosequencing screen detected human parvovirus 4 DNA in cerebrospinal fluid of 2 children with encephalitis of unknown etiology...
  26. pmc The functional, social and economic impact of acute encephalitis syndrome in Nepal--a longitudinal follow-up study
    Michael J Griffiths
    Brain Infections Group, Department of Clinical Infection, Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom Department of Paediatric Neurology, Alder Hey Children s National Health Service Foundation Trust, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7:e2383. 2013
    ..Although JE is known to result in neurological impairment, few studies have examined the wider impact of JE and AES on patients and their families...
  27. doi request reprint Improving the diagnosis of central nervous system infections in adults through introduction of a simple lumbar puncture pack
    Benedict Daniel Michael
    Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, West Derby Street, Liverpool L69 7BE, UK
    Emerg Med J 30:402-5. 2013
    ..PCR analysis of the CSF is an important method to identify the pathogen. However, recent studies have demonstrated that many patients have inadequate CSF sample collection and analysis...
  28. doi request reprint Effect of delayed lumbar punctures on the diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis in adults
    Benedict Michael
    The Walton Centre for Neurology and Neurosurgery NHS Trust, Liverpool, UK
    Emerg Med J 27:433-8. 2010
    ..In such patients, CT scanning before LP is not needed...
  29. pmc Epstein-barr virus coinfection in cerebrospinal fluid is associated with increased mortality in Malawian adults with bacterial meningitis
    Matthew J Kelly
    Wellcome Trust Tropical Centre, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    J Infect Dis 205:106-10. 2012
    ..01). CMV was detected in 11 of 115 HIV-infected patients, 8 of whom died. The mechanisms by which EBV and CMV contribute to poor outcome require further investigation...
  30. pmc Identification and validation of clinical predictors for the risk of neurological involvement in children with hand, foot, and mouth disease in Sarawak
    Mong How Ooi
    Department of Paediatrics, Sibu Hospital, Sibu, Sarawak, Malaysia
    BMC Infect Dis 9:3. 2009
    ..Early recognition of children at risk is the key to reduce acute mortality and morbidity...
  31. doi request reprint The management of infants and children treated with aciclovir for suspected viral encephalitis
    Rachel Kneen
    Department of Neurology, Littlewood s Neuroscience Unit, Alder Hey Children s NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool, UK
    Arch Dis Child 95:100-6. 2010
    ..To investigate how infants and children with suspected viral encephalitis are currently managed in a UK tertiary children's hospital...
  32. ncbi request reprint Seizures and raised intracranial pressure in Vietnamese patients with Japanese encephalitis
    Tom Solomon
    Department of Neurological Science, University of Liverpool, Walton Centre for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Liverpool, UK
    Brain 125:1084-93. 2002
    ..These findings suggest that in JE, seizures and raised ICP may be important causes of death. The outcome may be improved by measures aimed at controlling these secondary complications...
  33. pmc Rabies encephalitis in malaria-endemic area, Malawi, Africa
    Macpherson Mallewa
    Divisions of Neurological Science, Medical Microbiology, and School of Tropical Medicine at University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    Emerg Infect Dis 13:136-9. 2007
    ..5%) of 133 cases. Four patients had unusual clinical manifestations, and rabies was only diagnosed postmortem. Three (11.5%) of 26 fatal cases originally attributed to cerebral malaria were due to rabies...
  34. ncbi request reprint Lumbar puncture: diagnosing acute central nervous system infections
    Claire Matata
    Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool
    Nurs Stand 27:49-56; quiz 58. 2012
    ..The clinical contraindications to lumbar puncture must be considered before the procedure is carried out, and nurses need to have an understanding of how best to inform, support and reassure patients...
  35. pmc The incidence of acute encephalitis syndrome in Western industrialised and tropical countries
    Fidan Jmor
    Division of Neuroscience, University of Liverpool, Clinical Sciences Centre, Lower Lane, Liverpool L97LJ, UK
    Virol J 5:134. 2008
    ..This review aims to provide information to determine what minimum annual incidence of AES should be reported to show that the surveillance programme is active...
