A Petzold

Summary

Affiliation: University College London
Country: UK

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Why human color vision cannot reliably detect cerebrospinal fluid xanthochromia
    Axel Petzold
    The National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Department of Neuroimmunology, Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, UK
    Stroke 36:1295-7. 2005
  2. pmc Blood and CSF Biomarker Dynamics in Multiple Sclerosis: Implications for Data Interpretation
    M J Eikelenboom
    Department of Neurology, MS Center Amsterdam, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Mult Scler Int 2011:823176. 2011
  3. pmc Cerebrospinal fluid ferritin level, a sensitive diagnostic test in late-presenting subarachnoid hemorrhage
    Axel Petzold
    Department of Neuroimmunology, University College London Institute of Neurology, London, UK
    J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 20:489-93. 2011
  4. pmc Serum S100B in primary progressive multiple sclerosis patients treated with interferon-beta-1a
    Ee Tuan Lim
    Department of Neuroinflammation, Institute of Neurology, University College London, Queen Square, London, WC1N 3BG, UK
    J Negat Results Biomed 3:4. 2004
  5. ncbi request reprint A systematic review and meta-analysis of CSF neurofilament protein levels as biomarkers in dementia
    A Petzold
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Institute of Neurology, UCL, London, UK
    Neurodegener Dis 4:185-94. 2007
  6. ncbi request reprint CSF neurofilament levels: a potential prognostic marker in Guillain-Barré syndrome
    A Petzold
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Institute of Neurology and Tavistock Intensive Care Unit, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London, UK
    Neurology 67:1071-3. 2006
  7. ncbi request reprint Early identification of secondary brain damage in subarachnoid hemorrhage: a role for glial fibrillary acidic protein
    Axel Petzold
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    J Neurotrauma 23:1179-84. 2006
  8. ncbi request reprint The new global multiple sclerosis severity score (MSSS) correlates with axonal but not glial biomarkers
    A Petzold
    Department of Neuroinflammation, Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, UK
    Mult Scler 12:325-8. 2006
  9. ncbi request reprint Optical coherence tomography in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Axel Petzold
    UCL Institute of Neurology National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Department of Neuroimmunology, Queen Square, London, UK
    Lancet Neurol 9:921-32. 2010
  10. ncbi request reprint Clinical disorders affecting mesopic vision
    Axel Petzold
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 26:326-41. 2006

Detail Information

Publications79

  1. ncbi request reprint Why human color vision cannot reliably detect cerebrospinal fluid xanthochromia
    Axel Petzold
    The National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Department of Neuroimmunology, Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, UK
    Stroke 36:1295-7. 2005
    ..Visual assessment of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for xanthochromia (yellow color) is practiced by the majority of laboratories worldwide as a means of diagnosing intracranical bleeds...
  2. pmc Blood and CSF Biomarker Dynamics in Multiple Sclerosis: Implications for Data Interpretation
    M J Eikelenboom
    Department of Neurology, MS Center Amsterdam, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Mult Scler Int 2011:823176. 2011
    ..Therefore, the interpretation of blood protein biomarker data in diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) should consider the possibility that pathology of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) may influence the results...
  3. pmc Cerebrospinal fluid ferritin level, a sensitive diagnostic test in late-presenting subarachnoid hemorrhage
    Axel Petzold
    Department of Neuroimmunology, University College London Institute of Neurology, London, UK
    J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 20:489-93. 2011
    ..The increase in CSF ferritin level after SAH and possibly may provide additional diagnostic information in patients with suspected SAH who present late to the clinic...
  4. pmc Serum S100B in primary progressive multiple sclerosis patients treated with interferon-beta-1a
    Ee Tuan Lim
    Department of Neuroinflammation, Institute of Neurology, University College London, Queen Square, London, WC1N 3BG, UK
    J Negat Results Biomed 3:4. 2004
    ..Furthermore there is no correlation between S100B levels and the primary and secondary outcome measures...
  5. ncbi request reprint A systematic review and meta-analysis of CSF neurofilament protein levels as biomarkers in dementia
    A Petzold
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Institute of Neurology, UCL, London, UK
    Neurodegener Dis 4:185-94. 2007
    ..Loss of cortical neurons is a key pathological feature in neurodegenerative dementias. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neurofilaments (Nf) are a biomarker for neuronal death and axonal loss...
