Munir Pirmohamed

Summary

Affiliation: University of Liverpool
Country: UK

Publications

  1. pmc Variability of antibiotic prescribing in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations: a cohort study
    Rachael Boggon
    Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency, 151 Buckingham Palace Road, London SW1W 9SZ, UK
    BMC Pulm Med 13:32. 2013
  2. doi request reprint Mechanism of clozapine-induced agranulocytosis : current status of research and implications for drug development
    M Pirmohamed
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 3BX, UK
    CNS Drugs 7:139-58. 1997
  3. pmc Genetic factors in the predisposition to drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions
    Munir Pirmohamed
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Ashton Street, Liverpool, UK L69 3GE
    AAPS J 8:E20-6. 2006
  4. doi request reprint Clinical management of HIV-associated lipodystrophy
    Munir Pirmohamed
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, and NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University Hospital, Liverpool, UK
    Curr Opin Lipidol 20:309-14. 2009
  5. doi request reprint TNF, LTA, HSPA1L and HLA-DR gene polymorphisms in HIV-positive patients with hypersensitivity to cotrimoxazole
    Ana Alfirevic
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, Sherrington Building, Ashton Street, Liverpool, Merseyside, L69 3GE, UK
    Pharmacogenomics 10:531-40. 2009
  6. doi request reprint Measurement of CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocyte cytokine secretion and gene expression changes in p-phenylenediamine allergic patients and tolerant individuals
    Eve M Coulter
    Department of Pharmacology, MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    J Invest Dermatol 130:161-74. 2010
  7. ncbi request reprint Assessment of adipokine expression and mitochondrial toxicity in HIV patients with lipoatrophy on stavudine- and zidovudine-containing regimens
    Simon P Jones
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 40:565-72. 2005
  8. ncbi request reprint HLA-B locus in Caucasian patients with carbamazepine hypersensitivity
    Ana Alfirevic
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Sherrington Building, Ashton Street, Liverpool, L69 3GE, UK
    Pharmacogenomics 7:813-8. 2006
  9. ncbi request reprint Altered adipokine response in murine 3T3-F442A adipocytes treated with protease inhibitors and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
    Simon P Jones
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Antivir Ther 10:207-13. 2005
  10. ncbi request reprint Tacrine-induced liver damage: an analysis of 19 candidate genes
    Ana Alfirevic
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Sherrington Building, Ashton Street, Liverpool, UK
    Pharmacogenet Genomics 17:1091-100. 2007

Detail Information

Publications93

  1. pmc Variability of antibiotic prescribing in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations: a cohort study
    Rachael Boggon
    Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency, 151 Buckingham Palace Road, London SW1W 9SZ, UK
    BMC Pulm Med 13:32. 2013
    ....
  2. doi request reprint Mechanism of clozapine-induced agranulocytosis : current status of research and implications for drug development
    M Pirmohamed
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 3BX, UK
    CNS Drugs 7:139-58. 1997
    ..The latter depends on identifying the mechanism of toxicity and the chemical characteristics of clozapine that are responsible for the toxicity. This knowledge may allow rational design of new analogues that do not cause agranulocytosis...
  3. pmc Genetic factors in the predisposition to drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions
    Munir Pirmohamed
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Ashton Street, Liverpool, UK L69 3GE
    AAPS J 8:E20-6. 2006
    ....
  4. doi request reprint Clinical management of HIV-associated lipodystrophy
    Munir Pirmohamed
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, and NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University Hospital, Liverpool, UK
    Curr Opin Lipidol 20:309-14. 2009
    ..The pathogenesis is multifactorial. This article provides an update on the latest findings of the different clinical management strategies that have been utilized in patients with lipodystrophy...
  5. doi request reprint TNF, LTA, HSPA1L and HLA-DR gene polymorphisms in HIV-positive patients with hypersensitivity to cotrimoxazole
    Ana Alfirevic
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, Sherrington Building, Ashton Street, Liverpool, Merseyside, L69 3GE, UK
    Pharmacogenomics 10:531-40. 2009
    ..The aim of the study was to determine whether functional polymorphisms in TNF, LTA, HSPA1L and HLA-DRB1 genes influence the risk of cotrimoxazole hypersensitivity in HIV-infected patients...