  36. pmc Disability after encephalitis: development and validation of a new outcome score
    Penny Lewthwaite
    University of Liverpool, England
    Bull World Health Organ 88:584-92. 2010
    ..To develop a simple tool for assessing the severity of disability resulting from Japanese encephalitis and whether, as a result, a child is likely to be dependent...
  37. pmc Chikungunya virus and central nervous system infections in children, India
    Penny Lewthwaite
    University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Emerg Infect Dis 15:329-31. 2009
    ..CHIKV was also detected in the cerebrospinal fluid of 3 children...
  38. doi request reprint Management of acute confusion in patients with CNS infections
    Claire Matata
    Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, and The Royal Liverpool Hospital, Liverpool
    Nurs Stand 28:49-58. 2013
    ..The article addresses many of the challenges encountered by nurses caring for confused patients, including the recognition of acute confusion, use of screening tools, and the management and treatment of these patients. ..
  39. pmc HIV infection and stroke: current perspectives and future directions
    Laura A Benjamin
    Brain Infections Group, Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Lancet Neurol 11:878-90. 2012
    ....
  40. doi request reprint In enterovirus 71 encephalitis with cardio-respiratory compromise, elevated interleukin 1β, interleukin 1 receptor antagonist, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor levels are markers of poor prognosis
    Michael J Griffiths
    Brain Infections Group, Department of Clinical Infection, Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, United Kingdom
    J Infect Dis 206:881-92. 2012
    ..Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes large outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), with severe neurological complications and cardio-respiratory compromise, but the pathogenesis is poorly understood...
  41. pmc Recombination and positive selection identified in complete genome sequences of Japanese encephalitis virus
    Jennifer Carney
    Brain Infections Group, Department of Clinical Infection, Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GA, UK
    Arch Virol 157:75-83. 2012
    ..The potential importance of the two sites in the evolution and ecology of JEV merits further investigation...
  42. pmc Evaluation of different clinical sample types in diagnosis of human enterovirus 71-associated hand-foot-and-mouth disease
    Mong How Ooi
    Department of Paediatrics, Sibu Hospital, Ulu Oya Road, 96000 Sibu, Sarawak, Malaysia
    J Clin Microbiol 45:1858-66. 2007
    ..Vesicle swabs give a high diagnostic yield, with the added advantage of being from a sterile site...
  43. doi request reprint Successful treatment of cytomegalovirus polyradiculopathy in a 9-year-old child with congenital human immunodeficiency virus infection
    Aman Sohal
    Department of Neurology, Littlewoods Neuroscience Foundation, Royal Liverpool Children s NHS Trust, Alder Hey, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    J Child Neurol 24:215-8. 2009
    ..We report a 9-year-old child with congenital human immunodeficiency virus infection who presented with cytomegalovirus polyradiculopathy and made an excellent response to cytomegalovirus treatment...
  44. ncbi request reprint Pathogenesis and clinical features of Japanese encephalitis and West Nile virus infections
    T Solomon
    Department of Neurological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Walton Centre for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Liverpool L9 7LJ, UK
    Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 267:171-94. 2002
  45. doi request reprint Seizures and encephalitis: clinical features, management, and potential pathophysiologic mechanisms
    Benedict D Michael
    Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    Epilepsia 53:63-71. 2012
    ..Finally, we describe the acute and longer-term management of encephalitis-related seizures and their potential pathophysiologic mechanisms, concluding with the emerging etiologic role of human herpesvirus 6...
  46. doi request reprint Neurological manifestations of influenza infection in children and adults: results of a national british surveillance study
    Anu Goenka
    Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool
    Clin Infect Dis 58:775-84. 2014
    ..None had been vaccinated, although 8 (32%) had indications for this. A modified classification system is proposed based on our data and the increasing spectrum of recognized acute encephalopathy syndromes. ..
