M Pirmohamed

Summary

Affiliation: University of Liverpool
Country: UK

Publications

  1. doi request reprint Measurement of CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocyte cytokine secretion and gene expression changes in p-phenylenediamine allergic patients and tolerant individuals
    Eve M Coulter
    Department of Pharmacology, MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    J Invest Dermatol 130:161-74. 2010
  2. doi request reprint Acceptance of biomarker-based tests for application in clinical practice: criteria and obstacles
    M Pirmohamed
    NHS Chair of Pharmacogenetics, The Wolfson Centre for Personalised Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 88:862-6. 2010
  3. pmc In silico analysis of HLA associations with drug-induced liver injury: use of a HLA-genotyped DNA archive from healthy volunteers
    Ana Alfirevic
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, The Waterhouse Building, Brownlow Street 1 5, Liverpool, L69 3GL, UK
    Genome Med 4:51. 2012
  4. doi request reprint Genetics and the potential for predictive tests in adverse drug reactions
    Munir Pirmohamed
    The Wolfson Centre for Personalised Medicine, Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Chem Immunol Allergy 97:18-31. 2012
  5. pmc A randomised controlled trial of extended brief intervention for alcohol dependent patients in an acute hospital setting (ADPAC)
    Lynn Owens
    The Wolfson Centre for Personalised Medicine, Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    BMC Public Health 11:528. 2011
  6. pmc Folate augmentation of treatment - evaluation for depression (FolATED): protocol of a randomised controlled trial
    Seren Haf Roberts
    North Wales Section of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Medical and Social Care Research IMSCaR, Bangor University, Academic Unit, Wrexham Technology Park, Wrexham, LL13 7YP, UK
    BMC Psychiatry 7:65. 2007
  7. ncbi request reprint Cytochrome P450 enzyme polymorphisms and adverse drug reactions
    Munir Pirmohamed
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Ashton Street, Liverpool L69 3GE, UK
    Toxicology 192:23-32. 2003
  8. ncbi request reprint HIV and drug allergy
    M Pirmohamed
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 1:311-6. 2001
  9. doi request reprint Phenotype standardization for immune-mediated drug-induced skin injury
    M Pirmohamed
    Wolfson Centre for Personalised Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 89:896-901. 2011
  10. ncbi request reprint The danger hypothesis--potential role in idiosyncratic drug reactions
    Munir Pirmohamed
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Ashton Street, Liverpool L69 3GE, UK
    Toxicology 181:55-63. 2002

Detail Information

Publications113 found, 100 shown here

  1. doi request reprint Measurement of CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocyte cytokine secretion and gene expression changes in p-phenylenediamine allergic patients and tolerant individuals
    Eve M Coulter
    Department of Pharmacology, MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    J Invest Dermatol 130:161-74. 2010
    ..These studies show increased activity of Th2 cytokines in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from individuals with allergic contact dermatitis...
  2. doi request reprint Acceptance of biomarker-based tests for application in clinical practice: criteria and obstacles
    M Pirmohamed
    NHS Chair of Pharmacogenetics, The Wolfson Centre for Personalised Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 88:862-6. 2010
    ....
  3. pmc In silico analysis of HLA associations with drug-induced liver injury: use of a HLA-genotyped DNA archive from healthy volunteers
    Ana Alfirevic
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, The Waterhouse Building, Brownlow Street 1 5, Liverpool, L69 3GL, UK
    Genome Med 4:51. 2012
    ..Recently, genome-wide association studies have identified a number of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles associated with DILI; however, the cellular and chemical mechanisms are not fully understood...
  4. doi request reprint Genetics and the potential for predictive tests in adverse drug reactions
    Munir Pirmohamed
    The Wolfson Centre for Personalised Medicine, Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Chem Immunol Allergy 97:18-31. 2012
    ....
  5. pmc A randomised controlled trial of extended brief intervention for alcohol dependent patients in an acute hospital setting (ADPAC)
    Lynn Owens
    The Wolfson Centre for Personalised Medicine, Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    BMC Public Health 11:528. 2011
    ....
  6. pmc Folate augmentation of treatment - evaluation for depression (FolATED): protocol of a randomised controlled trial
    Seren Haf Roberts
    North Wales Section of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Medical and Social Care Research IMSCaR, Bangor University, Academic Unit, Wrexham Technology Park, Wrexham, LL13 7YP, UK
    BMC Psychiatry 7:65. 2007
    ....
  7. ncbi request reprint Cytochrome P450 enzyme polymorphisms and adverse drug reactions
    Munir Pirmohamed
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Ashton Street, Liverpool L69 3GE, UK
    Toxicology 192:23-32. 2003
    ..Further studies that address these deficiencies are urgently needed--only then will prospective P450 genotyping become routine in clinical practice...
