Munir Pirmohamed

Summary

Affiliation: University of Liverpool
Country: UK

Publications

  1. pmc New genetic findings lead the way to a better understanding of fundamental mechanisms of drug hypersensitivity
    Munir Pirmohamed
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom Electronic address
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 136:236-44. 2015
  2. doi request reprint Oral anticoagulation: a critique of recent advances and controversies
    Munir Pirmohamed
    The University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX, UK Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University Hospital National Health Service NHS Trust, Prescot Street, Liverpool L7 8XP, UK Electronic address
    Trends Pharmacol Sci 36:153-63. 2015
  3. pmc Clinical coding of prospectively identified paediatric adverse drug reactions--a retrospective review of patient records
    Jennifer R Bellis
    Research and Development, Alder Hey Children s NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool, UK
    BMC Pharmacol Toxicol 15:72. 2014
  4. pmc Reporting of drug induced depression and fatal and non-fatal suicidal behaviour in the UK from 1998 to 2011
    Kyla H Thomas
    School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Canynge Hall 39 Whatley Road, Bristol BS8 2PS, UK
    BMC Pharmacol Toxicol 15:54. 2014
  5. pmc Adverse drug reactions and off-label and unlicensed medicines in children: a nested case-control study of inpatients in a pediatric hospital
    Jennifer R Bellis
    Research and Development, Alder Hey Children s NHS Foundation Trust, Eaton Road, Liverpool L12 2AP, UK
    BMC Med 11:238. 2013
  6. pmc Incidence, characteristics and risk factors of adverse drug reactions in hospitalized children - a prospective observational cohort study of 6,601 admissions
    Signe Thiesen
    Department of Women s and Children s Health, Institute of Translational Medicine Child Health, University of Liverpool, Alder Hey Children s NHS Foundation Trust, Eaton Road, Liverpool L12 2AP, UK
    BMC Med 11:237. 2013
  7. pmc Variability of antibiotic prescribing in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations: a cohort study
    Rachael Boggon
    Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency, 151 Buckingham Palace Road, London SW1W 9SZ, UK
    BMC Pulm Med 13:32. 2013
  8. doi request reprint Mechanism of clozapine-induced agranulocytosis : current status of research and implications for drug development
    M Pirmohamed
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 3BX, UK
    CNS Drugs 7:139-58. 1997
  9. pmc Genetic factors in the predisposition to drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions
    Munir Pirmohamed
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Ashton Street, Liverpool, UK L69 3GE
    AAPS J 8:E20-6. 2006
  10. doi request reprint Clinical management of HIV-associated lipodystrophy
    Munir Pirmohamed
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, and NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University Hospital, Liverpool, UK
    Curr Opin Lipidol 20:309-14. 2009

Detail Information

Publications118 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc New genetic findings lead the way to a better understanding of fundamental mechanisms of drug hypersensitivity
    Munir Pirmohamed
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom Electronic address
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 136:236-44. 2015
    ....
  2. doi request reprint Oral anticoagulation: a critique of recent advances and controversies
    Munir Pirmohamed
    The University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX, UK Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University Hospital National Health Service NHS Trust, Prescot Street, Liverpool L7 8XP, UK Electronic address
    Trends Pharmacol Sci 36:153-63. 2015
    ..The new generation of oral anticoagulants have been demonstrated to be as efficacious as warfarin, but further work is needed to evaluate their safety in real clinical settings. ..
  3. pmc Clinical coding of prospectively identified paediatric adverse drug reactions--a retrospective review of patient records
    Jennifer R Bellis
    Research and Development, Alder Hey Children s NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool, UK
    BMC Pharmacol Toxicol 15:72. 2014
    ..This study aimed to determine whether ADRs prospectively identified in children admitted to a paediatric hospital were coded appropriately using ICD-10...
  4. pmc Reporting of drug induced depression and fatal and non-fatal suicidal behaviour in the UK from 1998 to 2011
    Kyla H Thomas
    School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Canynge Hall 39 Whatley Road, Bristol BS8 2PS, UK
    BMC Pharmacol Toxicol 15:54. 2014
    ..We identified the drugs with the most frequent spontaneous reports of depression, and fatal and non-fatal suicidal behaviour to the UK's Yellow Card Scheme from 1998 to 2011...
  5. pmc Adverse drug reactions and off-label and unlicensed medicines in children: a nested case-control study of inpatients in a pediatric hospital
    Jennifer R Bellis
    Research and Development, Alder Hey Children s NHS Foundation Trust, Eaton Road, Liverpool L12 2AP, UK
    BMC Med 11:238. 2013
    ..Using data from a prospective cohort study of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) among pediatric inpatients, we aimed to test the hypothesis that OLUL status is a risk factor for ADRs...