  47. pmc The British antibiotic and silver-impregnated catheters for ventriculoperitoneal shunts multi-centre randomised controlled trial (the BASICS trial): study protocol
    Michael D Jenkinson
    Department of Neurosurgery, The Walton Centre NHS Foundation Trust, Lower Lane, Fazakerley, Liverpool L9 7LJ, UK
    Trials 15:4. 2014
    ..Whilst there is some evidence showing that such devices may lead to a reduction in VPS infection, there are no randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to support their routine use...
  48. ncbi request reprint A preliminary neuropathological study of Japanese encephalitis in humans and a mouse model
    Allison C German
    Division of Medical Microbiology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 100:1135-45. 2006
    ..In addition, beta-amyloid precursor protein staining indicated impaired axonal transport. Whether these findings are caused by viral replication in the vascular endothelium or the immune response merits further investigation...
  49. pmc The role of lumbar puncture in children with suspected central nervous system infection
    Rachel Kneen
    The Roald Dahl EEG Unit, Royal Liverpool Children s NHS Trust, Alder Hey, Liverpool, L12 2AP, UK
    BMC Pediatr 2:8. 2002
    ..The use of the lumbar puncture in the diagnosis of central nervous system infection in acutely ill children is controversial. Recommendations have been published but it is unclear whether they are being followed...
  50. pmc The spatial heterogeneity between Japanese encephalitis incidence distribution and environmental variables in Nepal
    Daniel E Impoinvil
    LUCINDA Group, Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Leahurst Campus, Neston, Cheshire, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 6:e22192. 2011
    ....
  51. doi request reprint Multiple amino acid changes at the first glycosylation motif in NS1 protein of West Nile virus are necessary for complete attenuation for mouse neuroinvasiveness
    Melissa C Whiteman
    Sealy Center for Vaccine Development, Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Disease, Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 0609, USA
    Vaccine 29:9702-10. 2011
    ..Further, mutating all three of the amino acids of the NS1(130-132) glycosylation motif (NTT-QQA) along with NS1(175) and NS1(207) asparagine to alanine mutations gave the most stable and attenuated strain...
  52. doi request reprint Molecular phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses of Muar strain of Japanese encephalitis virus reveal it is the missing fifth genotype
    Manal A F Mohammed
    Brain Infections Group, Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Infect Genet Evol 11:855-62. 2011
    ..No strong evidence for positive selection was found between JEV strains of the five genotypes and the E gene has generally been subjected to strong purifying selection...
  53. doi request reprint New vaccines for Japanese encephalitis
    Tom Solomon
    Lancet Neurol 7:116-8. 2008
  54. ncbi request reprint Japanese encephalitis vaccine for travelers: exploring the limits of risk
    David R Shlim
    Jackson Hole Travel and Tropical Medicine, Kelly, WY 83011, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 35:183-8. 2002
    ..This review assesses the known risks of contracting Japanese encephalitis and the risks associated with the vaccine and tries to develop an appropriate way to recommend this vaccine to travelers who may be at significant risk...
  55. ncbi request reprint Control of Japanese encephalitis--within our grasp?
    Tom Solomon
    United Kingdom Medical Research Council, United Kingdom
    N Engl J Med 355:869-71. 2006
  56. ncbi request reprint Death from rabies in a UK traveller returning from India
    Alan Smith
    Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, London, United Kingdom
    Euro Surveill 10:E050728.5. 2005
  57. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of the World Health Organization standard tourniquet test and a modified tourniquet test in the diagnosis of dengue infection in Viet Nam
    Xuan Thanh Phuong Cao
    Dong Nai Paediatric Hospital, Bien Hoa, Dong Nai Province, Viet Nam
    Trop Med Int Health 7:125-32. 2002
    ..As many doctors remain unconvinced of its usefulness, this study was designed to assess the diagnostic utility of both the standard test and a commonly employed modified test...
