Affiliation: University of Cambridge
Country: UK


  1. Rae C, Gordiyenko Y, Ramakrishnan V. How a circularized tmRNA moves through the ribosome. Science. 2019;363:740-744 pubmed publisher
    ..The results show how tmRNA and SmpB act specifically on stalled ribosomes and how the circularized complex moves through the ribosome, enabling translation to switch from the old defective message to the reading frame on tmRNA. ..
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    Ramakrishnan V, Moore P. Atomic structures at last: the ribosome in 2000. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2001;11:144-54 pubmed
    ..A year before that, a 7.8 A resolution electron density map of the 70S ribosome from T. thermophilus appeared. This information is revolutionizing our understanding of protein synthesis. ..
  3. Amunts A, Fiedorczuk K, Truong T, CHANDLER J, Greenberg E, Ramakrishnan V. Bactobolin A binds to a site on the 70S ribosome distinct from previously seen antibiotics. J Mol Biol. 2015;427:753-755 pubmed publisher
    ..It thus likely has a similar mechanism of action as blasticidin S despite binding to a different site. The structure also rationalizes previously identified resistance mutations. ..
  4. Ramakrishnan V. The Diamond Light Source and the challenges ahead for structural biology: some informal remarks. Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci. 2015;373: pubmed publisher
    ..Many of these advances have been made possible by the use of X-ray crystallography using synchrotron radiation. In this short article, some of the challenges and prospects that lie ahead will be summarized. ..
  5. Llácer J, Hussain T, Marler L, Aitken C, Thakur A, Lorsch J, et al. Conformational Differences between Open and Closed States of the Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Complex. Mol Cell. 2015;59:399-412 pubmed publisher
  6. Ramakrishnan V. What we have learned from ribosome structures. Biochem Soc Trans. 2008;36:567-74 pubmed publisher
  7. Ramakrishnan V. The ribosome emerges from a black box. Cell. 2014;159:979-984 pubmed publisher
    ..These advances have transformed our understanding of translation in the cell. ..
  8. Hussain T, Llácer J, Fernández I, Muñoz A, Martin Marcos P, Savva C, et al. Structural changes enable start codon recognition by the eukaryotic translation initiation complex. Cell. 2014;159:597-607 pubmed publisher
    ..The mRNA traverses the entire mRNA cleft and makes connections to the regulatory domain of eIF2?, eIF1A, and ribosomal elements that allow recognition of context nucleotides surrounding the AUG codon. ..
  9. Shao S, Murray J, Brown A, Taunton J, Ramakrishnan V, Hegde R. Decoding Mammalian Ribosome-mRNA States by Translational GTPase Complexes. Cell. 2016;167:1229-1240.e15 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide a structural framework for how different states of the mammalian ribosome are selectively recognized by the appropriate decoding factor?GTPase complex to ensure translational fidelity. ..

More Information


  1. Desai N, Brown A, Amunts A, Ramakrishnan V. The structure of the yeast mitochondrial ribosome. Science. 2017;355:528-531 pubmed publisher
    ..The structure provides insights into the evolution and species-specific specialization of mitochondrial translation. ..
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    Ramakrishnan V. Ribosome structure and the mechanism of translation. Cell. 2002;108:557-72 pubmed
    ..This review is an attempt to correlate the structures with biochemical and genetic data to identify the gaps and limits in our current knowledge of the mechanisms involved in translation. ..
  3. Fernández I, Bai X, Murshudov G, Scheres S, Ramakrishnan V. Initiation of translation by cricket paralysis virus IRES requires its translocation in the ribosome. Cell. 2014;157:823-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Translocation of the IRES by elongation factor 2 (eEF2) is required to bring the first codon of the mRNA into the A site and to allow the start of translation. ..
  4. Hussain T, Llácer J, Wimberly B, Kieft J, Ramakrishnan V. Large-Scale Movements of IF3 and tRNA during Bacterial Translation Initiation. Cell. 2016;167:133-144.e13 pubmed publisher
    ..IF3 and tRNA undergo large conformational changes to facilitate the accommodation of the formylmethionyl-tRNA (fMet-tRNA(fMet)) into the P site for start codon recognition. ..
  5. James N, Brown A, Gordiyenko Y, Ramakrishnan V. Translational termination without a stop codon. Science. 2016;354:1437-1440 pubmed