  8. ncbi request reprint HIV and drug allergy
    M Pirmohamed
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 1:311-6. 2001
    ....
  9. doi request reprint Phenotype standardization for immune-mediated drug-induced skin injury
    M Pirmohamed
    Wolfson Centre for Personalised Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 89:896-901. 2011
    ..These standardized criteria will be important in facilitating adequate and accurate patient recruitment in order to advance research in pharmacogenomic, immunological, mechanistic, and epidemiological studies...
  10. ncbi request reprint The danger hypothesis--potential role in idiosyncratic drug reactions
    Munir Pirmohamed
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Ashton Street, Liverpool L69 3GE, UK
    Toxicology 181:55-63. 2002
    ..Nevertheless, this clinical evidence has to be regarded as being circumstantial and more direct experimental evidence is required to understand the role of 'danger' in the overall pathogenesis of drug hypersensitivity reactions...
  11. ncbi request reprint Genetic susceptibility to adverse drug reactions
    M Pirmohamed
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Ashton Street, Liverpool, UK L69 3GE
    Trends Pharmacol Sci 22:298-305. 2001
    ..The overall clinical utility of genotyping in preventing ADRs needs to be proven by the use of prospective randomized controlled clinical trials...
  12. doi request reprint Pharmacogenetics: past, present and future
    Munir Pirmohamed
    The Wolfson Centre for Personalised Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, 1 5 Brownlow Street, Liverpool L693GL, UK
    Drug Discov Today 16:852-61. 2011
    ..In this article, I explore the history of pharmacogenetics, appraise the current state of research in this area, and finish off with suggestions for progressing in the field in the future...
  13. pmc Adverse drug reactions: back to the future
    Munir Pirmohamed
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Ashton Street, UK
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 55:486-92. 2003
  14. doi request reprint The phenotype standardization project: improving pharmacogenetic studies of serious adverse drug reactions
    M Pirmohamed
    Wolfson Centre for Personalised Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 89:784-5. 2011
    ..Three phenotypes have been considered in this initial phase: drug-induced liver injury, drug-induced skin injury, and drug-induced torsade de pointes...
  15. ncbi request reprint Drug hypersensitivity reactions in patients with HIV disease
    Munir Pirmohamed
    Professor, University of Liverpool, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Ashton Street, Liverpool L69 3GE, UK
    Expert Rev Clin Immunol 3:395-410. 2007
    ..This avenue of research is destined to lead to better preventive strategies...
  16. ncbi request reprint The burden of alcohol misuse on an inner-city general hospital
    M Pirmohamed
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, UK
    QJM 93:291-5. 2000
    ..The implementation of education, screening and intervention strategies in A&E departments, and employment of key trained personnel, should be considered, to optimize the clinical management of these patients...
  17. ncbi request reprint Association analysis of drug metabolizing enzyme gene polymorphisms in HIV-positive patients with co-trimoxazole hypersensitivity
    M Pirmohamed
    Department of Pharmacology and Terapeutics, The University of Liverpool, UK
    Pharmacogenetics 10:705-13. 2000
    ..Our results show that genetic polymorphisms in drug metabolizing enzymes are unlikely to be major predisposing factors in determining individual susceptibility to co-trimoxazole hypersensitivity in HIV-positive patients...
  18. pmc Adverse drug reactions as cause of admission to hospital: prospective analysis of 18 820 patients
    Munir Pirmohamed
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GE
    BMJ 329:15-9. 2004
    ..To ascertain the current burden of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) through a prospective analysis of all admissions to hospital...
  19. pmc Warfarin: almost 60 years old and still causing problems
    Munir Pirmohamed
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Ashton Street, Liverpool, UK
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 62:509-11. 2006
  20. ncbi request reprint Alcohol abuse and the burden on the NHS--time for action
    M Pirmohamed
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool
    J R Coll Physicians Lond 34:161-2. 2000
    ..Alcohol misuse is a major drain on the resources of the NHS. Strategies that are adequately resourced are urgently needed to be able to cope with the burden of alcohol-related illness...
  21. ncbi request reprint TNFalpha promoter region gene polymorphisms in carbamazepine-hypersensitive patients
    M Pirmohamed
    Department of Pharmacology, The University of Liverpool, United Kingdom
    Neurology 56:890-6. 2001
    ..Carbamazepine hypersensitivity is immune-mediated, although factors determining its occurrence and severity are unknown...
