Mark Pallen

Summary

Affiliation: University of Birmingham
Country: UK

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint The ESAT-6/WXG100 superfamily -- and a new Gram-positive secretion system?
    Mark J Pallen
    Division of Immunity and Infection, Birmingham University Medical School, Birmingham, UK B15 2TT
    Trends Microbiol 10:209-12. 2002
  2. pmc Defining bacterial species in the genomic era: insights from the genus Acinetobacter
    Jacqueline Z M Chan
    Institute of Microbiology and Infection, School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston B15 2TT, UK
    BMC Microbiol 12:302. 2012
  3. pmc EntrezAJAX: direct web browser access to the Entrez Programming Utilities
    Nicholas J Loman
    Centre for Systems Biology, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
    Source Code Biol Med 5:6. 2010
  4. pmc Comparative analysis of two Neisseria gonorrhoeae genome sequences reveals evidence of mobilization of Correia Repeat Enclosed Elements and their role in regulation
    Lori A S Snyder
    Systems Biology, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK
    BMC Genomics 10:70. 2009
  5. pmc Simple sequence repeats in Helicobacter canadensis and their role in phase variable expression and C-terminal sequence switching
    Lori A S Snyder
    Centre for Systems Biology, School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B152TT, UK
    BMC Genomics 11:67. 2010
  6. pmc Are diagnostic and public health bacteriology ready to become branches of genomic medicine?
    Mark J Pallen
    Centre for Systems Biology, School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
    Genome Med 3:53. 2011
  7. ncbi request reprint Bioinformatics, genomics and evolution of non-flagellar type-III secretion systems: a Darwinian perspective
    Mark J Pallen
    Bacterial Pathogenesis and Genomics Unit, Division of Immunity and Infection, Medical School, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, West Midlands B15 2TT, UK
    FEMS Microbiol Rev 29:201-29. 2005
  8. ncbi request reprint Bacterial flagellar diversity in the post-genomic era
    Mark J Pallen
    Bacterial Pathogenesis and Genomics Unit, Division of Immunity and Infection, Medical School, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK B15 2TT
    Trends Microbiol 13:143-9. 2005
  9. pmc Evolutionary links between FliH/YscL-like proteins from bacterial type III secretion systems and second-stalk components of the FoF1 and vacuolar ATPases
    Mark J Pallen
    Division of Immunity and Infection, University of Birmingham Medical School, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    Protein Sci 15:935-41. 2006
  10. ncbi request reprint From The Origin of Species to the origin of bacterial flagella
    Mark J Pallen
    Division of Immunity and Infection, Medical School, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT UK
    Nat Rev Microbiol 4:784-90. 2006