  6. doi request reprint Measurement of CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocyte cytokine secretion and gene expression changes in p-phenylenediamine allergic patients and tolerant individuals
    Eve M Coulter
    Department of Pharmacology, MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    J Invest Dermatol 130:161-74. 2010
    ..These studies show increased activity of Th2 cytokines in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from individuals with allergic contact dermatitis...
  7. ncbi request reprint Assessment of adipokine expression and mitochondrial toxicity in HIV patients with lipoatrophy on stavudine- and zidovudine-containing regimens
    Simon P Jones
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 40:565-72. 2005
    ....
  8. ncbi request reprint HLA-B locus in Caucasian patients with carbamazepine hypersensitivity
    Ana Alfirevic
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Sherrington Building, Ashton Street, Liverpool, L69 3GE, UK
    Pharmacogenomics 7:813-8. 2006
    ..A strong pharmacogenetic association has been reported in Chinese patients between human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B*1502 and carbamazepine (CBZ)-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS)...
  9. ncbi request reprint Altered adipokine response in murine 3T3-F442A adipocytes treated with protease inhibitors and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
    Simon P Jones
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Antivir Ther 10:207-13. 2005
    ..We have therefore investigated the effects of individual antiretrovirals on adipokine expression and adipogenesis using a murine cell line in vitro...
  10. ncbi request reprint Tacrine-induced liver damage: an analysis of 19 candidate genes
    Ana Alfirevic
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Sherrington Building, Ashton Street, Liverpool, UK
    Pharmacogenet Genomics 17:1091-100. 2007
    ..Our aim was to investigate whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 19 candidate genes were associated with tacrine-induced liver damage...
  11. pmc Direct evidence for the formation of diastereoisomeric benzylpenicilloyl haptens from benzylpenicillin and benzylpenicillenic acid in patients
    Xiaoli Meng
    Medical Research Council Centre for Drug Safety Science, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 338:841-9. 2011
    ..Furthermore, PA was found to be more potent than BP with respect to stimulation of T cells from patients with penicillin hypersensitivity, illustrating the functional relevance of diastereoisomeric hapten formation...
  12. doi request reprint Adherence and variability in warfarin dose requirements: assessment in a prospective cohort
    Andrea L Jorgensen
    Department of Biostatistics, University of Liverpool, Shelley s Cottage, Brownlow Street, Liverpool, L69 3GS, UK
    Pharmacogenomics 14:151-63. 2013
    ..An as yet unexplored factor is medication adherence. Here, we investigate the influence of adherence on response to warfarin and on pharmacogenetic analyses of association...
  13. ncbi request reprint Molecular and genetic association of interleukin-6 in tacrine-induced hepatotoxicity
    Daniel F Carr
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Pharmacogenet Genomics 17:961-72. 2007
    ..The factors determining individual susceptibility are largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate genetic predisposition...
  14. pmc Haplotype structure of CYP2B6 and association with plasma efavirenz concentrations in a Chilean HIV cohort
    Daniel F Carr
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 65:1889-93. 2010
    ..The objective of this study was to investigate CYP2B6 haplotype structure and functional consequences in a Latin American population...
  15. pmc Quantifying the metabolic activation of nevirapine in patients by integrated applications of NMR and mass spectrometries
    Abhishek Srivastava
    MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    Drug Metab Dispos 38:122-32. 2010
    ..The method can be used as a template for comparative estimations of bioactivation of any drug in patients...
  16. ncbi request reprint Lipodystrophy in patients with HIV-1 infection: effect of stopping protease inhibitors on TNF-alpha and TNF-receptor levels, and on metabolic parameters
    Bridget Maher
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Antivir Ther 9:879-87. 2004
    ..To evaluate the effects of stopping treatment with protease inhibitors (PIs) on tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and TNF-receptor levels, and on the metabolic and morphological abnormalities seen in patients with lipodystrophy...
  17. ncbi request reprint Investigation of toxic metabolites during drug development
    Kevin Park
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Drug Safety Research Group, University of Liverpool, Sherrington Buildings, Liverpool, Merseyside L69 3GE, UK
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 207:425-34. 2005
    ..This will provide a deeper understanding of potential toxicophores for drug design and define candidate genes for pharmacogenomic approaches to individualized medicines...
  18. ncbi request reprint Drug-specific T cells in an HIV-positive patient with nevirapine-induced hepatitis
    Nicola S Drummond
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Ashton Street, Liverpool, UK
    Antivir Ther 11:393-5. 2006
    ..However, there is little laboratory evidence to support an immune pathogenesis...