  6. ncbi request reprint CSF neurofilament levels: a potential prognostic marker in Guillain-Barré syndrome
    A Petzold
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Institute of Neurology and Tavistock Intensive Care Unit, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London, UK
    Neurology 67:1071-3. 2006
    ..Pathologically high CSF NfH levels (>0.73 ng/mL) predicted worse motor and functional outcome...
  7. ncbi request reprint Early identification of secondary brain damage in subarachnoid hemorrhage: a role for glial fibrillary acidic protein
    Axel Petzold
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    J Neurotrauma 23:1179-84. 2006
    ....
  8. ncbi request reprint The new global multiple sclerosis severity score (MSSS) correlates with axonal but not glial biomarkers
    A Petzold
    Department of Neuroinflammation, Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, UK
    Mult Scler 12:325-8. 2006
    ..5) versus mildly (MSSS 3.2) disabled patients (7.3 versus 0.9, P = 0.03). The MSSS may provide a statistically powerful tool for comparing overall disease severity and be useful for validating the biomarker concept in MS...
  9. ncbi request reprint Optical coherence tomography in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Axel Petzold
    UCL Institute of Neurology National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Department of Neuroimmunology, Queen Square, London, UK
    Lancet Neurol 9:921-32. 2010
    ....
  10. ncbi request reprint Clinical disorders affecting mesopic vision
    Axel Petzold
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 26:326-41. 2006
    ..The current diagnostic gold standards for each disease are discussed and curative and symptomatic treatment strategies are summarized...
  11. ncbi request reprint Spectrophotometry for cerebrospinal fluid pigment analysis
    Axel Petzold
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Institute of Neurology, UCL, Queen Square, London, UK
    Neurocrit Care 4:153-62. 2006
    ..Finally, future perspectives including the need for longitudinal CSF profiling and routine spectrophotometric calibration are outlined...
  12. ncbi request reprint Amniotic fluid brain-specific proteins are biomarkers for spinal cord injury in experimental myelomeningocele
    A Petzold
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, UK
    J Neurochem 95:594-8. 2005
    ..5 and E18.5, suggesting that axonal degeneration is most severe in large MMC. Amniotic fluid BSP measurements may provide important information for balancing the risks and benefits to mother and child of in utero surgery for MMC...
  13. ncbi request reprint Central and paracentral visual field defects and driving abilities
    A Petzold
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Institute of Neurology, London, UK
    Ophthalmologica 219:191-201. 2005
    ..Here we summarise for the first time those diseases causing central visual field defects likely to be associated with binocular visual acuity adequate for driving...
  14. pmc Optic flow induced nystagmus
    A Petzold
    Institute of Neurology, London, UK
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 76:1173-4. 2005
    ..This type of nystagmus could not be induced by vestibular stimuli, positioning, or self motion. The aetiology and anatomical correlate of OFN remains unknown. Treatment with gabapentin suppressed OFN...
  15. pmc Marathon related death due to brainstem herniation in rehydration-related hyponatraemia: a case report
    Axel Petzold
    The Tavistock Intensive Care Unit, The National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London, WC1N 3BG, UK
    J Med Case Reports 1:186. 2007
    ..is challenging. Here we report a case of rehydration-related hyponatraemia with ensuing brain herniation...
  16. doi request reprint CSF biomarkers for improved prognostic accuracy in acute CNS disease
    Axel Petzold
    The Tavistock Intensive Care Unit, Department of Neuroimmunology, Institute of Neurology, The National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, University College London Hospitals, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Neurol Res 29:691-708. 2007
    ..The release of these biomarkers from dying cells is illustrated by a video of a laser-dissected neuron. Finally, the evidence for improving prognostic accuracy is summarized and recommendations are made for future biomarker research...
  17. doi request reprint Glial and axonal body fluid biomarkers are related to infarct volume, severity, and outcome
    Axel Petzold
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Institute of Neurology and The Tavistock Intensive Care Unit, The National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London, United Kingdom
    J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 17:196-203. 2008
    ..01) and the stroke volume (R = 0.44, P = .01). CSF S100B and NfH-SMI35 levels correlated with outcome on the modified Rankin scale. CSF S100B levels were related to stroke severity and infarct volume and highest in cardioembolic stroke...
  18. pmc In vivo monitoring of neuronal loss in traumatic brain injury: a microdialysis study
    Axel Petzold
    Department of Neuroimmunology, UCL Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, WC1N 3BG, UK
    Brain 134:464-83. 2011
    ....
