J A Russell

Summary

Affiliation: University of Edinburgh
Country: UK

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Brain preparations for maternity--adaptive changes in behavioral and neuroendocrine systems during pregnancy and lactation. An overview
    J A Russell
    Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, Section of Biomedical Sciences, Division of Biomedical and Clinical Laboratory Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Hugh Robson Building, George Square, Edinburgh EH8 9XD, UK
    Prog Brain Res 133:1-38. 2001
  2. ncbi request reprint Neuroactive steroids attenuate oxytocin stress responses in late pregnancy
    J A Russell
    Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, Centre for Integrative Physiology, School of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Hugh Robson Building, UK
    Neuroscience 138:879-89. 2006
  3. ncbi request reprint The magnocellular oxytocin system, the fount of maternity: adaptations in pregnancy
    John A Russell
    Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, School of Biomedical and Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Edinburgh, UK
    Front Neuroendocrinol 24:27-61. 2003
  4. doi request reprint Reduced hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis stress responses in late pregnancy: central opioid inhibition and noradrenergic mechanisms
    John A Russell
    Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, Centre for Integrative Physiology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1148:428-38. 2008
  5. ncbi request reprint Veni, vidi, vici: the neurohypophysis in the twentieth century
    J A Russell
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Edinburgh, UK
    Exp Physiol 85:1S-6S. 2000
  6. pmc Local opioid inhibition and morphine dependence of supraoptic nucleus oxytocin neurones in the rat in vivo
    M Ludwig
    Department of Physiology, University Medical School, Edinburgh, UK
    J Physiol 505:145-52. 1997
  7. ncbi request reprint Verapamil prevents withdrawal excitation of oxytocin neurones in morphine-dependent rats
    G Blackburn-Munro
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, University Medical School, EH8 9XD, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
    Neuropharmacology 39:1596-607. 2000
  8. ncbi request reprint Modulation of oestrogen receptor-beta mRNA expression in rat paraventricular and supraoptic nucleus neurones following adrenal steroid manipulation and hyperosmotic stimulation
    S J Somponpun
    Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, Division of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    J Neuroendocrinol 16:472-82. 2004
  9. ncbi request reprint Local injection of pertussis toxin attenuates morphine withdrawal excitation of rat supraoptic nucleus neurones
    C H Brown
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, University Medical School, Edinburgh, UK
    Brain Res Bull 52:115-21. 2000
  10. doi request reprint Somatostatin actions on rat supraoptic nucleus oxytocin and vasopressin neurones
    S L Meddle
    Centre for Integrative Physiology, College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9XD, UK
    J Neuroendocrinol 22:438-45. 2010

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications49

  1. ncbi request reprint Brain preparations for maternity--adaptive changes in behavioral and neuroendocrine systems during pregnancy and lactation. An overview
    J A Russell
    Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, Section of Biomedical Sciences, Division of Biomedical and Clinical Laboratory Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Hugh Robson Building, George Square, Edinburgh EH8 9XD, UK
    Prog Brain Res 133:1-38. 2001
    ..The possible link between these adaptations and changes in cognition and mood in pregnancy and post partum are considered, as well as the dysfunctions that lead to common problems of depression and puerperal psychoses...
  2. ncbi request reprint Neuroactive steroids attenuate oxytocin stress responses in late pregnancy
    J A Russell
    Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, Centre for Integrative Physiology, School of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Hugh Robson Building, UK
    Neuroscience 138:879-89. 2006
    ..Accordingly, allopregnanolone may both enhance GABA inhibition of oxytocin neurone responses to interleukin-1beta, and induce opioid suppression of noradrenaline release onto oxytocin neurones...
  3. ncbi request reprint The magnocellular oxytocin system, the fount of maternity: adaptations in pregnancy
    John A Russell
    Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, School of Biomedical and Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Edinburgh, UK
    Front Neuroendocrinol 24:27-61. 2003
    ....
  4. doi request reprint Reduced hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis stress responses in late pregnancy: central opioid inhibition and noradrenergic mechanisms
    John A Russell
    Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, Centre for Integrative Physiology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1148:428-38. 2008
    ..This review describes the mechanisms underlying attenuated HPA axis stress responses in pregnancy, focusing on the role of endogenous opioids and the central noradrenergic system...