  6. pmc Incidence, characteristics and risk factors of adverse drug reactions in hospitalized children - a prospective observational cohort study of 6,601 admissions
    Signe Thiesen
    Department of Women s and Children s Health, Institute of Translational Medicine Child Health, University of Liverpool, Alder Hey Children s NHS Foundation Trust, Eaton Road, Liverpool L12 2AP, UK
    BMC Med 11:237. 2013
    ..We aimed to determine the incidence of ADRs in hospitalized children, to characterize these ADRs in terms of type, drug etiology, causality and severity and to identify risk factors...
  7. pmc Variability of antibiotic prescribing in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations: a cohort study
    Rachael Boggon
    Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency, 151 Buckingham Palace Road, London SW1W 9SZ, UK
    BMC Pulm Med 13:32. 2013
    ....
  8. doi request reprint Mechanism of clozapine-induced agranulocytosis : current status of research and implications for drug development
    M Pirmohamed
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 3BX, UK
    CNS Drugs 7:139-58. 1997
    ..The latter depends on identifying the mechanism of toxicity and the chemical characteristics of clozapine that are responsible for the toxicity. This knowledge may allow rational design of new analogues that do not cause agranulocytosis...
  9. pmc Genetic factors in the predisposition to drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions
    Munir Pirmohamed
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Ashton Street, Liverpool, UK L69 3GE
    AAPS J 8:E20-6. 2006
    ....
  10. doi request reprint Clinical management of HIV-associated lipodystrophy
    Munir Pirmohamed
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, and NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University Hospital, Liverpool, UK
    Curr Opin Lipidol 20:309-14. 2009
    ..The pathogenesis is multifactorial. This article provides an update on the latest findings of the different clinical management strategies that have been utilized in patients with lipodystrophy...
  11. doi request reprint TNF, LTA, HSPA1L and HLA-DR gene polymorphisms in HIV-positive patients with hypersensitivity to cotrimoxazole
    Ana Alfirevic
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, Sherrington Building, Ashton Street, Liverpool, Merseyside, L69 3GE, UK
    Pharmacogenomics 10:531-40. 2009
    ..The aim of the study was to determine whether functional polymorphisms in TNF, LTA, HSPA1L and HLA-DRB1 genes influence the risk of cotrimoxazole hypersensitivity in HIV-infected patients...
  12. doi request reprint The hOCT1 SNPs M420del and M408V alter imatinib uptake and M420del modifies clinical outcome in imatinib-treated chronic myeloid leukemia
    Athina Giannoudis
    Section of Haematology, Molecular and Clinical Cancer Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    Blood 121:628-37. 2013
    ..These data demonstrate that the common M420del SNP can modulate the outcome of imatinib treatment...
  13. doi request reprint Measurement of CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocyte cytokine secretion and gene expression changes in p-phenylenediamine allergic patients and tolerant individuals
    Eve M Coulter
    Department of Pharmacology, MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    J Invest Dermatol 130:161-74. 2010
    ..These studies show increased activity of Th2 cytokines in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from individuals with allergic contact dermatitis...
  14. pmc A multi-system approach assessing the interaction of anticonvulsants with P-gp
    David Dickens
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 8:e64854. 2013
    ..Our data suggest that P-gp is unlikely to contribute to the pathogenesis of refractory epilepsy through transport of carbamazepine or lamotrigine...
  15. ncbi request reprint Assessment of adipokine expression and mitochondrial toxicity in HIV patients with lipoatrophy on stavudine- and zidovudine-containing regimens
    Simon P Jones
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 40:565-72. 2005
    ....
  16. ncbi request reprint HLA-B locus in Caucasian patients with carbamazepine hypersensitivity
    Ana Alfirevic
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Sherrington Building, Ashton Street, Liverpool, L69 3GE, UK
    Pharmacogenomics 7:813-8. 2006
    ..A strong pharmacogenetic association has been reported in Chinese patients between human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B*1502 and carbamazepine (CBZ)-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS)...
  17. pmc Association of human leukocyte antigen alleles and nevirapine hypersensitivity in a Malawian HIV-infected population
    Daniel F Carr
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, United Kingdom
    Clin Infect Dis 56:1330-9. 2013
    ..Our aim was to identify predictive human leukocyte antigen (HLA) markers that are associated with nevirapine hypersensitivity...
  18. pmc Effective dasatinib uptake may occur without human organic cation transporter 1 (hOCT1): implications for the treatment of imatinib-resistant chronic myeloid leukemia
    Athina Giannoudis
    Department of Haematology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    Blood 112:3348-54. 2008
    ..Efflux of dasatinib and imatinib appear similar via ABCB1. Dasatinib may therefore offer an advantage over imatinib in patients with low hOCT1 expression...