  22. doi request reprint HLA genotype and carbamazepine-induced cutaneous adverse drug reactions: a systematic review
    V L Yip
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 92:757-65. 2012
    ..Our findings suggest that HLA testing before carbamazepine therapy would be effective at identifying individuals at risk of hypersensitivity and applicable to multiple populations providing hope for prevention in the future...
  23. doi request reprint CYP2C19*17 gain-of-function polymorphism is associated with peptic ulcer disease
    C O Musumba
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 93:195-203. 2013
    ..PUD distribution varied (P = 0.024) according to CYP2C19*17 genotype: *1/*1, 490 (64.3%); *1/*17, 304 (71.7%); and *17/*17, 31 (73.8%). CYP2C19*17, a gain-of-function polymorphism, is associated with PUD irrespective of etiology...
  24. doi request reprint Cytochrome P450 testing for prescribing antipsychotics in adults with schizophrenia: systematic review and meta-analyses
    N Fleeman
    Liverpool Reviews and Implementation Group, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Pharmacogenomics J 11:1-14. 2011
    ..Further research is required to improve the evidence base and to generate data on clinical validity and clinical utility...
  25. pmc Antigenicity and immunogenicity of sulphamethoxazole: demonstration of metabolism-dependent haptenation and T-cell proliferation in vivo
    D J Naisbitt
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool L69 3BX, UK
    Br J Pharmacol 133:295-305. 2001
    ..These studies demonstrate the antigenicity of nitroso sulphamethoxazole in vivo and provide evidence for the role of drug metabolism and cell surface haptenation in the induction of a cellular immune response in the rat...
  26. ncbi request reprint Metabolic activation in drug allergies
    B K Park
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, PO Box 147, L69 3GE, Liverpool
    Toxicology 158:11-23. 2001
    ..The purpose of this review is to assess critically the evidence to support the hapten mechanism, and also to consider alternative mechanisms by which drugs cause idiosyncratic toxicity...
  27. ncbi request reprint Reactive metabolites and their role in drug reactions
    D J Naisbitt
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 1:317-25. 2001
    ....
  28. ncbi request reprint Kinetic parameters of lymphocyte microsomal epoxide hydrolase in carbamazepine hypersensitive patients. Assessment by radiometric HPLC
    C D Davis
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, U K
    Biochem Pharmacol 50:1361-6. 1995
    ..This did not affect the kinetic parameters of lymphocyte microsomal epoxide hydrolase. Our results suggest that there is normal HYL1 activity in lymphocytes of hypersensitive patients using cis-stilbene oxide as a substrate...
  29. doi request reprint Investigation of inter-individual variability of the one-carbon folate pathway: a bioinformatic and genetic review
    D F Carr
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, Merseyside L69 3GE, UK
    Pharmacogenomics J 9:291-305. 2009
    ..Future studies should aim for a more comprehensive assessment of this pathway, while further research is also required in determining the functional effects of these genetic variants...
  30. pmc Carbamazepine is not a substrate for P-glycoprotein
    A Owen
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, L69 3GE, UK
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 51:345-9. 2001
    ..Its efficacy is unlikely to be affected by Pgp over-expression in the brain. Furthermore, the interaction of CBZ with drugs that modulate both CYP3A4 and Pgp function such as verapamil is probably due to inhibition of CYP3A4 and not Pgp...
  31. ncbi request reprint Immunological principles of adverse drug reactions: the initiation and propagation of immune responses elicited by drug treatment
    D J Naisbitt
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, Merseyside, England
    Drug Saf 23:483-507. 2000
    ..A greater understanding of the mechanism(s) of hypersensitivity may identify novel therapeutic strategies and help to combat one of the more severe forms of adverse reactions to drugs...
  32. doi request reprint Adverse drug reactions causing admission to a paediatric hospital: a pilot study
    R M Gallagher
    Institute of Child Health, Royal Liverpool Children s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    J Clin Pharm Ther 36:194-9. 2011
    ..The objective of this study is to develop methodology to ascertain the current burden of ADRs through a prospective analysis of all unplanned admissions to a paediatric hospital...
  33. ncbi request reprint An investigation of the formation of cytotoxic, genotoxic, protein-reactive and stable metabolites from naphthalene by human liver microsomes
    M D Tingle
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, U K
    Biochem Pharmacol 46:1529-38. 1993
    ..This is rapidly detoxified by microsomal epoxide hydrolase, the efficiency of which can be readily determined by measurement of the ratio of the stable metabolites, naphthalene 1,2-dihydrodiol and 1-naphthol...
  34. doi request reprint The relative contribution of NSAIDs and Helicobacter pylori to the aetiology of endoscopically-diagnosed peptic ulcer disease: observations from a tertiary referral hospital in the UK between 2005 and 2010
    C Musumba
    Department of Molecular, Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, UK
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 36:48-56. 2012
    ..Recent data from Western countries indicate that the aetiology of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is changing as the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori is decreasing while the use of low-dose aspirin (LDA, ≤325 mg/day) is increasing...