  5. ncbi request reprint Veni, vidi, vici: the neurohypophysis in the twentieth century
    J A Russell
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Edinburgh, UK
    Exp Physiol 85:1S-6S. 2000
    ..Lastly, we focus on the mechanisms underlying the burst-firing activity of oxytocin neurones in lactation as a problem not yet solved, and probably requiring a presently improbable conceptual leap to understand...
  6. pmc Local opioid inhibition and morphine dependence of supraoptic nucleus oxytocin neurones in the rat in vivo
    M Ludwig
    Department of Physiology, University Medical School, Edinburgh, UK
    J Physiol 505:145-52. 1997
    ..Nevertheless, withdrawal excitation of these afferent inputs may enhance the magnitude of oxytocin neurone withdrawal excitation...
  7. ncbi request reprint Verapamil prevents withdrawal excitation of oxytocin neurones in morphine-dependent rats
    G Blackburn-Munro
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, University Medical School, EH8 9XD, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
    Neuropharmacology 39:1596-607. 2000
    ....
  8. ncbi request reprint Modulation of oestrogen receptor-beta mRNA expression in rat paraventricular and supraoptic nucleus neurones following adrenal steroid manipulation and hyperosmotic stimulation
    S J Somponpun
    Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, Division of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    J Neuroendocrinol 16:472-82. 2004
    ..Consequently, regulation of oxytocin and vasopressin neurone activity via ERbeta is expected to vary according to their functional state and, in particular, on basal glucocorticoid actions...
  9. ncbi request reprint Local injection of pertussis toxin attenuates morphine withdrawal excitation of rat supraoptic nucleus neurones
    C H Brown
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, University Medical School, Edinburgh, UK
    Brain Res Bull 52:115-21. 2000
    ..Thus, the expression of morphine withdrawal excitation by supraoptic nucleus oxytocin cells requires the functional integrity of G(i/o)-proteins within the nucleus...
  10. doi request reprint Somatostatin actions on rat supraoptic nucleus oxytocin and vasopressin neurones
    S L Meddle
    Centre for Integrative Physiology, College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9XD, UK
    J Neuroendocrinol 22:438-45. 2010
    ....
  11. pmc Effects of the endogenous opioid peptide, endomorphin 1, on supraoptic nucleus oxytocin and vasopressin neurones in vivo and in vitro
    N Doi
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, University Medical School, Edinburgh EH8 9XD, UK
    Br J Pharmacol 132:1136-44. 2001
    ..Chronic endomorphin 1 administration induces mu-opioid tolerance in oxytocin and vasopressin cells but not mu-opioid dependence in oxytocin cells...
  12. doi request reprint Adaptive responses of the maternal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis during pregnancy and lactation
    P J Brunton
    Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, Centre for Integrative Physiology, Hugh Robson Building, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    J Neuroendocrinol 20:764-76. 2008
    ..Such adaptations limit the adverse effects of excess glucocorticoid exposure on the foetus(es) and facilitate appropriate metabolic and immune responses...
  13. ncbi request reprint Responses of magnocellular neurons to osmotic stimulation involves coactivation of excitatory and inhibitory input: an experimental and theoretical analysis
    G Leng
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, University Medical School, Edinburgh EH8 9XD, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 21:6967-77. 2001
    ..The nonlinearity of oxytocin secretion that accompanies the linear increase in oxytocin cell firing rate reflects frequency-facilitation of stimulus-secretion coupling at the neurohypophysis...
  14. ncbi request reprint Stimulation of expression of the oxytocin gene in rat supraoptic neurons at parturition
    A J Douglas
    Department of Physiology, University Medical School, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
    Brain Res 782:167-74. 1998
    ....
  15. doi request reprint Allopregnanolone and induction of endogenous opioid inhibition of oxytocin responses to immune stress in pregnant rats
    P J Brunton
    Division of Neurobiology, The Roslin Institute and Royal Dick School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Midlothian, UK
    J Neuroendocrinol 24:690-700. 2012
    ..This mechanism will minimise the risk of preterm labour and prevent the depletion of neurohypophysial oxytocin stores, which are required for parturition...
  16. ncbi request reprint Physiological pathways regulating the activity of magnocellular neurosecretory cells
    G Leng
    Department of Physiology, University Medical School, Edinburgh, UK
    Prog Neurobiol 57:625-55. 1999
    ..For both cell types, the effects of changes in the activity of synaptic input can be complex...