  19. doi request reprint Characterization of p-phenylenediamine-albumin binding sites and T-cell responses to hapten-modified protein
    Claire Jenkinson
    Department of Pharmacology, The MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    J Invest Dermatol 130:732-42. 2010
    ..These data identify Cys as the single target for PPD-HSA binding, and show that PPD protein adducts are antigenic determinants in patients with contact dermatitis...
  20. ncbi request reprint Tacrine-induced liver damage: an analysis of 19 candidate genes
    Ana Alfirevic
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Sherrington Building, Ashton Street, Liverpool, UK
    Pharmacogenet Genomics 17:1091-100. 2007
    ..Our aim was to investigate whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 19 candidate genes were associated with tacrine-induced liver damage...
  21. ncbi request reprint Altered adipokine response in murine 3T3-F442A adipocytes treated with protease inhibitors and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
    Simon P Jones
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Antivir Ther 10:207-13. 2005
    ..We have therefore investigated the effects of individual antiretrovirals on adipokine expression and adipogenesis using a murine cell line in vitro...
  22. pmc Adverse drug reactions causing admission to a paediatric hospital
    Ruairi M Gallagher
    Department of Women s and Children s Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 7:e50127. 2012
    ..To obtain reliable information about the incidence of adverse drug reactions, and identify potential areas where intervention may reduce the burden of ill-health...
  23. pmc Direct evidence for the formation of diastereoisomeric benzylpenicilloyl haptens from benzylpenicillin and benzylpenicillenic acid in patients
    Xiaoli Meng
    Medical Research Council Centre for Drug Safety Science, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 338:841-9. 2011
    ..Furthermore, PA was found to be more potent than BP with respect to stimulation of T cells from patients with penicillin hypersensitivity, illustrating the functional relevance of diastereoisomeric hapten formation...
  24. pmc Influence of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 on patient response to warfarin: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Andrea L Jorgensen
    Department of Biostatistics, Shelley s Cottage, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 7:e44064. 2012
    ..Our systematic review was conducted to enable fair and accurate interpretation of which variants affect which outcomes, in which patients, and to what extent...
  25. doi request reprint Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B*57:01-restricted activation of drug-specific T cells provides the immunological basis for flucloxacillin-induced liver injury
    Manal M Monshi
    MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, Department of Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Hepatology 57:727-39. 2013
    ..Clones displayed additional reactivity against β-lactam antibiotics including oxacillin, cloxacillin, and dicloxacillin, but not abacavir or nitroso sulfamethoxazole...
  26. doi request reprint ABCB1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (1236C>T, 2677G>T, and 3435C>T) do not affect transport activity of human P-glycoprotein
    David Dickens
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, The Wolfson Centre for Personalised Medicine, Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Pharmacogenet Genomics 23:314-23. 2013
    ..Our aim was to generate a P-gp expression system for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and the reference sequence to assess the functional significance of these variants on transport...
  27. ncbi request reprint Sulfamethoxazole and its metabolite nitroso sulfamethoxazole stimulate dendritic cell costimulatory signaling
    Joseph P Sanderson
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 178:5533-42. 2007
    ..These data provide evidence of a link between localized metabolism, dendritic cell activation, and drug immunogenicity...
  28. doi request reprint Adherence and variability in warfarin dose requirements: assessment in a prospective cohort
    Andrea L Jorgensen
    Department of Biostatistics, University of Liverpool, Shelley s Cottage, Brownlow Street, Liverpool, L69 3GS, UK
    Pharmacogenomics 14:151-63. 2013
    ..An as yet unexplored factor is medication adherence. Here, we investigate the influence of adherence on response to warfarin and on pharmacogenetic analyses of association...
  29. doi request reprint Trimethoprim stimulates T-cells through metabolism-dependent and -independent pathways
    Sabah El-Ghaiesh
    MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, Department of Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Sherrington Building, Ashton Street, Liverpool, L69 3GE, England
    Chem Res Toxicol 24:791-3. 2011
    ..Stimulation of certain clones was blocked through inhibition of drug-metabolizing enzyme activity. Trimethoprim clones were additionally stimulated with diaveridine and pyrimethamine but not other closely related structures...
  30. ncbi request reprint Generation and characterization of antigen-specific CD4+, CD8+, and CD4+CD8+ T-cell clones from patients with carbamazepine hypersensitivity
    Ying Wu
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 119:973-81. 2007
    ..Attempts to characterize drug-specific CD8(+) T cells have been largely unsuccessful...
  31. ncbi request reprint Drug-specific T cells in an HIV-positive patient with nevirapine-induced hepatitis
    Nicola S Drummond
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Ashton Street, Liverpool, UK
    Antivir Ther 11:393-5. 2006
    ..However, there is little laboratory evidence to support an immune pathogenesis...
  32. pmc Quantifying the metabolic activation of nevirapine in patients by integrated applications of NMR and mass spectrometries
    Abhishek Srivastava
    MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    Drug Metab Dispos 38:122-32. 2010
    ..The method can be used as a template for comparative estimations of bioactivation of any drug in patients...
