Graham Aw Rook

Summary

Affiliation: University College London
Country: UK

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Microbiota, immunoregulatory old friends and psychiatric disorders
    Graham A W Rook
    Centre for Clinical Microbiology, UCL University College London, Royal Free Campus, Rowland Hill Street, London, NW3 2PF, UK
    Adv Exp Med Biol 817:319-56. 2014
  2. ncbi request reprint Structural and functional properties of IL-4delta2, an alternative splice variant of human IL-4
    Anatoly M Vasiliev
    Institute of Immunological Engineering, 142380 Lyubuchany, Moscow Region, Russia
    J Proteome Res 2:273-81. 2003
  3. pmc Different screening strategies (single or dual) for the diagnosis of suspected latent tuberculosis: a cost effectiveness analysis
    Anil Pooran
    Division of Infection and Immunity, Centre for Infectious Diseases and International Health, University College London Medical School, University College London, 43 Cleveland Street, London W1T 4JF, UK
    BMC Pulm Med 10:7. 2010
  4. pmc The pathogen recognition sensor, NOD2, is variably expressed in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis
    Sanjay Lala
    Centre for Gastroenterology, Royal Free and University College Medical School and Royal Free Hospital NHS Trust, London, UK
    BMC Infect Dis 7:96. 2007
  5. doi request reprint Tuberculosis due to high-dose challenge in partially immune individuals: a problem for vaccination?
    Graham A W Rook
    UCL Centre for Infectious Diseases and International Health, University College London Medical School, London, United Kingdom
    J Infect Dis 199:613-8. 2009
  6. ncbi request reprint Do successful tuberculosis vaccines need to be immunoregulatory rather than merely Th1-boosting?
    Graham A W Rook
    Centre for Infectious Disease and International Health, University College London, Windeyer Institute of Medical Sciences, London W1T 4JF, UK
    Vaccine 23:2115-20. 2005
  7. ncbi request reprint Old friends for breakfast
    G A W Rook
    Centre for Infectious Diseases and International Health, Royal Free and University College Medical School, London, UK
    Clin Exp Allergy 35:841-2. 2005
  8. ncbi request reprint Immune responses to tuberculosis in developing countries: implications for new vaccines
    Graham A W Rook
    Centre for Infectious Diseases and International Health, Windeyer Institute for Medical Sciences, University College London, London W1T 4JF, UK
    Nat Rev Immunol 5:661-7. 2005
  9. pmc Review series on helminths, immune modulation and the hygiene hypothesis: the broader implications of the hygiene hypothesis
    Graham A W Rook
    Centre for Infectious Diseases and International Health, Windeyer Institute of Medical Sciences, Royal Free and University College London Medical School, London, UK
    Immunology 126:3-11. 2009
  10. ncbi request reprint Pathogenetic role, in human and murine tuberculosis, of changes in the peripheral metabolism of glucocorticoids and antiglucocorticoids
    G A Rook
    Department of Bacteriology, UCL Medical School, London, UK
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 22:S109-13. 1997

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications56

  1. ncbi request reprint Microbiota, immunoregulatory old friends and psychiatric disorders
    Graham A W Rook
    Centre for Clinical Microbiology, UCL University College London, Royal Free Campus, Rowland Hill Street, London, NW3 2PF, UK
    Adv Exp Med Biol 817:319-56. 2014
    ..We also outline how this two-way relationship between the brain and inflammation implicates the microbiota, Old Friends and immunoregulation in the control of stress resilience. ..
  2. ncbi request reprint Structural and functional properties of IL-4delta2, an alternative splice variant of human IL-4
    Anatoly M Vasiliev
    Institute of Immunological Engineering, 142380 Lyubuchany, Moscow Region, Russia
    J Proteome Res 2:273-81. 2003
    ..IL-4delta2 interacts specifically with the alpha chain of IL-4R and competes effectively with IL-4 for the common binding sites. Thus, IL-4delta2 may act as a regulator of the cytokine net, being the natural antagonist of IL-4...