  19. ncbi request reprint Activation of T cells by carbamazepine and carbamazepine metabolites
    Ying Wu
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Ashton Street, Liverpool L69 3GE, UK
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 118:233-41. 2006
    ..T-cell-mediated hypersensitivity is a rare but serious manifestation of drug therapy...
  20. doi request reprint Characterization of p-phenylenediamine-albumin binding sites and T-cell responses to hapten-modified protein
    Claire Jenkinson
    Department of Pharmacology, The MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    J Invest Dermatol 130:732-42. 2010
    ..These data identify Cys as the single target for PPD-HSA binding, and show that PPD protein adducts are antigenic determinants in patients with contact dermatitis...
  21. ncbi request reprint Generation and characterization of antigen-specific CD4+, CD8+, and CD4+CD8+ T-cell clones from patients with carbamazepine hypersensitivity
    Ying Wu
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 119:973-81. 2007
    ..Attempts to characterize drug-specific CD8(+) T cells have been largely unsuccessful...
  22. doi request reprint Trimethoprim stimulates T-cells through metabolism-dependent and -independent pathways
    Sabah El-Ghaiesh
    MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, Department of Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Sherrington Building, Ashton Street, Liverpool, L69 3GE, England
    Chem Res Toxicol 24:791-3. 2011
    ..Stimulation of certain clones was blocked through inhibition of drug-metabolizing enzyme activity. Trimethoprim clones were additionally stimulated with diaveridine and pyrimethamine but not other closely related structures...
  23. doi request reprint Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B*57:01-restricted activation of drug-specific T cells provides the immunological basis for flucloxacillin-induced liver injury
    Manal M Monshi
    MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, Department of Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Hepatology 57:727-39. 2013
    ..Clones displayed additional reactivity against β-lactam antibiotics including oxacillin, cloxacillin, and dicloxacillin, but not abacavir or nitroso sulfamethoxazole...
  24. doi request reprint Genetics and the potential for predictive tests in adverse drug reactions
    Munir Pirmohamed
    The Wolfson Centre for Personalised Medicine, Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Chem Immunol Allergy 97:18-31. 2012
    ....
  25. doi request reprint Effects of CYP4F2 genetic polymorphisms and haplotypes on clinical outcomes in patients initiated on warfarin therapy
    Jieying Eunice Zhang
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, UK
    Pharmacogenet Genomics 19:781-9. 2009
    ..A variant in the CYP4F2 gene, rs2108622, has been recently shown to determine stable warfarin dose requirements. CYP4F2 has also been shown recently to metabolize vitamin K...
  26. ncbi request reprint Sulfamethoxazole and its metabolite nitroso sulfamethoxazole stimulate dendritic cell costimulatory signaling
    Joseph P Sanderson
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 178:5533-42. 2007
    ..These data provide evidence of a link between localized metabolism, dendritic cell activation, and drug immunogenicity...
  27. pmc Genetic and environmental factors determining clinical outcomes and cost of warfarin therapy: a prospective study
    Andrea L Jorgensen
    Department of Pharmacology, Centre for Medical Statistics and Health Evaluation, The University of Liverpool, UK
    Pharmacogenet Genomics 19:800-12. 2009
    ....
  28. pmc Relationship between the C3435T and G2677T(A) polymorphisms in the ABCB1 gene and P-glycoprotein expression in human liver
    Andrew Owen
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Ashton Street, Liverpool, L69 3GE, U K
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 59:365-70. 2005
    ..The aim of the study was to determine whether a correlation exists between MDR1 (ABCB1) gene polymorphisms at positions 3435 (C3435T) and 2677 (G2677T(A)) and the expression of human hepatic P-glycoprotein (P-gp)...
  29. ncbi request reprint Cost-effectiveness analysis of HLA B*5701 genotyping in preventing abacavir hypersensitivity
    Dyfrig A Hughes
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 3GE, UK
    Pharmacogenetics 14:335-42. 2004
    ..Our aim was to confirm the presence of this genetic factor in our patients, and to determine whether genotyping for HLA B*5701 would be a cost-effective use of healthcare resources...