  33. ncbi request reprint Molecular and genetic association of interleukin-6 in tacrine-induced hepatotoxicity
    Daniel F Carr
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Pharmacogenet Genomics 17:961-72. 2007
    ..The factors determining individual susceptibility are largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate genetic predisposition...
  34. ncbi request reprint Investigation of toxic metabolites during drug development
    Kevin Park
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Drug Safety Research Group, University of Liverpool, Sherrington Buildings, Liverpool, Merseyside L69 3GE, UK
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 207:425-34. 2005
    ..This will provide a deeper understanding of potential toxicophores for drug design and define candidate genes for pharmacogenomic approaches to individualized medicines...
  35. pmc Haplotype structure of CYP2B6 and association with plasma efavirenz concentrations in a Chilean HIV cohort
    Daniel F Carr
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 65:1889-93. 2010
    ..The objective of this study was to investigate CYP2B6 haplotype structure and functional consequences in a Latin American population...
  36. ncbi request reprint Lipodystrophy in patients with HIV-1 infection: effect of stopping protease inhibitors on TNF-alpha and TNF-receptor levels, and on metabolic parameters
    Bridget Maher
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Antivir Ther 9:879-87. 2004
    ..To evaluate the effects of stopping treatment with protease inhibitors (PIs) on tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and TNF-receptor levels, and on the metabolic and morphological abnormalities seen in patients with lipodystrophy...
  37. pmc What can we learn from parents about enhancing participation in pharmacovigilance?
    Janine Arnott
    Institute of Psychology, Health and Society, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 75:1109-17. 2013
    ..To investigate parents' views and experiences of direct reporting of a suspected ADR in their child...
  38. doi request reprint Genetics and the potential for predictive tests in adverse drug reactions
    Munir Pirmohamed
    The Wolfson Centre for Personalised Medicine, Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Chem Immunol Allergy 97:18-31. 2012
    ....
  39. doi request reprint Effects of CYP4F2 genetic polymorphisms and haplotypes on clinical outcomes in patients initiated on warfarin therapy
    Jieying Eunice Zhang
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, UK
    Pharmacogenet Genomics 19:781-9. 2009
    ..A variant in the CYP4F2 gene, rs2108622, has been recently shown to determine stable warfarin dose requirements. CYP4F2 has also been shown recently to metabolize vitamin K...
  40. ncbi request reprint Cost-effectiveness analysis of HLA B*5701 genotyping in preventing abacavir hypersensitivity
    Dyfrig A Hughes
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 3GE, UK
    Pharmacogenetics 14:335-42. 2004
    ..Our aim was to confirm the presence of this genetic factor in our patients, and to determine whether genotyping for HLA B*5701 would be a cost-effective use of healthcare resources...
  41. pmc Relationship between the C3435T and G2677T(A) polymorphisms in the ABCB1 gene and P-glycoprotein expression in human liver
    Andrew Owen
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Ashton Street, Liverpool, L69 3GE, U K
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 59:365-70. 2005
    ..The aim of the study was to determine whether a correlation exists between MDR1 (ABCB1) gene polymorphisms at positions 3435 (C3435T) and 2677 (G2677T(A)) and the expression of human hepatic P-glycoprotein (P-gp)...
  42. pmc Genetic and environmental factors determining clinical outcomes and cost of warfarin therapy: a prospective study
    Andrea L Jorgensen
    Department of Pharmacology, Centre for Medical Statistics and Health Evaluation, The University of Liverpool, UK
    Pharmacogenet Genomics 19:800-12. 2009
    ....
  43. doi request reprint HLA restriction of carbamazepine-specific T-Cell clones from an HLA-A*31:01-positive hypersensitive patient
    Maike Lichtenfels
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Sherrington Building, Ashton Street, Liverpool L69 3GE, England
    Chem Res Toxicol 27:175-7. 2014
    ....
  44. pmc Reference intervals for urinary renal injury biomarkers KIM-1 and NGAL in healthy children
    Stephen J McWilliam
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, Merseyside, UK
    Biomark Med 8:1189-97. 2014
    ..The aim of this study was to establish reference intervals in healthy children for two novel urinary biomarkers of acute kidney injury, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL)...
  45. doi request reprint T-cells from HLA-B*57:01+ human subjects are activated with abacavir through two independent pathways and induce cell death by multiple mechanisms
    Catherine C Bell
    MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, Department of Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Sherrington Building, Ashton Street, Liverpool L69 3GE, England
    Chem Res Toxicol 26:759-66. 2013
    ..In contrast, the latter pathway likely involves MHC binding peptides displayed as a consequence of abacavir exposure, but not abacavir itself...