  35. ncbi request reprint Hypersensitivity reactions to carbamazepine: characterization of the specificity, phenotype, and cytokine profile of drug-specific T cell clones
    D J Naisbitt
    Department of Pharmacology, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    Mol Pharmacol 63:732-41. 2003
    ..These studies characterize drug-specific T cells in CBZ-hypersensitive patients that are phenotypically different from T cells involved in other serious cutaneous adverse drug reactions...
  36. ncbi request reprint Advances in molecular toxicology-towards understanding idiosyncratic drug toxicity
    B K Park
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, P O Box 147, L69 3GE, Liverpool, UK
    Toxicology 153:39-60. 2000
    ..The long-term aim of such research is to provide test systems for the evaluation of drug safety and patient susceptibility to idiosyncratic drug toxicity...
  37. ncbi request reprint Induction of metabolism-dependent and -independent neutrophil apoptosis by clozapine
    D P Williams
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, United Kingdom
    Mol Pharmacol 58:207-16. 2000
    ..In conclusion, the findings of the study expand on potential mechanisms of clozapine-induced cytotoxicity, which may be of relevance to the major forms of toxicity encountered in patients taking this drug...
  38. ncbi request reprint Toxicogenetics in drug development
    B K Park
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, P O Box 147, Ashton Street, L69 3GE, Liverpool, UK
    Toxicol Lett 120:281-91. 2001
    ....
  39. doi request reprint Predictive genetic testing for drug-induced liver injury: considerations of clinical utility
    A Alfirevic
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 92:376-80. 2012
    ..Further work in this area, in combination with other "-omics" technologies, is needed to develop tests that are both clinically useful and cost-effective...
  40. ncbi request reprint Enzyme-induction dependent bioactivation of troglitazone and troglitazone quinone in vivo
    J N Tettey
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GE
    Chem Res Toxicol 14:965-74. 2001
    ..Our results show that TGZQ as well as TGZ yields reactive metabolites in vivo, and that bioactivation is enhanced by induction of P450 3A. However, hepatotoxicity is unlikely to be due to either TGZQ or its metabolites...
  41. ncbi request reprint Lack of interaction between sulphasalazine and cimetidine in patients with rheumatoid arthritis
    M Pirmohamed
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool
    Br J Rheumatol 32:222-6. 1993
    ..We therefore conclude that cimetidine may be safely used in patients with RA who are being treated with sulphasalazine...
  42. doi request reprint The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of testing for cytochrome P450 polymorphisms in patients with schizophrenia treated with antipsychotics: a systematic review and economic evaluation
    N Fleeman
    Liverpool Reviews and Implementation Group, University of Liverpool, UK
    Health Technol Assess 14:1-157, iii. 2010
    ....
  43. ncbi request reprint The role of metabolic activation in drug-induced hepatotoxicity
    B Kevin Park
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, Sherrington Buildings, Liverpool, Merseyside L69 3GE, United Kingdom
    Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 45:177-202. 2005
    ....
  44. ncbi request reprint Covalent binding of the nitroso metabolite of sulfamethoxazole leads to toxicity and major histocompatibility complex-restricted antigen presentation
    Dean J Naisbitt
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    Mol Pharmacol 62:628-37. 2002
    ..5 and 1 microM and 5 to 10 microM, respectively. The potential of SMX-NO to generate a potent antigen and cause cytotoxicity may in combination provide the signals necessary to induce a hypersensitivity reaction to SMX...
  45. ncbi request reprint Investigation of toxic metabolites during drug development
    Kevin Park
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Drug Safety Research Group, University of Liverpool, Sherrington Buildings, Liverpool, Merseyside L69 3GE, UK
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 207:425-34. 2005
    ..This will provide a deeper understanding of potential toxicophores for drug design and define candidate genes for pharmacogenomic approaches to individualized medicines...
  46. doi request reprint Adipogenic gene variants in patients with HIV-associated lipodystrophy
    Sudeep P Pushpakom
    NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Royal Liverpool Hospital, Liverpool, UK
    Pharmacogenet Genomics 21:76-83. 2011
    ..We hypothesized that variation in genes regulating adipogenesis, and in those implicated in inherited forms of lipodystrophy, may predispose to the development of HIVLD...
  47. ncbi request reprint Characterization of the T-cell response in a patient with phenindione hypersensitivity
    Dean J Naisbitt
    Department of Pharmacology, The University of Liverpool, England
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 313:1058-65. 2005
    ..Our data show that CD4(+) T-cells are involved in the pathophysiology of phenindione hypersensitivity. There may be cross-sensitivity with warfarin in some phenindione hypersensitive patients...