  19. doi request reprint Recurrent ptosis due to myopathy of the levator palpebrae superioris
    A Petzold
    UCL Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, WC1N 3BG, UK
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 81:337-8. 2010
    ..A therapeutic response to acetazolamide suggests that ion-channel dysfunction may be the underlying cause for this new myopathy...
  20. doi request reprint Neuromyelitis optica-IgG (aquaporin-4) autoantibodies in immune mediated optic neuritis
    A Petzold
    Department of Neuroinflammation, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, UK
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 81:109-11. 2010
    ..Testing for NMO-IgG in patients with recurrent or severe ON who lack convincing evidence of MS may identify patients who would benefit from immunosuppression rather than MS directed immunomodulatory therapies...
  21. ncbi request reprint An unbiased, staged, multicentre, validation strategy for Alzheimer's disease CSF tau levels
    A Petzold
    Department of Neuroimmunology, UCL Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Exp Neurol 223:432-8. 2010
    ..This cutoff level was confirmed in a prospective audit (n=100). As demand for CSF tau levels will increase globally, the accuracy of local CSF hTau cutoff levels can be compared against this benchmark...
  22. ncbi request reprint Neurofilament ELISA validation
    Axel Petzold
    Department of Neuroinflammation, UCL Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, United Kingdom
    J Immunol Methods 352:23-31. 2010
    ..As these markers become more widely used, an inter-laboratory validation study is required to identify assay criteria for high quality performance...
  23. doi request reprint Neuronal and glial cerebrospinal fluid protein biomarkers are elevated after West Nile virus infection
    A Petzold
    UCL Institute of Neurology, Department of Neuroinflammation, Queen Square, London, WC1N 3BG, United Kingdom
    Muscle Nerve 41:42-9. 2010
    ..Elevated CSF protein biomarker levels are suggestive of neuronal death and glial pathology in human WNV infection. The results indicate the presence of neuroinvasive disease across the spectrum of WNV disease, including WNV fever...
  24. doi request reprint A novel biomarker for retinal degeneration: vitreous body neurofilament proteins
    Axel Petzold
    Department of Neuroimmunology, UCL Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, WC1N 3BG, UK
    J Neural Transm 116:1601-6. 2009
    ..The method can be applied for investigating the dynamics of retinal degeneration and the response to neuroprotective strategies in a broad range of retinal diseases in either clinical or experimental research...
  25. doi request reprint The longitudinal profile of bilirubin and ferritin in the cerebrospinal fluid following a subarachnoid hemorrhage: diagnostic implications
    A Petzold
    Department of Neuroimmunology, UCL Institute of Neurology and The Tavistock Intensive Care Unit, The National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London, WC1N 3BG, UK
    Neurocrit Care 11:398-402. 2009
    ..Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spectrophotometry for bilirubin is a highly sensitive test in the diagnostic work up of a suspected subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)...
  26. ncbi request reprint CSF protein biomarkers for proximal axonal damage improve prognostic accuracy in the acute phase of Guillain-Barré syndrome
    A Petzold
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Institute of Neurology and Tavistock Intensive Care Unit, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London, WC1N 3BG, United Kingdom
    Muscle Nerve 40:42-9. 2009
    ..05 ng/ml). Except for age (P < 0.05) and need for ventilatory support (P < 0.05), none of the other features reliably predicted outcome. Improved prognostic accuracy in the acute phase of GBS seems possible using CSF NfH levels...
  27. ncbi request reprint Longitudinal one-year study of levels and stoichiometry of neurofilament heavy and light chain concentrations in CSF in patients with multiple system atrophy
    Axel Petzold
    Department of Neuroimmunology, UCL Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, UK
    J Neurol Sci 279:76-9. 2009
    ..This study investigated whether the CSF NfH and NfL levels or their stoichiometric relationship changed over time in a neuroprotective treatment trial...
  28. pmc Phosphorylation and compactness of neurofilaments in multiple sclerosis: indicators of axonal pathology
    Axel Petzold
    Department of Neuroinflammation, Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, UK
    Exp Neurol 213:326-35. 2008
    ..This study investigated whether neurofilament (NfH) phosphorylation would relate to the dynamics of axonal pathology in multiple sclerosis (MS)...