  46. pmc The population pharmacokinetics of R- and S-warfarin: effect of genetic and clinical factors
    Steven Lane
    Department of Biostatstics, Brownlow Street, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GS, UK
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 73:66-76. 2012
    ..The interindividual variability in dose requirements is influenced by a number of factors, including polymorphisms in genes mediating warfarin pharmacology, co-medication, age, sex, body size and diet...
  47. ncbi request reprint The role of metabolic activation in drug-induced hepatotoxicity
    B Kevin Park
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, Sherrington Buildings, Liverpool, Merseyside L69 3GE, United Kingdom
    Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 45:177-202. 2005
    ....
  48. doi request reprint RXRγ gene variants are associated with HIV lipodystrophy
    Sudeep P Pushpakom
    NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Royal Liverpool Hospital, Liverpool, UK
    Pharmacogenet Genomics 23:438-41. 2013
    ..These results need replication in other cohorts. ..
  49. ncbi request reprint Activation of T cells by carbamazepine and carbamazepine metabolites
    Ying Wu
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Ashton Street, Liverpool L69 3GE, UK
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 118:233-41. 2006
    ..T-cell-mediated hypersensitivity is a rare but serious manifestation of drug therapy...
  50. doi request reprint β-Lactam antibiotics form distinct haptenic structures on albumin and activate drug-specific T-lymphocyte responses in multiallergic patients with cystic fibrosis
    Rosalind E Jenkins
    MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, Department of Pharmacology, The University of Liverpool, Sherrington Building, Ashton Street, Liverpool L69 3GE, England
    Chem Res Toxicol 26:963-75. 2013
    ..Characterization of complex haptenic structures on distinct HSA lysine residues provides a chemical basis for the drug-specific T-cell response...
  51. pmc Characterization of the antigen specificity of T-cell clones from piperacillin-hypersensitive patients with cystic fibrosis
    Sabah El-Ghaiesh
    Medical Research Council Centre for Drug Safety Science, Department of Pharmacology, Sherrington Building, Ashton Street, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 3GE, United Kingdom
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 341:597-610. 2012
    ..Collectively, these data describe the cellular processes that underlie the structural specificity of piperacillin antigen binding in hypersensitive patients with cystic fibrosis...
  52. doi request reprint Lamotrigine is a substrate for OCT1 in brain endothelial cells
    David Dickens
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Biochem Pharmacol 83:805-14. 2012
    ..The clinical implications of these findings with respect to the efficacy of lamotrigine and its potential for DDI require further investigation...
  53. doi request reprint Adipogenic gene variants in patients with HIV-associated lipodystrophy
    Sudeep P Pushpakom
    NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Royal Liverpool Hospital, Liverpool, UK
    Pharmacogenet Genomics 21:76-83. 2011
    ..We hypothesized that variation in genes regulating adipogenesis, and in those implicated in inherited forms of lipodystrophy, may predispose to the development of HIVLD...
  54. ncbi request reprint Characterization of drug-specific T cells in lamotrigine hypersensitivity
    Dean J Naisbitt
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Sherrington Building, Ashton Street, The University of Liverpool, PO Box 147, Liverpool L69 3GE, England
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 111:1393-403. 2003
    ..Lamotrigine is associated with hypersensitivity reactions, which are most commonly characterized by skin rash. An immune etiology has been postulated, though the nature of this is unclear...
  55. pmc Induction of P-glycoprotein in lymphocytes by carbamazepine and rifampicin: the role of nuclear hormone response elements
    Andrew Owen
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 62:237-42. 2006
    ..In this study, we have investigated whether CBZ acts as an inducer of Pgp in lymphocytes...
  56. pmc Immunoglobulin G1 and immunoglobulin G4 antibodies in multiple sclerosis patients treated with IFNβ interact with the endogenous cytokine and activate complement
    Swaminathan Sethu
    MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science and Institute of Translational Medicine, Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Sherrington Buildings, Liverpool L69 3GE, UK
    Clin Immunol 148:177-85. 2013
    ..ADA interaction with therapeutic IFNβ results in immune complex formation and complement activation. In summary, IgG1 and IgG4 IFNβ-ADA have the ability to neutralise therapeutic and endogenous protein and to activate complement. ..
  57. doi request reprint Metabolic acidosis with topiramate and zonisamide: an assessment of its severity and predictors
    Nasir S Mirza
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Pharmacogenet Genomics 21:297-302. 2011
    ..Carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitors topiramate and zonisamide can induce metabolic acidosis in some patients. Our aims were to assess the prevalence and severity of this acidosis and to determine its predictors...
  58. pmc Mechanism-based urinary biomarkers to identify the potential for aminoglycoside-induced nephrotoxicity in premature neonates: a proof-of-concept study
    Stephen J McWilliam
    MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 7:e43809. 2012
    ..Further studies to investigate the clinical utility of novel urinary biomarkers in comparison to serum creatinine need to be undertaken...