  17. ncbi request reprint Direct pathways to the supraoptic nucleus from the brainstem and the main olfactory bulb are activated at parturition in the rat
    S L Meddle
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Edinburgh Medical School, George Square, EH8 9XD, Edinburgh, UK
    Neuroscience 101:1013-21. 2000
    ..These findings provide evidence of direct afferent pathways to the supraoptic nucleus from the brain stem and olfactory bulbs that are activated at parturition...
  18. ncbi request reprint Beta-endorphin cells in the arcuate nucleus: projections to the supraoptic nucleus and changes in expression during pregnancy and parturition
    A J Douglas
    Division of Biomedical Sciences, University of Edinburgh, George Square, Edinburgh, UK
    J Neuroendocrinol 14:768-77. 2002
    ..Thus, beta-endorphin cells in the arcuate nucleus project to the supraoptic nucleus and increased innervation during pregnancy may explain the enhanced endogenous opioid inhibition of oxytocin neurones...
  19. ncbi request reprint Endogenous opioid regulation of oxytocin and ACTH secretion during pregnancy and parturition
    A J Douglas
    Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH8 9XD, UK
    Prog Brain Res 133:67-82. 2001
    ..So, opioids continue to regulate the activity of oxytocin and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal mechanisms in labor; inhibition of oxytocin neurons at this time may control the spacing of pup births...
  20. ncbi request reprint Oxytocin antagonists delay the initiation of parturition and prolong its active phase in rats
    I A Antonijevic
    Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, Babraham Institute, Cambridge, UK
    J Endocrinol 145:97-103. 1995
    ..7 +/- 2.9 vs 27.5 +/- 3.1 min in controls), while in the other three rats delivery was prolonged (time between pups 4-7: 86 +/- 4.3 min).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)..
  21. ncbi request reprint The importance of oxytocin mechanisms in the control of mouse parturition
    A J Douglas
    Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, Division of Biomedical and Clinical Laboratory Sciences, University of Edinburgh, EH8 9XD, UK
    Reproduction 123:543-52. 2002
    ....
  22. ncbi request reprint Opioid modulation of magnocellular neurosecretory cell activity
    C H Brown
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Edinburgh, UK
    Neurosci Res 36:97-120. 2000
    ..Here, we review the mechanisms and functional consequences of opioid interactions with oxytocin and vasopressin cells...
  23. ncbi request reprint Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal responses to centrally administered orexin-A are suppressed in pregnant rats
    P J Brunton
    Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, School of Biomedical and Clinical Laboratory Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    J Neuroendocrinol 15:633-7. 2003
    ..Thus, the responsiveness of PVN CRH neurones to orexin-A, and hence the pituitary-adrenal axis, is markedly reduced in pregnancy. This may favour anabolic adaptations in pregnancy...
  24. ncbi request reprint Activity-dependent feedback modulation of spike patterning of supraoptic nucleus neurons by endogenous adenosine
    P M Bull
    Centre for Integrative Physiology, University of Edinburg, Edinburg, United Kingdom
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 291:R83-90. 2006
    ..05). Indeed, in 4 of 5 continuously active vasopressin cells, CPT induced a pseudophasic activity pattern. Together, these results indicate that endogenous adenosine is involved in the local control of SON cell activity in vivo...
  25. ncbi request reprint Sex-steroid induction of endogenous opioid inhibition on oxytocin secretory responses to stress
    A J Douglas
    Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Medical School, Edinburgh, UK
    J Neuroendocrinol 12:343-50. 2000
    ..We conclude that oestradiol and progesterone may be responsible for inducing the opioid restraint and enhanced oxytocin neurone responsiveness in pregnancy...
  26. ncbi request reprint Direct hypertonic stimulation of the rat supraoptic nucleus increases c-fos expressionin glial cells rather than magnocellular neurones
    M Ludwig
    Department of Physiology, University Medical School, Teviot Place, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, UK
    Cell Tissue Res 287:79-90. 1997
    ..Activation of c-fos expression in glial cells by direct hypertonic stimulation may reflect their role in regulating brain extracellular fluid composition...
  27. doi request reprint Prenatal social stress in the rat programmes neuroendocrine and behavioural responses to stress in the adult offspring: sex-specific effects
    P J Brunton
    Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, Centre for Integrative Physiology, University of Edinburgh, Hugh Robson Building, George Square, Edinburgh, UK
    J Neuroendocrinol 22:258-71. 2010
    ..Attenuated glucocorticoid feedback mechanisms in the limbic system may underlie HPA axis hyper-reactivity to stress in PNS offspring...