  3. pmc Different screening strategies (single or dual) for the diagnosis of suspected latent tuberculosis: a cost effectiveness analysis
    Anil Pooran
    Division of Infection and Immunity, Centre for Infectious Diseases and International Health, University College London Medical School, University College London, 43 Cleveland Street, London W1T 4JF, UK
    BMC Pulm Med 10:7. 2010
    ..tb...
  4. pmc The pathogen recognition sensor, NOD2, is variably expressed in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis
    Sanjay Lala
    Centre for Gastroenterology, Royal Free and University College Medical School and Royal Free Hospital NHS Trust, London, UK
    BMC Infect Dis 7:96. 2007
    ..To further define a role for NOD2 in disease pathogenesis, we analysed NOD2 transcriptional responses in pulmonary leucocytes and mononuclear cells harvested from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB)...
  5. doi request reprint Tuberculosis due to high-dose challenge in partially immune individuals: a problem for vaccination?
    Graham A W Rook
    UCL Centre for Infectious Diseases and International Health, University College London Medical School, London, United Kingdom
    J Infect Dis 199:613-8. 2009
    ..tuberculosis and the susceptibilities of these pathways to regulation and suppression. There are important implications for the screening, testing, and likely success of vaccine candidates...
  6. ncbi request reprint Do successful tuberculosis vaccines need to be immunoregulatory rather than merely Th1-boosting?
    Graham A W Rook
    Centre for Infectious Disease and International Health, University College London, Windeyer Institute of Medical Sciences, London W1T 4JF, UK
    Vaccine 23:2115-20. 2005
    ..A successful vaccine, rather than driving a Th1 response, might need to suppress this pre-existing subversive Th2-like component...
  7. ncbi request reprint Old friends for breakfast
    G A W Rook
    Centre for Infectious Diseases and International Health, Royal Free and University College Medical School, London, UK
    Clin Exp Allergy 35:841-2. 2005
  8. ncbi request reprint Immune responses to tuberculosis in developing countries: implications for new vaccines
    Graham A W Rook
    Centre for Infectious Diseases and International Health, Windeyer Institute for Medical Sciences, University College London, London W1T 4JF, UK
    Nat Rev Immunol 5:661-7. 2005
    ..We propose that a successful vaccine needs to block this immunopathology, because it is not the quantity of T(H)1-cell activity that matters but, rather, its context...
  9. pmc Review series on helminths, immune modulation and the hygiene hypothesis: the broader implications of the hygiene hypothesis
    Graham A W Rook
    Centre for Infectious Diseases and International Health, Windeyer Institute of Medical Sciences, Royal Free and University College London Medical School, London, UK
    Immunology 126:3-11. 2009
    ....
  10. ncbi request reprint Pathogenetic role, in human and murine tuberculosis, of changes in the peripheral metabolism of glucocorticoids and antiglucocorticoids
    G A Rook
    Department of Bacteriology, UCL Medical School, London, UK
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 22:S109-13. 1997
    ..Recent studies of TB in mice, and in children during infancy, adrenarche and puberty, suggest that the ratio of cortisol to DHEA may be crucial both to susceptibility and to the pathology of the disease that develops...
  11. doi request reprint The hygiene hypothesis and psychiatric disorders
    Graham A W Rook
    Centre for Infectious Diseases and International Health, Windeyer Institute of Medical Sciences, Royal Free and University College Medical School, 46 Cleveland Street, London W1T 4JF, UK
    Trends Immunol 29:150-8. 2008
    ..This is discussed in relation to the effects of the immune system on a specific group of brain serotonergic neurons involved in the pathophysiology of mood disorders...
  12. ncbi request reprint The hygiene hypothesis and the increasing prevalence of chronic inflammatory disorders
    Graham A W Rook
    Centre for Infectious Diseases and International Health, Windeyer Institute of Medical Sciences, Royal Free and University College Medical School, London, UK
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 101:1072-4. 2007
    ....