  30. doi request reprint β-Lactam antibiotics form distinct haptenic structures on albumin and activate drug-specific T-lymphocyte responses in multiallergic patients with cystic fibrosis
    Rosalind E Jenkins
    MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, Department of Pharmacology, The University of Liverpool, Sherrington Building, Ashton Street, Liverpool L69 3GE, England
    Chem Res Toxicol 26:963-75. 2013
    ..Characterization of complex haptenic structures on distinct HSA lysine residues provides a chemical basis for the drug-specific T-cell response...
  31. pmc Characterization of the antigen specificity of T-cell clones from piperacillin-hypersensitive patients with cystic fibrosis
    Sabah El-Ghaiesh
    Medical Research Council Centre for Drug Safety Science, Department of Pharmacology, Sherrington Building, Ashton Street, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 3GE, United Kingdom
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 341:597-610. 2012
    ..Collectively, these data describe the cellular processes that underlie the structural specificity of piperacillin antigen binding in hypersensitive patients with cystic fibrosis...
  32. doi request reprint Lamotrigine is a substrate for OCT1 in brain endothelial cells
    David Dickens
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Biochem Pharmacol 83:805-14. 2012
    ..The clinical implications of these findings with respect to the efficacy of lamotrigine and its potential for DDI require further investigation...
  33. doi request reprint Adipogenic gene variants in patients with HIV-associated lipodystrophy
    Sudeep P Pushpakom
    NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Royal Liverpool Hospital, Liverpool, UK
    Pharmacogenet Genomics 21:76-83. 2011
    ..We hypothesized that variation in genes regulating adipogenesis, and in those implicated in inherited forms of lipodystrophy, may predispose to the development of HIVLD...
  34. ncbi request reprint Characterization of drug-specific T cells in lamotrigine hypersensitivity
    Dean J Naisbitt
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Sherrington Building, Ashton Street, The University of Liverpool, PO Box 147, Liverpool L69 3GE, England
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 111:1393-403. 2003
    ..Lamotrigine is associated with hypersensitivity reactions, which are most commonly characterized by skin rash. An immune etiology has been postulated, though the nature of this is unclear...
  35. pmc Induction of P-glycoprotein in lymphocytes by carbamazepine and rifampicin: the role of nuclear hormone response elements
    Andrew Owen
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 62:237-42. 2006
    ..In this study, we have investigated whether CBZ acts as an inducer of Pgp in lymphocytes...
  36. pmc Slow acetylator phenotype and genotype in HIV-positive patients with sulphamethoxazole hypersensitivity
    Ana Alfirevic
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 55:158-65. 2003
    ..To test the role of acetylator status, and to investigate the reported discrepancy between acetylator phenotype and genotype in HIV-positive patients with sulphamethoxazole (SMX) hypersensitivity...
  37. doi request reprint Effect of atazanavir and ritonavir on the differentiation and adipokine secretion of human subcutaneous and omental preadipocytes
    Simon P Jones
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    AIDS 22:1293-8. 2008
    ....
  38. doi request reprint Drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions and pharmacogenomics: past, present and future
    Ana Alfirevic
    The Wolfson Centre for Personalised Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Block A, Waterhouse Buildings, 1 5 Brownlow Street, Liverpool, L69 3GL, UK
    Pharmacogenomics 11:497-9. 2010
    ..In addition, it is necessary to advance our knowledge of hypersensitivity mechanisms through functional studies, which will lead to the development of predictive and diagnostic tests...
  39. ncbi request reprint Investigation into the multidimensional genetic basis of drug-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis
    Munir Pirmohamed
    The University of Liverpool, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Ashton Street, Liverpool, L69 3GE, UK
    Pharmacogenomics 8:1661-91. 2007
    ..The two idiosyncratic conditions are distinguished on the basis of the degree of blistering, possibly representing diseases at different ends of the same spectrum. A genetic predisposition has been postulated...
  40. ncbi request reprint The role of metabolic activation in drug-induced hepatotoxicity
    B Kevin Park
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, Sherrington Buildings, Liverpool, Merseyside L69 3GE, United Kingdom
    Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 45:177-202. 2005
    ....
  41. doi request reprint Transport of gabapentin by LAT1 (SLC7A5)
    David Dickens
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Biochem Pharmacol 85:1672-83. 2013
    ..Gabapentin was negative for OCT like transport and LAT2 activity in the hCMEC/D3 and OCT1 transfected cells. Our data shows that gabapentin is a substrate for the influx transporter LAT1 at therapeutic concentrations...