  48. doi request reprint Statins inhibit aminoglycoside accumulation and cytotoxicity to renal proximal tubule cells
    Daniel J Antoine
    MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, Merseyside, L69 3GE, UK
    Biochem Pharmacol 79:647-54. 2010
    ..In summary, our data suggest that the inhibition of the mevalonate pathway by statins may provide a potential therapeutic strategy to prevent AG-induced nephrotoxicity...
  49. pmc Quantifying the metabolic activation of nevirapine in patients by integrated applications of NMR and mass spectrometries
    Abhishek Srivastava
    MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    Drug Metab Dispos 38:122-32. 2010
    ..The method can be used as a template for comparative estimations of bioactivation of any drug in patients...
  50. doi request reprint Pharmacogenetics in reproductive and perinatal medicine
    Ana Alfirevic
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Sherrington Building, Ashton Street, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, Merseyside, L69 3GE, UK
    Pharmacogenomics 11:65-79. 2010
    ..Our review points out the need for well-designed clinical studies on the efficacy and safety of medicines used in women of childbearing age in order to define the additional utility provided by pharmacogenetic testing...
  51. ncbi request reprint Pre-registration nurse education in pharmacology: is it adequate for the roles that nurses are expected to fulfil?
    Sally Morrison-Griffiths
    University of Liverpool, UK
    Nurse Educ Today 22:447-56. 2002
    ..The reasons for this appear to be complex, though they may include insufficient guidelines from the nursing regulatory bodies, local political difficulties and a lack of consistency between educational establishments...
  52. doi request reprint Characterisation of flucloxacillin and 5-hydroxymethyl flucloxacillin haptenated HSA in vitro and in vivo
    Rosalind E Jenkins
    MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, UK
    Proteomics Clin Appl 3:720-9. 2009
    ..This study provides a detailed characterisation of sites of chemical modification of an endogenous target and reveals candidate peptides for T-cell and antibody assays of flucloxacillin hypersensitivity...
  53. ncbi request reprint Bioactivation of clozapine by murine cardiac tissue in vivo and in vitro
    Dominic P Williams
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    Chem Res Toxicol 16:1359-64. 2003
    ..5 +/- 0.06%, respectively. These data indicate that clozapine undergoes bioactivation in the heart to a chemically reactive nitrenium metabolite that may be important in the pathogenesis of myocarditis and cardiomyopathy observed in man...
  54. pmc SLCO1B1 genetic variant associated with statin-induced myopathy: a proof-of-concept study using the clinical practice research datalink
    D F Carr
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, Wolfson Centre for Personalised Medicine, Liverpool, UK
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 94:695-701. 2013
    ..Furthermore, we demonstrate how electronic medical records provide a time- and cost-efficient means of recruiting patients with severe adverse drug reactions for pharmacogenetic studies. ..
  55. ncbi request reprint LC determination of carbamazepine in murine brain
    A Owen
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Ashton Street Medical School, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GE, UK
    J Pharm Biomed Anal 26:573-7. 2001
    ..0) with UV detection at 285 nm. The method is selective, reproducible and precise with a limit detection of 45 ng/ml and is suitable for the determination of CBZ in murine brain after intra-peritoneal administration...
  56. doi request reprint The d3/fl-GH receptor gene polymorphism does not influence quality of life and body composition in GH-deficient adults receiving GH replacement therapy
    O R Adetunji
    The University Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, University Hospital Aintree, Liverpool, L9 7AL, UK
    Eur J Endocrinol 161:541-6. 2009
    ..The growth response to recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) in GH deficient (GHD) patients may be influenced by polymorphisms in the growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene...
  57. ncbi request reprint Adverse drug reactions in hospital in-patients: a pilot study
    E C Davies
    The Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University Hospitals Trust, Liverpool, L7 8XP, UK
    J Clin Pharm Ther 31:335-41. 2006
    ..The aim of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility of, and establish the methodology for, conducting a large prospective study to fully assess the impact of ADRs on in-patients and the National Health Service (NHS)...
  58. doi request reprint Drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions and pharmacogenomics: past, present and future
    Ana Alfirevic
    The Wolfson Centre for Personalised Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Block A, Waterhouse Buildings, 1 5 Brownlow Street, Liverpool, L69 3GL, UK
    Pharmacogenomics 11:497-9. 2010
    ..In addition, it is necessary to advance our knowledge of hypersensitivity mechanisms through functional studies, which will lead to the development of predictive and diagnostic tests...