  29. pmc Axonal damage and outcome in subarachnoid haemorrhage
    A Petzold
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Institute of Neurology, The National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 77:753-9. 2006
    ..On the basis of preliminary evidence from patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), axonal degeneration is thought to be an underestimated pathological feature...
  30. ncbi request reprint Neurofilament phosphoforms: surrogate markers for axonal injury, degeneration and loss
    Axel Petzold
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Institute of Neurology, University College London, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    J Neurol Sci 233:183-98. 2005
    ..With reference to the present symposium on multiple sclerosis, the current literature on body fluid levels of neurofilaments in demyelinating disease is summarised...
  31. ncbi request reprint Quantification of neurodegeneration by measurement of brain-specific proteins
    A Petzold
    Department of Neuroinflammation, Institute of Neurology, University College London, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    J Neuroimmunol 138:45-8. 2003
    ..These assays may facilitate the quantification of pathological features involved in neurodegeneration...
  32. ncbi request reprint An ELISA for glial fibrillary acidic protein
    A Petzold
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Institute of Neurology, University College London, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    J Immunol Methods 287:169-77. 2004
    ..In a critical review of the literature, we compare the analytical and clinical sensitivity of previous GFAP ELISA methods with particular reference to patients with dementia...
  33. ncbi request reprint A specific ELISA for measuring neurofilament heavy chain phosphoforms
    A Petzold
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Institute of Neurology, University College London, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    J Immunol Methods 278:179-90. 2003
    ..A new nomenclature is proposed to facilitate the comparison between ELISA, immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry...
  34. ncbi request reprint Cerebrospinal fluid S100B correlates with brain atrophy in Alzheimer's disease
    A Petzold
    Institute of Neurology, Department of Neuroinflammation, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Neurosci Lett 336:167-70. 2003
    ..53, P<0.001). No such correlation was found for FTLD patients. This study supports the concept that S100B is of pathological relevance for degeneration of the central nervous system in AD...
  35. ncbi request reprint Treatment response in relation to inflammatory and axonal surrogate marker in multiple sclerosis
    A Petzold
    Institute of Neurology, Department of Neuroimmunology, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Mult Scler 10:281-3. 2004
    ..This study aimed to investigate if treatment response could retrospectively be related to inflammatory or axonal pathology as measured by plasma surrogate markers...
  36. pmc Axonal degeneration and inflammation in acute optic neuritis
    A Petzold
    Department of Neuroinflammation, Institute of Neurology, University College London, Queen Square, UK
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 75:1178-80. 2004
    ..To investigate whether plasma biomarkers for axonal injury and inflammation are related to loss and recovery of visual function in acute optic neuritis (ON)...
  37. ncbi request reprint Role of serum S100B as an early predictor of high intracranial pressure and mortality in brain injury: a pilot study
    Axel Petzold
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, United Kingdom
    Crit Care Med 30:2705-10. 2002
    ..To investigate whether serum S100B is suitable as a sensitive biomarker for early prediction of increased intracranial pressure and mortality rates after brain injury...
  38. pmc Axonal damage accumulates in the progressive phase of multiple sclerosis: three year follow up study
    A Petzold
    Institute of Neurology, Department of Neuroinflammation, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 76:206-11. 2005
    ..Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of Nf phosphoforms might be useful surrogate markers for disability in multiple sclerosis (MS), aid in distinguishing clinical subtypes, and provide valuable prognostic information...
  39. pmc Relapsing intracranial Rosai-Dorfman disease
    A Petzold
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG and Moorfields Eye Hospital, City Road, London EC1 2PD, UK
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 71:538-41. 2001
    ..Review of the literature on intracranial Rosai-Dorfman disease leads to the suggestion that postoperative radiotherapy may be advisable in all cases...
  40. ncbi request reprint Axonal pathology in subarachnoid and intracerebral hemorrhage
    A Petzold
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    J Neurotrauma 22:407-14. 2005
    ..CSF NfH phosphoforms might emerge as a putative surrogate marker for monitoring the development for secondary axonal degeneration in neurocritical care and guiding targeted neuroprotective strategies...
  41. ncbi request reprint Markers for different glial cell responses in multiple sclerosis: clinical and pathological correlations
    A Petzold
    Department of Neuroinflammation, Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, UK
    Brain 125:1462-73. 2002
    ..They may also be considered in future classifications of multiple sclerosis patients...