  42. ncbi request reprint Pharmacogenetics of HIV therapy
    Andrew Owen
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Pharmacogenet Genomics 16:693-703. 2006
    ..Most importantly, the phenotype needs to be carefully characterized. We also need to disseminate this information: a pivotal resource for this can be found at www.HIV-pharmacogenomics.org...
  43. doi request reprint Simultaneous determination of nilotinib, imatinib and its main metabolite (CGP-74588) in human plasma by ultra-violet high performance liquid chromatography
    Andrea Davies
    Department of Haematology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Leuk Res 34:702-7. 2010
    ..This simple and novel method may be used to quantify levels of TKIs when used alone or in combination with drug treatments for clinical samples...
  44. ncbi request reprint Immunopharmacology of hypersensitivity reactions to drugs
    Dean J Naisbitt
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Ashton Street, Liverpool, L69 3GE, UK
    Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 3:22-9. 2003
    ..The "danger signal" might result from chemical, physical, or viral stress...
  45. doi request reprint Pharmacologic markers and predictors of responses to imatinib therapy in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia
    Richard E Clark
    University Department of Haematology, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool, UK
    Leuk Lymphoma 49:639-42. 2008
    ..Uptake of the second generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors, dasatinib and nilotinib, is less dependent upon hOCT1. These two drugs may therefore achieve adequate intracellular concentrations even in patients with low hOCT1 expression...
  46. ncbi request reprint Serious carbamazepine-induced hypersensitivity reactions associated with the HSP70 gene cluster
    Ana Alfirevic
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Sherrington Building, Ashton Street, Liverpool, UK
    Pharmacogenet Genomics 16:287-96. 2006
    ..The heat shock protein (HSP70) gene cluster is located in the MHC class III region...
  47. doi request reprint Metabolic acidosis with topiramate and zonisamide: an assessment of its severity and predictors
    Nasir S Mirza
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Pharmacogenet Genomics 21:297-302. 2011
    ..Carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitors topiramate and zonisamide can induce metabolic acidosis in some patients. Our aims were to assess the prevalence and severity of this acidosis and to determine its predictors...
  48. ncbi request reprint Immunological principles of T-cell-mediated adverse drug reactions in skin
    Dean J Naisbitt
    University of Liverpool, Department of Pharmacology, The Sherrington Building, Ashton Street, Liverpool, UK
    Expert Opin Drug Saf 6:109-24. 2007
    ....
  49. pmc Hypersensitivity reactions to HIV therapy
    Mas Chaponda
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GL, UK
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 71:659-71. 2011
    ....
  50. pmc Paediatric use of mycophenolate mofetil
    Heather J Downing
    Department of Women s and Children s Health, Institute of Translational Medicine, The University of Liverpool, Alder Hey Children s NHS Foundation Trust, Eaton Road, Liverpool L12 2AP, UK
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 75:45-59. 2013
    ....
  51. doi request reprint Institutional profile: the Wolfson Centre for Personalised Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Ana Alfirevic
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Block A Waterhouse Buildings, 1 5 Brownlow Street, Liverpool L69 3GL, UK
    Pharmacogenomics 14:861-7. 2013
    ..In addition to translation into clinical practice, the Centre puts significant emphasis into education of clinicians and scientists alike, as well as public engagement activities to promote personalized medicine...
  52. pmc Exploring the genomic basis of pharmacoresistance in epilepsy: an integrative analysis of large-scale gene expression profiling studies on brain tissue from epilepsy surgery
    Nasir Mirza
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Hum Mol Genet 20:4381-94. 2011
    ..Our analysis provides novel biologically plausible candidate genes and pathways which warrant further investigation to assess their causal relevance...
  53. ncbi request reprint Pharmacogenetics in clinical practice: considerations for testing
    Simon Constable
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Ashton Street Medical School, University of Liverpool, Ashton Street, Liverpool, L69 3GE, UK
    Expert Rev Mol Diagn 6:193-205. 2006
    ..This review focuses on issues that will need to be considered in the scientific assessment of pharmacogenetic testing...
  54. pmc Adverse drug reactions: back to the future
    Munir Pirmohamed
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Ashton Street, UK
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 55:486-92. 2003
  55. ncbi request reprint Characterization of sulfamethoxazole and sulfamethoxazole metabolite-specific T-cell responses in animals and humans
    John Farrell
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, England, UK
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 306:229-37. 2003
    ..These results highlight important differences in T-cell recognition of drug (metabolite) antigens in animals that have been sensitized against a drug metabolite and patients with hypersensitivity to the drug...