  59. doi request reprint Effects of CYP4F2 genetic polymorphisms and haplotypes on clinical outcomes in patients initiated on warfarin therapy
    Jieying Eunice Zhang
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, UK
    Pharmacogenet Genomics 19:781-9. 2009
    ..A variant in the CYP4F2 gene, rs2108622, has been recently shown to determine stable warfarin dose requirements. CYP4F2 has also been shown recently to metabolize vitamin K...
  60. ncbi request reprint Are chemically reactive metabolites responsible for adverse reactions to drugs?
    D P Williams
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Curr Drug Metab 3:351-66. 2002
    ..We have therefore examined the evidence for the role of reactive metabolites in the three most common drug-induced toxicities: hepatotoxicity, skin reactions and blood dyscrasias...
  61. ncbi request reprint Immunopharmacology of hypersensitivity reactions to drugs
    Dean J Naisbitt
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Ashton Street, Liverpool, L69 3GE, UK
    Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 3:22-9. 2003
    ..The "danger signal" might result from chemical, physical, or viral stress...
  62. ncbi request reprint Characterization of drug-specific T cells in lamotrigine hypersensitivity
    Dean J Naisbitt
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Sherrington Building, Ashton Street, The University of Liverpool, PO Box 147, Liverpool L69 3GE, England
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 111:1393-403. 2003
    ..Lamotrigine is associated with hypersensitivity reactions, which are most commonly characterized by skin rash. An immune etiology has been postulated, though the nature of this is unclear...
  63. ncbi request reprint Sulfamethoxazole and its metabolite nitroso sulfamethoxazole stimulate dendritic cell costimulatory signaling
    Joseph P Sanderson
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 178:5533-42. 2007
    ..These data provide evidence of a link between localized metabolism, dendritic cell activation, and drug immunogenicity...
  64. ncbi request reprint Characterization of sulfamethoxazole and sulfamethoxazole metabolite-specific T-cell responses in animals and humans
    John Farrell
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, England, UK
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 306:229-37. 2003
    ..These results highlight important differences in T-cell recognition of drug (metabolite) antigens in animals that have been sensitized against a drug metabolite and patients with hypersensitivity to the drug...
  65. ncbi request reprint Immunological principles of T-cell-mediated adverse drug reactions in skin
    Dean J Naisbitt
    University of Liverpool, Department of Pharmacology, The Sherrington Building, Ashton Street, Liverpool, UK
    Expert Opin Drug Saf 6:109-24. 2007
    ....
  66. doi request reprint Release of intracellular calcium primes chronic myeloid leukaemia cells for tyrosine kinase inhibitor-induced apoptosis
    S L Forchap
    Department of Haematology, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool, UK
    Leukemia 26:490-8. 2012
    ..Amantadine/prazosin primed TKI cytotoxicity in vitro may be a useful test for the level of ER-releasable calcium, and may be of prognostic value...
  67. doi request reprint Nilotinib concentration in cell lines and primary CD34(+) chronic myeloid leukemia cells is not mediated by active uptake or efflux by major drug transporters
    A Davies
    Department of Haematology, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool, UK
    Leukemia 23:1999-2006. 2009
    ....
  68. doi request reprint Review article: cellular and molecular mechanisms of NSAID-induced peptic ulcers
    C Musumba
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 30:517-31. 2009
    ..Further understanding of the pathogenesis of NSAID-induced ulcers is important to enable the development of novel and effective preventive strategies...
  69. pmc How can we improve our understanding of cardiovascular safety liabilities to develop safer medicines?
    Hg Laverty
    MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, The University of Liverpool, Merseyside, UK
    Br J Pharmacol 163:675-93. 2011
    ....
  70. pmc Intravenous therapy
    C Waitt
    Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University Hospitals Trust, Liverpool, UK
    Postgrad Med J 80:1-6. 2004
    ..Additionally, many cannulae are inserted unnecessarily. This article seeks to review this area and to outline good medical practice...
  71. doi request reprint TNF, LTA, HSPA1L and HLA-DR gene polymorphisms in HIV-positive patients with hypersensitivity to cotrimoxazole
    Ana Alfirevic
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, Sherrington Building, Ashton Street, Liverpool, Merseyside, L69 3GE, UK
    Pharmacogenomics 10:531-40. 2009
    ..The aim of the study was to determine whether functional polymorphisms in TNF, LTA, HSPA1L and HLA-DRB1 genes influence the risk of cotrimoxazole hypersensitivity in HIV-infected patients...
  72. pmc Genetic and environmental factors determining clinical outcomes and cost of warfarin therapy: a prospective study
    Andrea L Jorgensen
    Department of Pharmacology, Centre for Medical Statistics and Health Evaluation, The University of Liverpool, UK
    Pharmacogenet Genomics 19:800-12. 2009
    ....