  59. doi request reprint Immunogenicity to biologics: mechanisms, prediction and reduction
    Swaminathan Sethu
    MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science and Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, UK
    Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz) 60:331-44. 2012
    ....
  60. pmc Population pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenetic analysis of nevirapine in hypersensitive and tolerant HIV-infected patients from Malawi
    Laura Dickinson
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 58:706-12. 2014
    ....
  61. doi request reprint CYP2B6*6 is an independent determinant of inferior response to fludarabine plus cyclophosphamide in chronic lymphocytic leukemia
    Gillian G Johnson
    Directorate of Blood Sciences, Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University Hospitals NHS Trust, Liverpool, UK
    Blood 122:4253-8. 2013
    ..This trial is registered as an International Standard Randomised Control Trial, number NCT 58585610 at www.clinicaltrials.gov. ..
  62. pmc Interpreting adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports as hospital patient safety incidents
    Emma C Davies
    The Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University Hospitals Trust, Prescot Street, Liverpool L7 8XP, UK
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 70:102-8. 2010
    ....
  63. doi request reprint Simultaneous determination of nilotinib, imatinib and its main metabolite (CGP-74588) in human plasma by ultra-violet high performance liquid chromatography
    Andrea Davies
    Department of Haematology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Leuk Res 34:702-7. 2010
    ..This simple and novel method may be used to quantify levels of TKIs when used alone or in combination with drug treatments for clinical samples...
  64. ncbi request reprint Investigation into the multidimensional genetic basis of drug-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis
    Munir Pirmohamed
    The University of Liverpool, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Ashton Street, Liverpool, L69 3GE, UK
    Pharmacogenomics 8:1661-91. 2007
    ..The two idiosyncratic conditions are distinguished on the basis of the degree of blistering, possibly representing diseases at different ends of the same spectrum. A genetic predisposition has been postulated...
  65. pmc Slow acetylator phenotype and genotype in HIV-positive patients with sulphamethoxazole hypersensitivity
    Ana Alfirevic
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 55:158-65. 2003
    ..To test the role of acetylator status, and to investigate the reported discrepancy between acetylator phenotype and genotype in HIV-positive patients with sulphamethoxazole (SMX) hypersensitivity...
  66. doi request reprint Drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions and pharmacogenomics: past, present and future
    Ana Alfirevic
    The Wolfson Centre for Personalised Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Block A, Waterhouse Buildings, 1 5 Brownlow Street, Liverpool, L69 3GL, UK
    Pharmacogenomics 11:497-9. 2010
    ..In addition, it is necessary to advance our knowledge of hypersensitivity mechanisms through functional studies, which will lead to the development of predictive and diagnostic tests...
  67. doi request reprint Effect of atazanavir and ritonavir on the differentiation and adipokine secretion of human subcutaneous and omental preadipocytes
    Simon P Jones
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    AIDS 22:1293-8. 2008
    ....
  68. doi request reprint Transport of gabapentin by LAT1 (SLC7A5)
    David Dickens
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Biochem Pharmacol 85:1672-83. 2013
    ..Gabapentin was negative for OCT like transport and LAT2 activity in the hCMEC/D3 and OCT1 transfected cells. Our data shows that gabapentin is a substrate for the influx transporter LAT1 at therapeutic concentrations...
  69. doi request reprint Pharmacologic markers and predictors of responses to imatinib therapy in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia
    Richard E Clark
    University Department of Haematology, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool, UK
    Leuk Lymphoma 49:639-42. 2008
    ..Uptake of the second generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors, dasatinib and nilotinib, is less dependent upon hOCT1. These two drugs may therefore achieve adequate intracellular concentrations even in patients with low hOCT1 expression...
  70. pmc Hypersensitivity reactions to HIV therapy
    Mas Chaponda
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GL, UK
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 71:659-71. 2011
    ....
  71. ncbi request reprint Immunopharmacology of hypersensitivity reactions to drugs
    Dean J Naisbitt
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Ashton Street, Liverpool, L69 3GE, UK
    Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 3:22-9. 2003
    ..The "danger signal" might result from chemical, physical, or viral stress...
  72. ncbi request reprint Immunological principles of T-cell-mediated adverse drug reactions in skin
    Dean J Naisbitt
    University of Liverpool, Department of Pharmacology, The Sherrington Building, Ashton Street, Liverpool, UK
    Expert Opin Drug Saf 6:109-24. 2007
    ....
  73. ncbi request reprint Pharmacogenetics of HIV therapy
    Andrew Owen
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Pharmacogenet Genomics 16:693-703. 2006
    ..Most importantly, the phenotype needs to be carefully characterized. We also need to disseminate this information: a pivotal resource for this can be found at www.HIV-pharmacogenomics.org...
  74. ncbi request reprint Serious carbamazepine-induced hypersensitivity reactions associated with the HSP70 gene cluster
    Ana Alfirevic
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Sherrington Building, Ashton Street, Liverpool, UK
    Pharmacogenet Genomics 16:287-96. 2006
    ..The heat shock protein (HSP70) gene cluster is located in the MHC class III region...