  56. pmc Emergency re-admissions to hospital due to adverse drug reactions within 1 year of the index admission
    Emma C Davies
    The Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University Hospitals Trust, Liverpool L7 8XP, UK
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 70:749-55. 2010
    ..The proportion of re-admissions to hospital caused by ADRs is poorly documented in the UK. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of ADRs on re-admission to hospital after a period as an inpatient...
  57. pmc Interpreting adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports as hospital patient safety incidents
    Emma C Davies
    The Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University Hospitals Trust, Prescot Street, Liverpool L7 8XP, UK
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 70:102-8. 2010
    ....
  58. doi request reprint Pharmacogenetic tests: the need for a level playing field
    Munir Pirmohamed
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, Wolfson Centre for Personalised Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Nat Rev Drug Discov 12:3-4. 2013
    ....
  59. doi request reprint ABCB1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (1236C>T, 2677G>T, and 3435C>T) do not affect transport activity of human P-glycoprotein
    David Dickens
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, The Wolfson Centre for Personalised Medicine, Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Pharmacogenet Genomics 23:314-23. 2013
    ..Our aim was to generate a P-gp expression system for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and the reference sequence to assess the functional significance of these variants on transport...
  60. pmc Reported paediatric adverse drug reactions in the UK 2000-2009
    Daniel B Hawcutt
    Division of Developmental and Reproductive Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool Northwick Park Hospital, Watford Road, Harrow, London Alder Hey Children s Hospital, Liverpool Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 73:437-46. 2012
    ..MHRA advice is to report all suspected ADRs in paediatric (<17 years) patients...
  61. ncbi request reprint Drug hypersensitivity reactions in patients with HIV disease
    Munir Pirmohamed
    Professor, University of Liverpool, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Ashton Street, Liverpool L69 3GE, UK
    Expert Rev Clin Immunol 3:395-410. 2007
    ..This avenue of research is destined to lead to better preventive strategies...
  62. ncbi request reprint Activation of T-cells from allergic patients and volunteers by p-phenylenediamine and Bandrowski's base
    Eve Marie Coulter
    Department of Pharmacology, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    J Invest Dermatol 128:897-905. 2008
    ..BB-specific T cells are found in both allergic patients and volunteers, but not in cord blood. Their presence seems to reflect an acquired immune response, which is not translated into an allergic reaction...
  63. doi request reprint Pharmacogenetics in reproductive and perinatal medicine
    Ana Alfirevic
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Sherrington Building, Ashton Street, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, Merseyside, L69 3GE, UK
    Pharmacogenomics 11:65-79. 2010
    ..Our review points out the need for well-designed clinical studies on the efficacy and safety of medicines used in women of childbearing age in order to define the additional utility provided by pharmacogenetic testing...
  64. ncbi request reprint Whole-blood cultures from renal-transplant patients stimulated ex vivo show that the effects of cyclosporine on lymphocyte proliferation are related to P-glycoprotein expression
    Dave Singh
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool and Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool, UK
    Transplantation 77:557-61. 2004
    ....
  65. ncbi request reprint Intracellular disposition and metabolic effects of zidovudine, stavudine and four protease inhibitors in cultured adipocytes
    Omar Janneh
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Antivir Ther 8:417-26. 2003
    ..We have investigated the disposition of these drugs in adipocytes and the consequent effect on adipocyte metabolism and viability...
  66. ncbi request reprint Cytochrome P450 enzyme polymorphisms and adverse drug reactions
    Munir Pirmohamed
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Ashton Street, Liverpool L69 3GE, UK
    Toxicology 192:23-32. 2003
    ..Further studies that address these deficiencies are urgently needed--only then will prospective P450 genotyping become routine in clinical practice...
  67. doi request reprint Characterisation of flucloxacillin and 5-hydroxymethyl flucloxacillin haptenated HSA in vitro and in vivo
    Rosalind E Jenkins
    MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, UK
    Proteomics Clin Appl 3:720-9. 2009
    ..This study provides a detailed characterisation of sites of chemical modification of an endogenous target and reveals candidate peptides for T-cell and antibody assays of flucloxacillin hypersensitivity...
  68. doi request reprint Off-label and unlicensed medicine use and adverse drug reactions in children: a narrative review of the literature
    Jennifer Mason
    Alder Hey Children s NHS Foundation Trust, Eaton Road, Liverpool, L12 2AP, UK
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol 68:21-8. 2012
    ..In this narrative review, we have evaluated the use of off-label and unlicensed medicines in children and whether and how frequently this predisposes to adverse drug reactions...