  58. ncbi request reprint Treatment of severe diphtheritic myocarditis by temporary insertion of a cardiac pacemaker
    Nguyen Minh Dung
    Centre for Tropical Diseases, Cho Quan Hospital, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
    Clin Infect Dis 35:1425-9. 2002
    ..In children and adolescents with diphtheritic myocarditis and severe conduction defects, temporary insertion of a cardiac pacemaker may improve the outcome...
  59. ncbi request reprint Adenovirus type 21-associated acute flaccid paralysis during an outbreak of hand-foot-and-mouth disease in Sarawak, Malaysia
    Mong How Ooi
    Department of Paediatrics, Sibu Hospital, Sibu, Malaysia
    Clin Infect Dis 36:550-9. 2003
    ..The occurrence of these unusual adenovirus infections during an outbreak of EV71-associated HFMD suggests that an interaction between the 2 viruses may have occurred...
  60. ncbi request reprint Clinical diagnosis and assessment of severity of confirmed dengue infections in Vietnamese children: is the world health organization classification system helpful?
    Cao Xuan Thanh Phuong
    Dong Nai Paediatric Centre, Dong Nai Province, Bien Hoa, Vietnam
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 70:172-9. 2004
    ....
  61. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of an algorithm for integrated management of childhood illness in an area of Vietnam with dengue transmission
    Xuan Thanh Phuong Cao
    Dong Nai Paediatric Centre, Bien Hoa, Vietnam
    Trop Med Int Health 9:573-81. 2004
    ....
  62. ncbi request reprint Clinical features and predictors of diphtheritic cardiomyopathy in Vietnamese children
    Rachel Kneen
    Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Unit, Centre for Tropical Diseases, Cho Quan Hospital, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
    Clin Infect Dis 39:1591-8. 2004
    ..Despite the availability of antitoxin and antibiotics, the mortality rate for diphtheria remains high, mostly because of cardiac complications...
  63. ncbi request reprint Report on a WHO consultation on immunological endpoints for evaluation of new Japanese encephalitis vaccines, WHO, Geneva, 2-3 September, 2004
    Joachim Hombach
    Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals, World Health Organization, 20, Geneva 27, Switzerland
    Vaccine 23:5205-11. 2005
    ..More detailed recommendations will be drafted following further consultations to serve as WHO guidelines for evaluation and licensure for new JE vaccines...
  64. ncbi request reprint Human enterovirus 71 disease in Sarawak, Malaysia: a prospective clinical, virological, and molecular epidemiological study
    Mong How Ooi
    Department of Paediatrics, Sibu Hospital, Sibu, Malaysia
    Clin Infect Dis 44:646-56. 2007
    ..Human enterovirus (HEV)-71 causes large outbreaks of hand-foot-and-mouth disease with central nervous system (CNS) complications, but the role of HEV-71 genogroups or dual infection with other viruses in causing severe disease is unclear...
  65. ncbi request reprint Unravelling the neuropathogenesis of Japanese encephalitis
    Khin Saw Aye Myint
    Department of Virology, Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, 315 6 Rajvithi Road, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 101:955-6. 2007
    ..A better understanding of these mechanisms may lead to therapeutic strategies to reduce brain injury and neurological sequelae...
  66. doi request reprint The epidemiology, clinical features, and long-term prognosis of Japanese encephalitis in central sarawak, malaysia, 1997-2005
    Mong How Ooi
    Department of Paediatrics, Sibu Hospital, Sibu, Malaysia
    Clin Infect Dis 47:458-68. 2008
    ..Japanese encephalitis is a major public health problem in Asia. However, there is little data on the long-term outcome of Japanese encephalitis survivors...
  67. ncbi request reprint Current use and development of vaccines for Japanese encephalitis
    David W C Beasley
    University of Texas Medical Branch, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Galveston, TX 77555 0609, USA
    Expert Opin Biol Ther 8:95-106. 2008
    ....