  42. ncbi request reprint CSF nitric oxide metabolites are associated with activity and progression of multiple sclerosis
    K Rejdak
    Department of Neuroinflammation, Institute of Neurology, London, UK
    Neurology 63:1439-45. 2004
    ..To investigate the relationship of CSF and the serum nitric oxide metabolites nitrite and nitrate (NOx) to disease activity and progression in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS)...
  43. ncbi request reprint Multiple sclerosis: Neurofilament light chain antibodies are correlated to cerebral atrophy
    M J Eikelenboom
    Department of Neurology, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Neurology 60:219-23. 2003
    ..To evaluate markers of axonal damage in CSF and serum of patients with different subtypes of MS in relation to measures of disease progression on MRI...
  44. ncbi request reprint Extracellular fluid S100B in the injured brain: a future surrogate marker of acute brain injury?
    J Sen
    Victor Horsley Department of Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London, United Kingdom
    Acta Neurochir (Wien) 147:897-900. 2005
    ..Further investigation is required to determine whether extracellular S100B measurement in ABI could assist in patient management...
  45. doi request reprint Normal CSF ferritin levels in MS suggest against etiologic role of chronic venous insufficiency
    V Worthington
    Department of Neuroimmunology, UCL Institute of Neurology, University College London, Queen Square, London, UK
    Neurology 75:1617-22. 2010
    ..If the presumed mechanism of venous stasis-related parenchymal iron deposition and neurodegeneration were true, then upregulation of intrathecal iron transport proteins may be expected...
  46. ncbi request reprint Improving the recovery of S100B protein in cerebral microdialysis: implications for multimodal monitoring in neurocritical care
    R Afinowi
    Department of Neurosurgery, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London WC1N3BG, UK
    J Neurosci Methods 181:95-9. 2009
    ..The correct interpretation of body fluid biomarker levels depends on the degree of recovery, i.e. relative recovery and the accuracy of the analytical technique...
  47. doi request reprint The longitudinal profile of CSF markers during external lumbar drainage
    A Tarnaris
    Victor Horsley Department of Neurosurgery, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London, UK
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 80:1130-3. 2009
    ..External lumbar drainage (ELD) is known as a good predictor of favourable outcome in shunting patients suffering from idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH)...
  48. ncbi request reprint Serum and urine nitrate and nitrite are not reliable indicators of intrathecal nitric oxide production in acute brain injury
    K Rejdak
    Department of Neuroinflammation, Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    J Neurol Sci 208:1-7. 2003
    ..Serum and urinary NO(x) levels cannot be used as a reliable index to assess intrathecal NO production...
  49. ncbi request reprint Free phenytoin concentration measurement in brain extracellular fluid: a pilot study
    M Tisdall
    Department of Neuroanaesthesia and Neurocritical Care, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London, UK
    Br J Neurosurg 20:285-9. 2006
    ..This has implications for dosing regimens relying on plasma phenytoin levels...
  50. ncbi request reprint A dam for retrograde axonal degeneration in multiple sclerosis?
    L J Balk
    Department of Neurology, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 85:782-9. 2014
    ..This study investigated to what extent trans-synaptic axonal degeneration takes place within the visual pathway in multiple sclerosis (MS)...
  51. doi request reprint Batch prepared protein standards for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers for neurodegeneration
    A Petzold
    Department of Neurology, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Neurosci Methods 193:296-9. 2010
    ..05). This issue will need to be solved in order to ensure that the attempts to include these CSF protein biomarkers either as a diagnostic tool or a secondary outcome measure for treatment trials will be successful...
  52. ncbi request reprint Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum S100B: release and wash-out pattern
    A Petzold
    Department of Neuroimmunology of the Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, WC1N 3BG London, UK
    Brain Res Bull 61:281-5. 2003
    ..The release and wash-out pattern found in CSF and serum are discussed in relation to the three main determinants for increased brain specific protein levels in body fluids: (i) total mass effect; (ii) pathology; and (iii) time effect...
  53. ncbi request reprint Increased urinary excretion of nitric oxide metabolites in longitudinally monitored migraine patients
    K Rejdak
    Department of Neuroinflammation, Institute of Neurology, London, UK
    Eur J Neurol 13:1346-51. 2006
    ..Although there is a difference in the pattern of urinary NO(x) excretion between control and migraine populations, the variable temporal association of NO(x) peaks and headaches suggests a complex role of NO in this condition...