  69. ncbi request reprint The danger hypothesis--potential role in idiosyncratic drug reactions
    Munir Pirmohamed
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Ashton Street, Liverpool L69 3GE, UK
    Toxicology 181:55-63. 2002
    ..Nevertheless, this clinical evidence has to be regarded as being circumstantial and more direct experimental evidence is required to understand the role of 'danger' in the overall pathogenesis of drug hypersensitivity reactions...
  70. ncbi request reprint Reporting of adverse drug reactions by nurses
    Sally Morrison-Griffiths
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, Ashton Street, L69 3GE, Liverpool, UK
    Lancet 361:1347-8. 2003
    ..4-15.0, z=2.3, p=0.02). Our findings suggest that nurses, who form the largest proportion of health-care staff in the UK, can play a valuable part in improvement of pharmacovigilance...
  71. ncbi request reprint Clinical pharmacology: special safety considerations in drug development and pharmacovigilance
    Kwame N Atuah
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    Drug Saf 27:535-54. 2004
    ..The various aspects of clinical pharmacology discussed make a strong case for this field as the backbone of optimising and promoting safe development and use of drugs...
  72. doi request reprint Risk modeling strategies for pharmacogenetic studies
    Andrea L Jorgensen
    Department of Biostatistics, University of Liverpool, Shelley s Cottage, Brownlow Street, Liverpool, L69 3GS, UK
    Pharmacogenomics 12:397-410. 2011
    ..Where outcome is continuous, such as therapeutic dose, assessing a model's performance is generally more intuitive and straightforward since the aim is to achieve a predicted dose as close as possible to the true therapeutic dose...
  73. doi request reprint Statins inhibit aminoglycoside accumulation and cytotoxicity to renal proximal tubule cells
    Daniel J Antoine
    MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, Merseyside, L69 3GE, UK
    Biochem Pharmacol 79:647-54. 2010
    ..In summary, our data suggest that the inhibition of the mevalonate pathway by statins may provide a potential therapeutic strategy to prevent AG-induced nephrotoxicity...
  74. ncbi request reprint Adverse drug reactions in hospitals: a narrative review
    Emma C Davies
    The Royal Liverpool University Hospital Trust, Prescot Street, Liverpool, L7 8XP, UK
    Curr Drug Saf 2:79-87. 2007
    ..This paper reviews the epidemiology of ADRs in hospitals and evaluates the research that has been undertaken to date to prevent ADRs...
  75. pmc Warfarin: almost 60 years old and still causing problems
    Munir Pirmohamed
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Ashton Street, Liverpool, UK
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 62:509-11. 2006
  76. pmc Effect of topiramate on acid-base balance: extent, mechanism and effects
    Nasir Mirza
    Department of Pharmacology, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 68:655-61. 2009
    ..The utility of regular monitoring of HCO(3)(-) levels has not been proven and is not routine practice currently. For patients with persistent RTA, topiramate should usually be discontinued as alternative agents are available...
  77. ncbi request reprint Active transport of imatinib into and out of cells: implications for drug resistance
    Julia Thomas
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Ashton Street, Liverpool, L69 3GE, United Kingdom
    Blood 104:3739-45. 2004
    ..Differential expression of influx (hOCT1) and efflux (MDR1) transporters may be a critical determinant of intracellular drug levels and, hence, resistance to imatinib...
  78. ncbi request reprint TNF-alpha promoter region gene polymorphisms in HIV-positive patients with lipodystrophy
    Bridget Maher
    Department of Pharmacology, The University of Liverpool, Ashton Street, Liverpool, UK
    AIDS 16:2013-8. 2002
    ....
  79. ncbi request reprint Bioactivation of clozapine by murine cardiac tissue in vivo and in vitro
    Dominic P Williams
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    Chem Res Toxicol 16:1359-64. 2003
    ..5 +/- 0.06%, respectively. These data indicate that clozapine undergoes bioactivation in the heart to a chemically reactive nitrenium metabolite that may be important in the pathogenesis of myocarditis and cardiomyopathy observed in man...