  73. ncbi request reprint Clinical pharmacology: special safety considerations in drug development and pharmacovigilance
    Kwame N Atuah
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    Drug Saf 27:535-54. 2004
    ..The various aspects of clinical pharmacology discussed make a strong case for this field as the backbone of optimising and promoting safe development and use of drugs...
  74. ncbi request reprint Whole-blood cultures from renal-transplant patients stimulated ex vivo show that the effects of cyclosporine on lymphocyte proliferation are related to P-glycoprotein expression
    Dave Singh
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool and Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool, UK
    Transplantation 77:557-61. 2004
    ....
  75. ncbi request reprint Reporting of adverse drug reactions by nurses
    Sally Morrison-Griffiths
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, Ashton Street, L69 3GE, Liverpool, UK
    Lancet 361:1347-8. 2003
    ..4-15.0, z=2.3, p=0.02). Our findings suggest that nurses, who form the largest proportion of health-care staff in the UK, can play a valuable part in improvement of pharmacovigilance...
  76. pmc Slow acetylator phenotype and genotype in HIV-positive patients with sulphamethoxazole hypersensitivity
    Ana Alfirevic
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 55:158-65. 2003
    ..To test the role of acetylator status, and to investigate the reported discrepancy between acetylator phenotype and genotype in HIV-positive patients with sulphamethoxazole (SMX) hypersensitivity...
  77. ncbi request reprint Adverse drug reactions in hospitals: a narrative review
    Emma C Davies
    The Royal Liverpool University Hospital Trust, Prescot Street, Liverpool, L7 8XP, UK
    Curr Drug Saf 2:79-87. 2007
    ..This paper reviews the epidemiology of ADRs in hospitals and evaluates the research that has been undertaken to date to prevent ADRs...
  78. ncbi request reprint Cost-effectiveness analysis of HLA B*5701 genotyping in preventing abacavir hypersensitivity
    Dyfrig A Hughes
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 3GE, UK
    Pharmacogenetics 14:335-42. 2004
    ..Our aim was to confirm the presence of this genetic factor in our patients, and to determine whether genotyping for HLA B*5701 would be a cost-effective use of healthcare resources...
  79. ncbi request reprint Generation and characterization of antigen-specific CD4+, CD8+, and CD4+CD8+ T-cell clones from patients with carbamazepine hypersensitivity
    Ying Wu
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 119:973-81. 2007
    ..Attempts to characterize drug-specific CD8(+) T cells have been largely unsuccessful...
  80. ncbi request reprint Serious carbamazepine-induced hypersensitivity reactions associated with the HSP70 gene cluster
    Ana Alfirevic
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Sherrington Building, Ashton Street, Liverpool, UK
    Pharmacogenet Genomics 16:287-96. 2006
    ..The heat shock protein (HSP70) gene cluster is located in the MHC class III region...
  81. ncbi request reprint Drug-specific T cells in an HIV-positive patient with nevirapine-induced hepatitis
    Nicola S Drummond
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Ashton Street, Liverpool, UK
    Antivir Ther 11:393-5. 2006
    ..However, there is little laboratory evidence to support an immune pathogenesis...
  82. ncbi request reprint Activation of T cells by carbamazepine and carbamazepine metabolites
    Ying Wu
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Ashton Street, Liverpool L69 3GE, UK
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 118:233-41. 2006
    ..T-cell-mediated hypersensitivity is a rare but serious manifestation of drug therapy...
  83. ncbi request reprint How do NHS general hospitals in England deal with patients with alcohol-related problems? A questionnaire survey
    Lynn Owens
    Department of Pharmacology, The University of Liverpool, Ashton Street, Liverpool L69 3GE, UK
    Alcohol Alcohol 40:409-12. 2005
    ..The aim of this survey was to determine what measures general hospital NHS Trusts in England had in place to deal with alcohol-related problems, including the employment of dedicated alcohol specialist nurses...
  84. ncbi request reprint Tacrine-induced liver damage: an analysis of 19 candidate genes
    Ana Alfirevic
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Sherrington Building, Ashton Street, Liverpool, UK
    Pharmacogenet Genomics 17:1091-100. 2007
    ..Our aim was to investigate whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 19 candidate genes were associated with tacrine-induced liver damage...
  85. pmc Genetic factors in the predisposition to drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions
    Munir Pirmohamed
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Ashton Street, Liverpool, UK L69 3GE
    AAPS J 8:E20-6. 2006
    ....