  75. doi request reprint HLA-allelotype associations with nevirapine-induced hypersensitivity reactions and hepatotoxicity: a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis
    Elena M Cornejo Castro
    aWolfson Centre for Personalised Medicine, Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology bDepartment of Biostatistics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Pharmacogenet Genomics 25:186-98. 2015
    ..However, results from individual studies have been inconsistent. To evaluate the association between HLA alleles and nevirapine hypersensitivity, a systematic review and meta-analysis was carried out...
  76. doi request reprint Expanding role of pharmacogenomics in the management of cardiovascular disorders
    Vincent Lai Ming Yip
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 13:151-62. 2013
    ....
  77. pmc Paediatric use of mycophenolate mofetil
    Heather J Downing
    Department of Women s and Children s Health, Institute of Translational Medicine, The University of Liverpool, Alder Hey Children s NHS Foundation Trust, Eaton Road, Liverpool L12 2AP, UK
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 75:45-59. 2013
    ....
  78. doi request reprint Institutional profile: the Wolfson Centre for Personalised Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Ana Alfirevic
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Block A Waterhouse Buildings, 1 5 Brownlow Street, Liverpool L69 3GL, UK
    Pharmacogenomics 14:861-7. 2013
    ..In addition to translation into clinical practice, the Centre puts significant emphasis into education of clinicians and scientists alike, as well as public engagement activities to promote personalized medicine...
  79. pmc Exploring the genomic basis of pharmacoresistance in epilepsy: an integrative analysis of large-scale gene expression profiling studies on brain tissue from epilepsy surgery
    Nasir Mirza
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Hum Mol Genet 20:4381-94. 2011
    ..Our analysis provides novel biologically plausible candidate genes and pathways which warrant further investigation to assess their causal relevance...
  80. ncbi request reprint Pharmacogenetics in clinical practice: considerations for testing
    Simon Constable
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Ashton Street Medical School, University of Liverpool, Ashton Street, Liverpool, L69 3GE, UK
    Expert Rev Mol Diagn 6:193-205. 2006
    ..This review focuses on issues that will need to be considered in the scientific assessment of pharmacogenetic testing...
  81. ncbi request reprint Characterization of sulfamethoxazole and sulfamethoxazole metabolite-specific T-cell responses in animals and humans
    John Farrell
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, England, UK
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 306:229-37. 2003
    ..These results highlight important differences in T-cell recognition of drug (metabolite) antigens in animals that have been sensitized against a drug metabolite and patients with hypersensitivity to the drug...
  82. pmc Adverse drug reactions: back to the future
    Munir Pirmohamed
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Ashton Street, UK
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 55:486-92. 2003
  83. pmc Emergency re-admissions to hospital due to adverse drug reactions within 1 year of the index admission
    Emma C Davies
    The Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University Hospitals Trust, Liverpool L7 8XP, UK
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 70:749-55. 2010
    ..The proportion of re-admissions to hospital caused by ADRs is poorly documented in the UK. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of ADRs on re-admission to hospital after a period as an inpatient...
  84. doi request reprint Quantification of urinary mevalonic acid as a biomarker of HMG-CoA reductase activity by a novel translational LC-MS/MS method
    Alison V M Rodrigues
    gt MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 3GE, UK
    Bioanalysis 6:919-33. 2014
    ..A translational urinary MVA quantification method was developed, validated and used to demonstrate the diurnal variation of urinary MVA excretion in rats and healthy children...
  85. doi request reprint Pharmacogenetic tests: the need for a level playing field
    Munir Pirmohamed
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, Wolfson Centre for Personalised Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Nat Rev Drug Discov 12:3-4. 2013
    ....
  86. pmc Reported paediatric adverse drug reactions in the UK 2000-2009
    Daniel B Hawcutt
    Division of Developmental and Reproductive Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool Northwick Park Hospital, Watford Road, Harrow, London Alder Hey Children s Hospital, Liverpool Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 73:437-46. 2012
    ..MHRA advice is to report all suspected ADRs in paediatric (<17 years) patients...
  87. ncbi request reprint Whole-blood cultures from renal-transplant patients stimulated ex vivo show that the effects of cyclosporine on lymphocyte proliferation are related to P-glycoprotein expression
    Dave Singh
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool and Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool, UK
    Transplantation 77:557-61. 2004
    ....
  88. ncbi request reprint Cytochrome P450 enzyme polymorphisms and adverse drug reactions
    Munir Pirmohamed
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Ashton Street, Liverpool L69 3GE, UK
    Toxicology 192:23-32. 2003
    ..Further studies that address these deficiencies are urgently needed--only then will prospective P450 genotyping become routine in clinical practice...