  13. ncbi request reprint Immune systems in developed and developing countries; implications for the design of vaccines that will work where BCG does not
    Graham A W Rook
    Centre for Infectious Diseases and International Health, Windeyer Institute for Medical Sciences, University College London, UK
    Tuberculosis (Edinb) 86:152-62. 2006
    ..The development of such vaccines, that might work where BCG does not, will require a greater understanding of the roles of the many types of regulatory T cell in tuberculosis...
  14. ncbi request reprint Comments on the new analysis of the Chingleput BCG trial
    Graham A W Rook
    Centre for Infectious Diseases and International Health, Windeyer Institute of Medical Sciences, Royal Free and University College Medical School London W1T 4JF, UK
    Indian J Med Res 123:103-6. 2006
  15. ncbi request reprint Mycobacteria and allergies
    Graham A W Rook
    Centre for Infectious Diseases and International Health, Windeyer Institute of Medical Sciences, Royal Free and University College Medical School, 46 Cleveland Street, London W1T 4JF, UK
    Immunobiology 212:461-73. 2007
    ..There is no doubt that in animal models mycobacteria can both prevent and treat allergic responses either by boosting Th1 or by driving allergen-specific regulatory T cells (RegT). Clinical trials in man remain inconclusive...
  16. ncbi request reprint Th2 cytokines in susceptibility to tuberculosis
    Graham A W Rook
    Centre for Infectious Diseases and International Health CIDIH, University College, London, UK
    Curr Mol Med 7:327-37. 2007
    ..The conclusion is that a vaccine that will work in developing countries might need to do more than enhance the existing Th1 response. In these environments it might be more important to block the Th2 component...
  17. pmc Microbes, immunoregulation, and the gut
    G A W Rook
    Centre for Infectious Diseases and International Health, Windeyer Institute of Medical Sciences, Royal Free and University College Medical School, 46 Cleveland St, London W1T 4JF, UK
    Gut 54:317-20. 2005
    ..The story began with allergic disorders but now inflammatory bowel disease is increasingly involved...
  18. pmc The changing microbial environment and chronic inflammatory disorders
    Graham Aw Rook
    Centre for Infectious Diseases and International Health, Windeyer Institute of Medical Sciences, University College London, London, UK
    Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol 4:117-24. 2008
    ..These include autoimmunity, neuroinflammatory disorders, atherosclerosis, depression associated with raised inflammatory cytokines, and some cancers...
  19. ncbi request reprint Endocrine and cytokine responses in humans with pulmonary tuberculosis
    Graham A W Rook
    Centre for Infectious Diseases and International Health, Windeyer Institute of Medical Sciences, Royal Free and University College Medical School, 46 Cleveland Street, London W1T 4JF, UK
    Brain Behav Immun 21:169-70. 2007
  20. ncbi request reprint Give us this day our daily germs
    G A Rook
    Dept of Bacteriology, UCL Medical School, London, UK
    Immunol Today 19:113-6. 1998
    ..If humans continue to deprive their immune systems of the input to which evolution has adapted it, it may be necessary to devise ways of replacing it artificially...
  21. ncbi request reprint Cortisol metabolism, cortisol sensitivity and the pathogenesis of leprosy reactions
    G A Rook
    Department of Bacteriology, UCL Medical School, UK
    Trop Med Int Health 4:493-8. 1999
    ..We therefore suggest that changes in the activity or direction of action of the shuttle in leprosy lesions may predispose to reactions, requiring exogenous steroid supplements to regain control of the inflammation...
  22. ncbi request reprint Local regulation of glucocorticoid activity in sites of inflammation. Insights from the study of tuberculosis
    G Rook
    Royal Free and University College Medical School, London, United Kingdom
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 917:913-22. 2000
    ..These observations help to explain the sequence of events in several infectious, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases...
  23. ncbi request reprint Advances in the immunopathogenesis of pulmonary tuberculosis
    G A Rook
    Department of Bacteriology and Center for Infectious Diseases and International Health, Royal Free and University College Medical School, Windeyer Institute of Medical Sciences, London, UK
    Curr Opin Pulm Med 7:116-23. 2001
    ....