  80. ncbi request reprint Drugs and the retina
    Simon Constable
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, Ashton Street Medical School, UK
    Expert Opin Drug Saf 3:249-59. 2004
    ..The treatment of this condition with the antiviral agents ganciclovir, valganciclovir, foscarnet and cidofovir, can also be associated with significant systemic toxicity...
  81. ncbi request reprint Covalent binding of the nitroso metabolite of sulfamethoxazole leads to toxicity and major histocompatibility complex-restricted antigen presentation
    Dean J Naisbitt
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    Mol Pharmacol 62:628-37. 2002
    ..5 and 1 microM and 5 to 10 microM, respectively. The potential of SMX-NO to generate a potent antigen and cause cytotoxicity may in combination provide the signals necessary to induce a hypersensitivity reaction to SMX...
  82. pmc Effective dasatinib uptake may occur without human organic cation transporter 1 (hOCT1): implications for the treatment of imatinib-resistant chronic myeloid leukemia
    Athina Giannoudis
    Department of Haematology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    Blood 112:3348-54. 2008
    ..Efflux of dasatinib and imatinib appear similar via ABCB1. Dasatinib may therefore offer an advantage over imatinib in patients with low hOCT1 expression...
  83. ncbi request reprint Clinical practice. Antibiotic allergy
    Rebecca S Gruchalla
    University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390 8859, USA
    N Engl J Med 354:601-9. 2006
  84. ncbi request reprint Characterization of the T-cell response in a patient with phenindione hypersensitivity
    Dean J Naisbitt
    Department of Pharmacology, The University of Liverpool, England
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 313:1058-65. 2005
    ..Our data show that CD4(+) T-cells are involved in the pathophysiology of phenindione hypersensitivity. There may be cross-sensitivity with warfarin in some phenindione hypersensitive patients...
  85. ncbi request reprint Genetics of epilepsy: epilepsy research foundation workshop report
    Sanjay Sisodiya
    Epilepsy Research Foundation, United Kingdom
    Epileptic Disord 9:194-236. 2007
    ..Presentations and their matched discussions are produced here. There was optimism that further genetic research in epilepsy was not only feasible, but might lead to improvements in the lives of people with epilepsy...
  86. ncbi request reprint Phase I clinical trial of oral curcumin: biomarkers of systemic activity and compliance
    Ricky A Sharma
    Oncology Department, University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom
    Clin Cancer Res 10:6847-54. 2004
    ..PGE(2) production in blood and target tissue may indicate biological activity. Levels of curcumin and its metabolites in the urine can be used to assess general compliance...
  87. ncbi request reprint Warfarin pharmacogenetics: economic considerations
    Dyfrig A Hughes
    Pharmacoeconomics 25:899-902. 2007
  88. pmc The future prospects of pharmacogenetics in oral anticoagulation therapy
    Farhad Kamali
    Wolfson Unit of Clinical Pharmacology, School of Clinical and Laboratory Sciences, University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 61:746-51. 2006
    ..Incorporation of genetic and environmental factors could help in the prediction of more individualized loading and maintenance doses for safer anticoagulation therapy...
  89. ncbi request reprint The role of polymorphism in manganese superoxide dismutase in susceptibility to alcoholic liver disease
    Alison Brind
    Gastroenterology 124:2000-2. 2003
  90. ncbi request reprint Mechanisms of drug hypersensitivity in HIV-infected patients: the role of the immune system
    F Javier Vilar
    Department of Infectious Diseases, North Manchester General Hospital, Delaunays Road, Crumpsall, Manchester M8 5RB, UK
    J HIV Ther 8:42-7. 2003
    ..A deeper understanding of the mechanism(s) of these reactions will help us in their prevention, diagnosis and treatment...
  91. ncbi request reprint Common ABCB1 polymorphisms are not associated with multidrug resistance in epilepsy using a gene-wide tagging approach
    Guy D Leschziner
    Imperial College London, London, UK
    Pharmacogenet Genomics 17:217-20. 2007
    ..In addition, no evidence for a role of other common ABCB1 polymorphisms was found using a potentially more powerful gene-wide tagging approach...
  92. ncbi request reprint hOCT 1 and resistance to imatinib
    Lucy C Crossman
    Blood 106:1133-4; author reply 1134. 2005
  93. ncbi request reprint Personalized medicine: decades away?
    Jeantine E Lunshof
    VU University Medical Center, Section Community Genetics, Department of Clinical Genetics and Human Genetics, EMGO Institute, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Pharmacogenomics 7:237-41. 2006