  86. pmc Haplotype structure of CYP2B6 and association with plasma efavirenz concentrations in a Chilean HIV cohort
    Daniel F Carr
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 65:1889-93. 2010
    ..The objective of this study was to investigate CYP2B6 haplotype structure and functional consequences in a Latin American population...
  87. ncbi request reprint HLA-B locus in Caucasian patients with carbamazepine hypersensitivity
    Ana Alfirevic
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Sherrington Building, Ashton Street, Liverpool, L69 3GE, UK
    Pharmacogenomics 7:813-8. 2006
    ..A strong pharmacogenetic association has been reported in Chinese patients between human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B*1502 and carbamazepine (CBZ)-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS)...
  88. doi request reprint Characterization of p-phenylenediamine-albumin binding sites and T-cell responses to hapten-modified protein
    Claire Jenkinson
    Department of Pharmacology, The MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    J Invest Dermatol 130:732-42. 2010
    ..These data identify Cys as the single target for PPD-HSA binding, and show that PPD protein adducts are antigenic determinants in patients with contact dermatitis...
  89. ncbi request reprint Pharmacogenetics in clinical practice: considerations for testing
    Simon Constable
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Ashton Street Medical School, University of Liverpool, Ashton Street, Liverpool, L69 3GE, UK
    Expert Rev Mol Diagn 6:193-205. 2006
    ..This review focuses on issues that will need to be considered in the scientific assessment of pharmacogenetic testing...
  90. ncbi request reprint TNF-alpha promoter region gene polymorphisms in HIV-positive patients with lipodystrophy
    Bridget Maher
    Department of Pharmacology, The University of Liverpool, Ashton Street, Liverpool, UK
    AIDS 16:2013-8. 2002
    ....
  91. pmc Adverse drug reactions in hospital in-patients: a prospective analysis of 3695 patient-episodes
    Emma C Davies
    The Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University Hospitals Trust, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 4:e4439. 2009
    ..25 days/patient admission episode. The overall burden of ADRs on hospitals is high, and effective intervention strategies are urgently needed to reduce this burden...
  92. ncbi request reprint Activation of T-cells from allergic patients and volunteers by p-phenylenediamine and Bandrowski's base
    Eve Marie Coulter
    Department of Pharmacology, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    J Invest Dermatol 128:897-905. 2008
    ..BB-specific T cells are found in both allergic patients and volunteers, but not in cord blood. Their presence seems to reflect an acquired immune response, which is not translated into an allergic reaction...
  93. pmc Relationship between the C3435T and G2677T(A) polymorphisms in the ABCB1 gene and P-glycoprotein expression in human liver
    Andrew Owen
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Ashton Street, Liverpool, L69 3GE, U K
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 59:365-70. 2005
    ..The aim of the study was to determine whether a correlation exists between MDR1 (ABCB1) gene polymorphisms at positions 3435 (C3435T) and 2677 (G2677T(A)) and the expression of human hepatic P-glycoprotein (P-gp)...
  94. ncbi request reprint Drugs and the retina
    Simon Constable
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, Ashton Street Medical School, UK
    Expert Opin Drug Saf 3:249-59. 2004
    ..The treatment of this condition with the antiviral agents ganciclovir, valganciclovir, foscarnet and cidofovir, can also be associated with significant systemic toxicity...
  95. pmc Possible interaction between warfarin and cranberry juice
    Rafe Suvarna
    Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Unit, Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency, London SW8 5NQ
    BMJ 327:1454. 2003
  96. pmc The future prospects of pharmacogenetics in oral anticoagulation therapy
    Farhad Kamali
    Wolfson Unit of Clinical Pharmacology, School of Clinical and Laboratory Sciences, University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 61:746-51. 2006
    ..Incorporation of genetic and environmental factors could help in the prediction of more individualized loading and maintenance doses for safer anticoagulation therapy...
  97. ncbi request reprint Warfarin pharmacogenetics: economic considerations
    Dyfrig A Hughes
    Pharmacoeconomics 25:899-902. 2007
  98. ncbi request reprint Drug presentation to T cells
    Dean John Naisbitt
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 115:876-7; author reply 877-8. 2005
  99. ncbi request reprint Personalized medicine: decades away?
    Jeantine E Lunshof
    VU University Medical Center, Section Community Genetics, Department of Clinical Genetics and Human Genetics, EMGO Institute, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Pharmacogenomics 7:237-41. 2006
  100. pmc Pharmacovigilance in developing countries
    Munir Pirmohamed
    BMJ 335:462. 2007
  101. ncbi request reprint Clinical practice. Antibiotic allergy
    Rebecca S Gruchalla
    University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390 8859, USA
    N Engl J Med 354:601-9. 2006