  54. pmc Axonal damage in the making: neurofilament phosphorylation, proton mobility and magnetisation transfer in multiple sclerosis normal appearing white matter
    A Petzold
    UCL Institute of Neurology, Department of Neuroinflammation, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Exp Neurol 232:234-9. 2011
    ..This study investigated whether the MTR of non-lesional white matter (NLWM) was related to the brain tissue concentration of neurofilament phosphoforms...
  55. ncbi request reprint Plasma neurofilament heavy chain levels in Huntington's disease
    Edward J Wild
    Department of Neurodegenerative Disease, Institute of Neurology, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, University College London, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Neurosci Lett 417:231-3. 2007
    ..We conclude that plasma NfH concentration is not a useful biomarker of onset or progression in HD...
  56. pmc A consensus protocol for the standardization of cerebrospinal fluid collection and biobanking
    C E Teunissen
    Department of Molecular Cell Biology and Immunology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Neurology 73:1914-22. 2009
    ..We focus on CSF collection procedures, preanalytical factors, and high-quality clinical and paraclinical information. The biobanking protocols are applicable for CSF biobanks for research targeting any neurologic disease...
  57. ncbi request reprint The pro and the active form of matrix metalloproteinase-9 is increased in serum of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    M Demestre
    Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, The National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, University College London, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    J Neuroimmunol 159:146-54. 2005
    ....
  58. ncbi request reprint Triple-H therapy in the management of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage
    Jon Sen
    Victor Horsley Department of Neurosurgery, of the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London, UK
    Lancet Neurol 2:614-21. 2003
    ..In this review, the rationale for this approach will be discussed, alongside new thoughts and future prospects for the management of this complex disorder...
  59. ncbi request reprint Impaired fibrinolysis in multiple sclerosis: a role for tissue plasminogen activator inhibitors
    Djordje Gveric
    Department of Neuroinflammation, Institute of Neurology, 1 Wakefield Street, London WC1N 1PJ, UK
    Brain 126:1590-8. 2003
    ..The impaired fibrinolytic capacity resulting from increased PAI-1 synthesis and complex formation with tPA, which is detectable prior to lesion formation, therefore has the potential to contribute to axonal damage in multiple sclerosis...
  60. doi request reprint A method to solubilise protein aggregates for immunoassay quantification which overcomes the neurofilament "hook" effect
    Ching Hua Lu
    Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, UCL Institute of Neurology, University College London, London WC1N3BG, UK
    J Neurosci Methods 195:143-50. 2011
    ..Using the SOD1(G93A) mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, we developed a method to disrupt Nf aggregates, allowing optimal immunoassay performance...
  61. doi request reprint A worldwide multicentre comparison of assays for cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease
    N A Verwey
    Department of Clinical Chemistry, VU University Medical Center, HV, The Netherlands
    Ann Clin Biochem 46:235-40. 2009
    ..The aim of this study was to compare the measurements of these CSF biomarkers, between and within centres...
  62. ncbi request reprint Cerebrospinal fluid nitrite/nitrate correlated with oxyhemoglobin and outcome in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage
    Konrad Rejdak
    Department Neuroinflammation, Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    J Neurol Sci 219:71-6. 2004
    ....
  63. ncbi request reprint Cannabinoids inhibit neurodegeneration in models of multiple sclerosis
    Gareth Pryce
    Department of Neuroinflammation, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, UK
    Brain 126:2191-202. 2003
    ..Therefore, in addition to symptom management, cannabis may also slow the neurodegenerative processes that ultimately lead to chronic disability in multiple sclerosis and probably other diseases...
  64. ncbi request reprint CSF neurofilaments in frontotemporal dementia compared with early onset Alzheimer's disease and controls
    Yolande A L Pijnenburg
    Department of Neurology, Alzheimer Center, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, and Chelsea and Westminster, Brompton and Charing Cross Hospitals, London, UK
    Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 23:225-30. 2007
    ....
  65. ncbi request reprint Comparison of two ELISA methods for measuring levels of the phosphorylated neurofilament heavy chain
    Axel Petzold
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Institute of Neurology, University College London, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, United Kingdom
    J Immunol Methods 319:34-40. 2007
    ..The present study aims to cross-validate two different independently developed ELISA techniques for the quantification of the phosphorylated axonal forms of the neurofilament heavy chain (pNfH)...