  28. ncbi request reprint Neuroendocrinology briefings 12: The maternal brain
    J A Russell
    Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Edinburgh, UK
    J Neuroendocrinol 12:1143-4. 2000
    ..The nerve cells that make oxytocin are involved in all of these aspects of motherhood, and details are emerging of how their performance is adapted by pregnancy...
  29. doi request reprint Systemic leptin increases the electrical activity of supraoptic nucleus oxytocin neurones in virgin and late pregnant rats
    S Velmurugan
    Centre for Integrative Physiology, School of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    J Neuroendocrinol 25:383-90. 2013
    ..Pregnant rats showed some evidence of leptin resistance but only after an overnight fast...
  30. doi request reprint Circulating secretin activates supraoptic nucleus oxytocin and vasopressin neurons via noradrenergic pathways in the rat
    Sathya Velmurugan
    Centre for Integrative Physiology, University of Edinburgh, Hugh Robson Building, George Square, Edinburgh EH8 9XD, United Kingdom
    Endocrinology 151:2681-8. 2010
    ..As both systemic secretin and oxytocin are involved in regulating gastrointestinal functions and natriuresis, systemically released secretin might act partly through oxytocin...
  31. ncbi request reprint Cellular mechanisms underlying neuronal excitability during morphine withdrawal in physical dependence: lessons from the magnocellular oxytocin system
    Colin H Brown
    School of Biomedical and Clinical Laboratory Sciences, University of Edinburgh, UK
    Stress 7:97-107. 2004
    ....
  32. ncbi request reprint Rapid estradiol-17beta modulation of opioid actions on the electrical and secretory activity of rat oxytocin neurons in vivo
    Colin H Brown
    Centre for Neuroendocrinology and Department of Physiology, Otago School of Medical Sciences, University of Otago, P O Box 913, Dunedin, 9054, New Zealand
    Neurochem Res 33:614-23. 2008
    ..Hence, rapid estradiol-17beta actions might underpin enhanced oxytocin neuron responses to naloxone in pregnancy...
  33. pmc Attenuated hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to immune challenge during pregnancy: the neurosteroid opioid connection
    Paula J Brunton
    Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, Centre for Integrative Physiology, Hugh Robson Building, University of Edinburgh, George Square, Edinburgh EH8 9XD, UK
    J Physiol 586:369-75. 2008
    ..The supporting evidence for these mechanisms is discussed...
  34. ncbi request reprint The expectant brain: adapting for motherhood
    Paula J Brunton
    Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, Centre for Integrative Physiology, University of Edinburgh, Hugh Robson Building, George Square, Edinburgh, EH8 9XD, Scotland, UK
    Nat Rev Neurosci 9:11-25. 2008
    ..By contrast, adaptations in the mother's brain during lactation are maintained by external stimuli from the young. The changes in pregnancy are not necessarily innocuous: they may predispose the mother to post-partum mood disorders...
  35. ncbi request reprint Neuroendocrine responses to stress in mice: hyporesponsiveness in pregnancy and parturition
    Alison J Douglas
    Division of Biomedical Sciences, School of Biomedical and Clinical Laboratory Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Hugh Robson Building, George Square, Edinburgh, United Kingdom EH8 9XD
    Endocrinology 144:5268-76. 2003
    ..Thus, in mice hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal hyporesponsiveness in late pregnancy is a consequence of reduced responsiveness of paraventricular neurons, but inhibition by opioids or intracerebral oxytocin does not appear to be involved...
  36. ncbi request reprint The active role of dendrites in the regulation of magnocellular neurosecretory cell behavior
    Mike Ludwig
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Edinburgh Medical School, George Square, Edinburgh EH8 9XD, UK
    Prog Brain Res 139:247-56. 2002
    ..A picture emerges in which release of vasopressin and oxytocin from different anatomical compartments of a single neuron may arise from different intracellular secretory pools and their preparation before release...
  37. ncbi request reprint Vasopressin from hypothalamic magnocellular neurons has opposite actions at the adenohypophysis and in the supraoptic nucleus on ACTH secretion
    Carsten T Wotjak
    Max Planck Institut fur Psychiatrie, Kraepelinstr 2, D 80804 M√ľnchen, Germany
    Eur J Neurosci 16:477-85. 2002
    ..We conclude from these findings that vasopressin from the hypothalamic-neurohypophysial system participates in the regulation of the hormonal stress response in a counterbalanced manner at the level of the SON and the adenohypophysis...