  24. ncbi request reprint Can nerve damage disrupt neuroendocrine immune homeostasis? Leprosy as a case in point
    Graham A W Rook
    Dept Medical Microbiology, Windeyer Institute of Medical Sciences, Royal Free and University College Medical School, 46 Cleveland Street, W1P 6DB, London, UK
    Trends Immunol 23:18-22. 2002
    ....
  25. ncbi request reprint Immunotherapeutics for tuberculosis in experimental animals: is there a common pathway activated by effective protocols?
    Graham A W Rook
    Centre for Infectious Diseases and International Health, University College London, London W1T 4JF, UK
    J Infect Dis 196:191-8. 2007
    ..This unifying analysis strengthens the rationale for future trials of immunotherapy in humans and points to surrogate markers that could be studied in such trials...
  26. pmc 99th Dahlem conference on infection, inflammation and chronic inflammatory disorders: darwinian medicine and the 'hygiene' or 'old friends' hypothesis
    G A W Rook
    Department Infection, University College London UCL, London, UK
    Clin Exp Immunol 160:70-9. 2010
    ....
  27. ncbi request reprint Give us this day our daily germs
    Graham A W Rook
    Royal Free and University College Medical School, 46 Cleveland Street, London W1P 6DB, UK
    Biologist (London) 49:145-9. 2002
    ..It is vital that we find out which germs are needed, when and how, before the increase in diseases attributable to faulty regulation of the immune system (allergies, autoimmunity, inflammatory bowel disease) spirals out of control...
  28. ncbi request reprint Innate immune responses to mycobacteria and the downregulation of atopic responses
    Graham A W Rook
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Windeyer Institute of Medical Sciences, Royal Free and University College, London, UK
    Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 3:337-42. 2003
    ..We concentrate on mycobacteria and on asthma, because these are well documented...
  29. doi request reprint Hygiene hypothesis and autoimmune diseases
    Graham A W Rook
    Department of Infection, Centre for Clinical Microbiology, University College London UCL, London, UK
    Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 42:5-15. 2012
    ....
  30. doi request reprint Hygiene and other early childhood influences on the subsequent function of the immune system
    Graham A W Rook
    University College London, London, UK
    Dig Dis 29:144-53. 2011
    ....
  31. doi request reprint Infection, immunoregulation, and cancer
    Graham A W Rook
    Department of Infection, University College London UCL, London, UK
    Immunol Rev 240:141-59. 2011
    ..A greater understanding of these interactions might pave the way to improved microbe-based immunotherapies...
  32. ncbi request reprint Mycobacteria and other environmental organisms as immunomodulators for immunoregulatory disorders
    G A W Rook
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Medical School, Windeyer Institute of Medical Sciences, Royal Free and University College, London, UK
    Springer Semin Immunopathol 25:237-55. 2004
    ..These concepts are leading to novel therapies based on harmless organisms or their components. Phase I/II clinical trials have yielded some statistically significant results, and phase II trials are in progress...
  33. doi request reprint Lymphocytes in neuroprotection, cognition and emotion: is intolerance really the answer?
    Graham A W Rook
    Department of Infection, University College London UCL, London W1T4JF, UK
    Brain Behav Immun 25:591-601. 2011
    ..This reinterpretation of findings relevant to "protective autoimmunity" suggests that ongoing, and planned, clinical trials of anti-inflammatory strategies to treat depressive disorders are justified...
  34. ncbi request reprint IL-4 in tuberculosis: implications for vaccine design
    Graham A W Rook
    Centre for Infectious Diseases and International Health, Windeyer Institute for Medical Sciences, Royal Free and University College Medical School, 46 Cleveland Street, London, UK
    Trends Immunol 25:483-8. 2004
    ..If this is important, effective vaccines will need to suppress pre-existing Th2-like activity. Such vaccines are feasible and are active therapeutically in mouse TB...