  66. doi request reprint Retinal hyperaemia-related blood vessel artifacts are relevant to automated OCT layer segmentation
    L J Balk
    Department of Neurology, 0 Z 126, MS Centre, VU University Medical Centre, De Boelelaan 1118, 1081 HZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Neurol 261:511-7. 2014
    ..This may be relevant for the use of OCT in a range of neurodegenerative diseases were only a small degree of retinal layer atrophy have been found so far...
  67. ncbi request reprint The Bryan cervical disc prosthesis as an alternative to arthrodesis in the treatment of cervical spondylosis: 46 consecutive cases
    J Lafuente
    The Victor Horsley Spinal Department, The National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery and Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    J Bone Joint Surg Br 87:508-12. 2005
    ..02, p < 0.0001), SF-36 (physical component) (Z = -5.00, p < 0.0001) and NDI (Z = 7.03, p < 0.0001). The Bryan cervical disc prosthesis seems reliable and safe in the treatment of patients with cervical spondylosis...
  68. doi request reprint Isolated, relapsing and progressive demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system
    Axel Petzold
    The Department of Neuroimmunology, Institute of Neurology, University College London UCL, Queen Square, London, WC1N 3BG, UK
    J Neurol 255:69-76. 2008
    ..These two questions guide this brief review of the clinical spectrum of demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system...
  69. ncbi request reprint Extracellular N-acetylaspartate depletion in traumatic brain injury
    Antonio Belli
    Victor Horsley Department of Neurosurgery, The National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London, UK
    J Neurochem 96:861-9. 2006
    ..These results suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction is a significant contributor to poor outcome following TBI and propose extracellular NAA as a potential marker for monitoring interventions aimed at preserving mitochondrial function...
  70. ncbi request reprint Decreased cerebrospinal fluid apolipoprotein E after subarachnoid hemorrhage: correlation with injury severity and clinical outcome
    Andrew Kay
    Department of Neurosurgery, University of Glasgow, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Southern General Hospital, Glasgow G51 4TF, UK
    Stroke 34:637-42. 2003
    ....
  71. ncbi request reprint Spectrophotometry for xanthochromia
    Axel Petzold
    N Engl J Med 351:1695-6. 2004
  72. ncbi request reprint The neurofilament heavy chain (NfH) in the cerebrospinal fluid diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease
    Johannes Brettschneider
    Department of Neurology, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany
    Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 21:291-5. 2006
    ....
  73. ncbi request reprint Cerebrospinal fluid apolipoprotein E concentration decreases after traumatic brain injury
    Andrew D Kay
    Department of Neurosurgery, University of Glasgow, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Southern General Hospital, Glasgow, United Kingdom
    J Neurotrauma 20:243-50. 2003
    ..0001). We speculate that apoE is retained within the parenchyma of the central nervous system in response to injury where in view of previous data, it may have a protective role...
  74. ncbi request reprint Neurofilament heavy-chain NfH(SMI35) in cerebrospinal fluid supports the differential diagnosis of Parkinsonian syndromes
    Johannes Brettschneider
    Department of Neurology, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany
    Mov Disord 21:2224-7. 2006
    ..CSF NfH(SMI35) may therefore be of some value for the laboratory-supported differential diagnosis of atypical parkinsonian syndromes...
  75. ncbi request reprint Temporal alterations in cerebrospinal fluid amyloid beta-protein and apolipoprotein E after subarachnoid hemorrhage
    Andrew Kay
    Department of Neurosurgery, University of Glasgow, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Southern General Hospital, UK
    Stroke 34:e240-3. 2003
    ....
  76. ncbi request reprint High intracranial pressure, brain herniation and death in cerebral venous thrombosis
    Axel Petzold
    Stroke 37:331-2; author reply 332. 2006
  77. ncbi request reprint Alterations in cerebrospinal fluid apolipoprotein E and amyloid beta-protein after traumatic brain injury
    Andrew D Kay
    Department of Neurosurgery, University of Glasgow, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Southern General Hospital, Glasgow, United Kingdom
    J Neurotrauma 20:943-52. 2003
    ..67, p = 0.01) between injury severity and the decrease in Abeta(1-40) concentration after TBI. In vivo, changes in apoE and Abeta concentration occur after TBI and may be important in the response of the human brain to injury...
  78. ncbi request reprint Critical illness brain syndrome (CIBS): an underestimated entity?
    Axel Petzold
    Crit Care Med 33:1464; author reply 1464-5. 2005