  38. ncbi request reprint Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hyporesponsiveness to restraint stress in mice deficient for large-conductance calcium- and voltage-activated potassium (BK) channels
    Paula J Brunton
    Centre for Integrative Physiology, School of Biomedical Science, Hugh Robson Building, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
    Endocrinology 148:5496-506. 2007
    ....
  39. ncbi request reprint Neuroendocrine stress but not feeding responses to centrally administered neuropeptide Y are suppressed in pregnant rats
    Paula J Brunton
    Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, Centre for Integrative Physiology, University of Edinburgh, Hugh Robson Building, George Square, Edinburgh EH8 9XD, Scotland, United Kingdom
    Endocrinology 147:3737-45. 2006
    ..These changes may explain the similarly attenuated HPA response to centrally administered orexin-A and will favor anabolic adaptations in pregnancy...
  40. ncbi request reprint Reduced hypothalamic vasopressin secretion underlies attenuated adrenocorticotropin stress responses in pregnant rats
    Shuaike Ma
    Centre for Integrative Physiology, School of Biomedical and Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Hugh Robson Building, George Square, Edinburgh, Scotland EH8 9XD, United Kingdom
    Endocrinology 146:1626-37. 2005
    ....
  41. ncbi request reprint Morphine withdrawal increases intrinsic excitability of oxytocin neurons in morphine-dependent rats
    Colin H Brown
    School of Biomedical and Clinical Laboratory Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9XD, UK
    Eur J Neurosci 21:501-12. 2005
    ..Thus, multiple K+ channel inhibition increases post-spike excitability for short interspike intervals, contributing to the increased firing of oxytocin neurons during morphine withdrawal...
  42. ncbi request reprint Endogenous opioids and attenuated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to immune challenge in pregnant rats
    Paula J Brunton
    Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, Centre for Integrative Physiology, College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9XD, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 25:5117-26. 2005
    ..Thus, the HPA axis responses to immune signals are suppressed in pregnancy at the level of pPVN CRH neurons through an opioid mechanism, possibly acting by preterminal autoinhibition of NTS projections to the pPVN...
  43. ncbi request reprint Programming the offspring of the pig by prenatal social stress: neuroendocrine activity and behaviour
    Susan Jarvis
    Animal Behaviour and Welfare, Sustainable Livestock Systems, Scottish Agricultural College, Edinburgh, UK
    Horm Behav 49:68-80. 2006
    ..Indeed, Mix 2 and Mix 3 daughters also tended to bite at their piglets more than control daughters...
  44. ncbi request reprint Stress in early life: maternal protection and consequences
    John A Russell
    Stress 8:1-3. 2005
  45. ncbi request reprint Regulation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase mRNA expression in the rat magnocellular neurosecretory system
    Rungrudee Srisawat
    School of Biomedical and Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, George Square, Edinburgh EH8 9XD, UK
    Neurosci Lett 369:191-6. 2004
    ....
  46. ncbi request reprint The role of nitric oxide in morphine dependence and withdrawal excitation of rat oxytocin neurons
    Philip M Bull
    School of Biomedical and Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Hugh Robson Building, George Square, Edinburgh EH8 9XD, UK
    Eur J Neurosci 18:2545-51. 2003
    ..Hence there is no evidence that changes in NO regulation underlie excitation of oxytocin neurons during opiate withdrawal in morphine dependence...
  47. ncbi request reprint Suppressed oxytocin neuron responses to immune challenge in late pregnant rats: a role for endogenous opioids
    Paula J Brunton
    Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, Centre for Integrative Physiology, College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Hugh Robson Building, George Square, UK
    Eur J Neurosci 23:1241-7. 2006
    ..The exaggerated oxytocin secretory response to IL-1beta in pregnancy after naloxone reflects increased oxytocin stores and/or increased efficiency of excitation-secretion coupling at the posterior pituitary...
  48. ncbi request reprint Neuroendocrinology with feeling
    John A Russell
    J Neuroendocrinol 14:1-3. 2002
  49. ncbi request reprint Progesterone receptor expression in the pregnant and parturient rat hypothalamus and brainstem
    Karen Francis
    Division of Biomedical and Clinical Laboratory Sciences, University of Edinburgh Medical School, Edinburgh EH8 9XD, UK
    Brain Res 927:18-26. 2002
    ..Upregulation of PR expression in the MPA during pregnancy and parturition may relate to the onset of maternal behavior and/or regulation of GnRH neuronal activity...