  35. ncbi request reprint Performance of a T-cell-based diagnostic test for tuberculosis infection in HIV-infected individuals is independent of CD4 cell count
    Keertan Dheda
    Centre for Infectious Diseases and International Health, Department of Population Sciences and Primary Care, Royal Free and University College Medical School, University College London, London, UK
    AIDS 19:2038-41. 2005
    ..ELISPOT test performance appears to be independent of HIV-associated immunosuppression...
  36. ncbi request reprint Mycobacterium vaccae induces a population of pulmonary CD11c+ cells with regulatory potential in allergic mice
    Victoria C Adams
    University College London, Department of Medical Microbiology, Windeyer Institute of Medical Sciences, London, GB
    Eur J Immunol 34:631-8. 2004
    ..vaccae-treated allergic mice. We propose that M. vaccae-induced CD11c+ cells have a potential regulatory role at the site of inflammation through their secretion of immunomodulatory cytokines...
  37. ncbi request reprint The stability of mRNA encoding IL-4 is increased in pulmonary tuberculosis, while stability of mRNA encoding the antagonistic splice variant, IL-4delta2, is not
    Keertan Dheda
    Centre for Infectious Diseases and International Health, Royal Free and University College Medical School, London, UK
    Tuberculosis (Edinb) 87:237-41. 2007
    ..The differential stability of the Th2 agonist, IL-4, compared to the antagonist IL-4delta2, represents a hitherto undescribed post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism that may modulate the polarisation of Th1/Th2 responses in human TB...
  38. ncbi request reprint Utility of the antigen-specific interferon-gamma assay for the management of tuberculosis
    Keertan Dheda
    Centre for Infectious Diseases and International Health, Royal Free and UCL Medical School, London, UK
    Curr Opin Pulm Med 11:195-202. 2005
    ..More recently, T-cell-based interferon-gamma responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis - specific antigens have been investigated for their role in diagnosing latent tuberculosis infection...
  39. pmc Increased expression of mRNA encoding interleukin (IL)-4 and its splice variant IL-4delta2 in cells from contacts of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, in the absence of in vitro stimulation
    Helen A Fletcher
    The Centre for Infectious Diseases and International Health, Windeyer Institute of Medical Sciences, Royal Free and University College Medical School, London, UK
    Immunology 112:669-73. 2004
    ..tuberculosis induces unusual, previously unrecognized, immunological events. We tentatively hypothesize that progression to active disease might depend upon the underlying ratio of IL-4 to IL-4delta2...
  40. ncbi request reprint Lung remodeling in pulmonary tuberculosis
    Keertan Dheda
    Centre for Infectious Diseases and International Health, Department of Thoracic and HIV Medicine, Royal Free Hospital, London, United Kingdom
    J Infect Dis 192:1201-9. 2005
    ..Further studies are needed to identify and develop specific immunotherapeutic interventions that target immunopathology, since they have the potential to substantially reduce spread...
  41. ncbi request reprint Expression of a novel cytokine, IL-4delta2, in HIV and HIV-tuberculosis co-infection
    Keertan Dheda
    Centre for Infectious Diseases and International Health, Royal Free and UCL Medical School, University College London, London, UK
    AIDS 19:1601-6. 2005
    ..However data on interleukin (IL)-4 expression in HIV or AIDS are un-interpretable because of failure to distinguish between IL-4 and its splice variant and natural antagonist, IL-4delta2...
  42. ncbi request reprint Expression of IL-4 mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from normal donors in relation to expression of TLR2
    Jung Su Chang
    Centre for Infectious Diseases and International Health, Royal Free and University College Medical School, 46 Cleveland Street, London W1T 4JF, United Kingdom
    Immunol Lett 106:194-7. 2006
    ..We conclude that in T cell populations from normal donors, expression of IL-4 (but not of its antagonist, IL-4delta2, or of IL-10) is associated with high TLR2 and low TLR1...