  89. doi request reprint Characterisation of flucloxacillin and 5-hydroxymethyl flucloxacillin haptenated HSA in vitro and in vivo
    Rosalind E Jenkins
    MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, UK
    Proteomics Clin Appl 3:720-9. 2009
    ..This study provides a detailed characterisation of sites of chemical modification of an endogenous target and reveals candidate peptides for T-cell and antibody assays of flucloxacillin hypersensitivity...
  90. ncbi request reprint Drug hypersensitivity reactions in patients with HIV disease
    Munir Pirmohamed
    Professor, University of Liverpool, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Ashton Street, Liverpool L69 3GE, UK
    Expert Rev Clin Immunol 3:395-410. 2007
    ..This avenue of research is destined to lead to better preventive strategies...
  91. doi request reprint Pharmacogenetics in reproductive and perinatal medicine
    Ana Alfirevic
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Sherrington Building, Ashton Street, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, Merseyside, L69 3GE, UK
    Pharmacogenomics 11:65-79. 2010
    ..Our review points out the need for well-designed clinical studies on the efficacy and safety of medicines used in women of childbearing age in order to define the additional utility provided by pharmacogenetic testing...
  92. ncbi request reprint Intracellular disposition and metabolic effects of zidovudine, stavudine and four protease inhibitors in cultured adipocytes
    Omar Janneh
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Antivir Ther 8:417-26. 2003
    ..We have investigated the disposition of these drugs in adipocytes and the consequent effect on adipocyte metabolism and viability...
  93. ncbi request reprint Activation of T-cells from allergic patients and volunteers by p-phenylenediamine and Bandrowski's base
    Eve Marie Coulter
    Department of Pharmacology, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    J Invest Dermatol 128:897-905. 2008
    ..BB-specific T cells are found in both allergic patients and volunteers, but not in cord blood. Their presence seems to reflect an acquired immune response, which is not translated into an allergic reaction...
  94. doi request reprint Off-label and unlicensed medicine use and adverse drug reactions in children: a narrative review of the literature
    Jennifer Mason
    Alder Hey Children s NHS Foundation Trust, Eaton Road, Liverpool, L12 2AP, UK
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol 68:21-8. 2012
    ..In this narrative review, we have evaluated the use of off-label and unlicensed medicines in children and whether and how frequently this predisposes to adverse drug reactions...
  95. ncbi request reprint Adverse drug reactions in hospitals: a narrative review
    Emma C Davies
    The Royal Liverpool University Hospital Trust, Prescot Street, Liverpool, L7 8XP, UK
    Curr Drug Saf 2:79-87. 2007
    ..This paper reviews the epidemiology of ADRs in hospitals and evaluates the research that has been undertaken to date to prevent ADRs...
  96. ncbi request reprint The danger hypothesis--potential role in idiosyncratic drug reactions
    Munir Pirmohamed
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Ashton Street, Liverpool L69 3GE, UK
    Toxicology 181:55-63. 2002
    ..Nevertheless, this clinical evidence has to be regarded as being circumstantial and more direct experimental evidence is required to understand the role of 'danger' in the overall pathogenesis of drug hypersensitivity reactions...
  97. ncbi request reprint Reporting of adverse drug reactions by nurses
    Sally Morrison-Griffiths
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, Ashton Street, L69 3GE, Liverpool, UK
    Lancet 361:1347-8. 2003
    ..4-15.0, z=2.3, p=0.02). Our findings suggest that nurses, who form the largest proportion of health-care staff in the UK, can play a valuable part in improvement of pharmacovigilance...
  98. pmc Warfarin: almost 60 years old and still causing problems
    Munir Pirmohamed
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Ashton Street, Liverpool, UK
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 62:509-11. 2006
  99. doi request reprint Risk modeling strategies for pharmacogenetic studies
    Andrea L Jorgensen
    Department of Biostatistics, University of Liverpool, Shelley s Cottage, Brownlow Street, Liverpool, L69 3GS, UK
    Pharmacogenomics 12:397-410. 2011
    ..Where outcome is continuous, such as therapeutic dose, assessing a model's performance is generally more intuitive and straightforward since the aim is to achieve a predicted dose as close as possible to the true therapeutic dose...
  100. ncbi request reprint Clinical pharmacology: special safety considerations in drug development and pharmacovigilance
    Kwame N Atuah
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    Drug Saf 27:535-54. 2004
    ..The various aspects of clinical pharmacology discussed make a strong case for this field as the backbone of optimising and promoting safe development and use of drugs...
  101. pmc Effect of topiramate on acid-base balance: extent, mechanism and effects
    Nasir Mirza
    Department of Pharmacology, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 68:655-61. 2009
    ..The utility of regular monitoring of HCO(3)(-) levels has not been proven and is not routine practice currently. For patients with persistent RTA, topiramate should usually be discontinued as alternative agents are available...