  43. ncbi request reprint In vivo and in vitro studies of a novel cytokine, interleukin 4delta2, in pulmonary tuberculosis
    Keertan Dheda
    Centre for Infectious Diseases and International Health, Royal Free and University College Medical School, 46 Cleveland Street, London W1T 4JF, United Kingdom
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 172:501-8. 2005
    ..A putative explanation is the simultaneous presence of a subversive Th2 response. However, interpretation is confounded by interleukin 4delta2 (IL-4delta2), a splice variant and inhibitor of IL-4...
  44. ncbi request reprint Myobacterium tuberculosis induces selective up-regulation of TLRs in the mononuclear leukocytes of patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis
    Jung Su Chang
    Centre for Infectious Diseases and International Health, Royal Free and University College Medical School, London, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 176:3010-8. 2006
    ..We conclude that M. tuberculosis exerts direct effects on patterns of TLR expression, partly via changes in mRNA half-life. The significance of these changes in the pathogenesis of disease deserves further investigation...
  45. ncbi request reprint Immunotherapy with mycobacteria
    Christoph Walker
    Novartis Horsham Research Centre, Horsham, UK
    Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 3:481-6. 2003
    ..To summarize and evaluate critically recent progress with mycobacteria as a potential novel disease modifying treatment strategy in asthma...
  46. ncbi request reprint The importance of models of infection in the study of disease resistance
    Pierre Druilhe
    Biomedical Parasitology Unit, Institute Pasteur, 25 rue du Dr Roux, Paris, France
    Trends Microbiol 10:S38-46. 2002
    ....
  47. ncbi request reprint Tuberculosis
    Phillip Onyebujoh
    Nat Rev Microbiol 2:930-2. 2004
  48. ncbi request reprint 16alpha-Bromoepiandrosterone restores T helper cell type 1 activity and accelerates chemotherapy-induced bacterial clearance in a model of progressive pulmonary tuberculosis
    Rogelio Hernandez-Pando
    Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Mexico City, Mexico
    J Infect Dis 191:299-306. 2005
    ..Moreover, when given as an adjunct to conventional chemotherapy, EpiBr enhanced bacterial clearance. Trials for the use of EpiBr in the treatment of human tuberculosis are now justified...
  49. ncbi request reprint Dangers of therapeutic manipulation of the Th-Th2 balance
    Laura Rosa Brunet
    Trends Immunol 23:127-8. 2002
  50. ncbi request reprint Mechanisms of disease: the hygiene hypothesis revisited
    Francisco Guarner
    University Hospital Vall d Hebron, Barcelona, Spain
    Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol 3:275-84. 2006
    ..The use of probiotics, prebiotics, helminths or microbe-derived immunoregulatory vaccines might, therefore, become a valuable approach to disease prevention...
  51. ncbi request reprint Interferon gamma assays for tuberculosis
    Keertan Dheda
    Lancet Infect Dis 5:324-5; author reply 325-7. 2005
  52. ncbi request reprint Treatment with SRL172 (heat-killed Mycobacterium vaccae) inhibits progression of established experimental periodontal disease in Wistar rats
    Torbjørn Brelvik
    Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Oslo, Norway
    J Periodontal Res 37:210-4. 2002
    ..0086) on the control side. Thus SRL172 is an effective treatment in this model. As SRL172 has undergone extensive safety testing in man, these results justify clinical studies in periodontal disease, and such studies are now planned...
  53. ncbi request reprint Oral treatment with SRP299 (killed Mycobacterium vaccae) inhibits experimental periodontal disease in Wistar rats
    Torbjørn Breivik
    Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Oslo, Blindern, Oslo, Norway
    J Clin Periodontol 30:931-6. 2003
    ..vaccae) to prevent ligature-enhanced PD in Wistar rats, and to modulate the accompanying cytokine and corticosterone responses...
  54. ncbi request reprint Tryptophan metabolism in the central nervous system: medical implications
    Jon P Ruddick
    Henry Wellcome Laboratories for Integrative Neuroscience and Endocrinology, University of Bristol, UK
    Expert Rev Mol Med 8:1-27. 2006
    ....
  55. ncbi request reprint Stop TB: a long way to go, but new twists & turns in the science
    Graham A W Rook
    Indian J Med Res 125:109-11. 2007