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications53

  1. ncbi request reprint The ESAT-6/WXG100 superfamily -- and a new Gram-positive secretion system?
    Mark J Pallen
    Division of Immunity and Infection, Birmingham University Medical School, Birmingham, UK B15 2TT
    Trends Microbiol 10:209-12. 2002
    ..The way is now open to investigate this hypothesis in organisms that are easier to manipulate than pathogenic mycobacteria...
  2. pmc Defining bacterial species in the genomic era: insights from the genus Acinetobacter
    Jacqueline Z M Chan
    Institute of Microbiology and Infection, School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston B15 2TT, UK
    BMC Microbiol 12:302. 2012
    ..Here, drawing on the genus Acinetobacter as a test case, we examine whether bacterial taxonomy could abandon phenotypic approaches and DNA-DNA hybridization and, instead, rely exclusively on analyses of genome sequence data...
  3. pmc EntrezAJAX: direct web browser access to the Entrez Programming Utilities
    Nicholas J Loman
    Centre for Systems Biology, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
    Source Code Biol Med 5:6. 2010
    ..For the purposes of speed, reliability and scalability, EntrezAJAX has been deployed on Google App Engine, a freely available cloud service. The EntrezAJAX webpage is located at http://entrezajax.appspot.com/..
  4. pmc Comparative analysis of two Neisseria gonorrhoeae genome sequences reveals evidence of mobilization of Correia Repeat Enclosed Elements and their role in regulation
    Lori A S Snyder
    Systems Biology, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK
    BMC Genomics 10:70. 2009
    ..These interruptions perhaps remove the expression of CREE-associated genes from ancestral neisserial regulatory networks...
  5. pmc Simple sequence repeats in Helicobacter canadensis and their role in phase variable expression and C-terminal sequence switching
    Lori A S Snyder
    Centre for Systems Biology, School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B152TT, UK
    BMC Genomics 11:67. 2010
    ..Helicobacter canadensis is an emerging human pathogen and zoonotic agent. The genome of H. canadensis was sequenced previously and determined to contain 29 annotated coding regions associated with homopolymeric tracts...
  6. pmc Are diagnostic and public health bacteriology ready to become branches of genomic medicine?
    Mark J Pallen
    Centre for Systems Biology, School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
    Genome Med 3:53. 2011
    ..mean we are on the brink of a revolution in diagnostic and public health microbiology, in which high-throughput sequencing usurps the traditional 'M, C & S', or will the discipline's innate conservatism stand firm for decades to come?..
  7. ncbi request reprint Bioinformatics, genomics and evolution of non-flagellar type-III secretion systems: a Darwinian perspective
    Mark J Pallen
    Bacterial Pathogenesis and Genomics Unit, Division of Immunity and Infection, Medical School, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, West Midlands B15 2TT, UK
    FEMS Microbiol Rev 29:201-29. 2005
    ..The problem of information overload is likely to be ameliorated by launch of a web site devoted to the comparative biology of type-III secretion ()...
  8. ncbi request reprint Bacterial flagellar diversity in the post-genomic era
    Mark J Pallen
    Bacterial Pathogenesis and Genomics Unit, Division of Immunity and Infection, Medical School, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK B15 2TT
    Trends Microbiol 13:143-9. 2005
    ..Also described is a new family of flagellar proteins, the FlhX proteins, which resemble the cytoplasmic domain of FlhB...
  9. pmc Evolutionary links between FliH/YscL-like proteins from bacterial type III secretion systems and second-stalk components of the FoF1 and vacuolar ATPases
    Mark J Pallen
    Division of Immunity and Infection, University of Birmingham Medical School, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    Protein Sci 15:935-41. 2006
    ..In particular, we show that the FliH/YscL-like proteins and the E subunits of vacuolar ATPases represent fusions of domains homologous to second-stalk components of the F(o)F(1) ATPase (the b and delta subunits)...
  10. ncbi request reprint From The Origin of Species to the origin of bacterial flagella
    Mark J Pallen
    Division of Immunity and Infection, Medical School, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT UK
    Nat Rev Microbiol 4:784-90. 2006
    ..We dismiss the need for any great conceptual leaps in creating a model of flagellar evolution and speculate as to how an experimental programme focused on this topic might look...
  11. ncbi request reprint Bacterial pathogenomics
    Mark J Pallen
    Centre for Systems Biology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    Nature 449:835-42. 2007
    ..It has also become evident that even the definitions for 'pathogen' and 'virulence factor' need to be re-evaluated...
  12. doi request reprint Bacterial flagella and Type III secretion: case studies in the evolution of complexity
    M J Pallen
    University of Birmingham Medical School, Birmingham, United Kingdom
    Genome Dyn 3:30-47. 2007
    ..In conclusion, rather than providing evidence of intelligent design, flagellar and non-flagellar Type III secretion systems instead provide excellent case studies in the evolution of complex systems from simpler components...
  13. pmc Genome sequence of the emerging pathogen Helicobacter canadensis
    N J Loman
    Centre for Systems Biology, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    J Bacteriol 191:5566-7. 2009
    ..Potential virulence determinants carried by the genome include systems for N-linked glycosylation and capsular export. A protein-based phylogenetic analysis places H. canadensis close to Wolinella succinogenes...
  14. doi request reprint High-throughput sequencing and clinical microbiology: progress, opportunities and challenges
    Mark J Pallen
    School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    Curr Opin Microbiol 13:625-31. 2010
    ..We should prepare for the coming 'technological singularity' in sequencing, when this technology becomes so fast and so cheap that it threatens to out-compete existing diagnostic and typing methods in microbiology...
  15. doi request reprint Time to recognise that mitochondria are bacteria?
    Mark J Pallen
    Centre for Systems Biology, School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
    Trends Microbiol 19:58-64. 2011
    ..I also explore the consequences of recognizing mitochondria as bacteria for our understanding of the systemic response to trauma and for the prospects of creating transgenic mitochondria...
  16. pmc Bioinformatics analysis of the locus for enterocyte effacement provides novel insights into type-III secretion
    Mark J Pallen
    Bacterial Pathogenesis and Genomics Unit, Division of Immunity and Infection, Medical School, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
    BMC Microbiol 5:9. 2005
    ..Many of the genes within this locus have been assigned names and functions through homology with the better characterised Ysc-Yop system from Yersinia spp. However, the functions and homologies of many LEE genes remain obscure...
  17. ncbi request reprint Bacterial FHA domains: neglected players in the phospho-threonine signalling game?
    Mark Pallen
    Division of Immunity and Infection, Birmingham University Medical School, UK
    Trends Microbiol 10:556-63. 2002
    ..The way is now open to identify the targets of each FHA domain, and their roles in cellular physiology, and perhaps even to develop novel FHA-blocking antibacterial agents...
  18. pmc Glucoamylase-like domains in the alpha- and beta-subunits of phosphorylase kinase
    Mark J Pallen
    Division of Immunity and Infection, University of Birmingham Medical School, Vincent Drive, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    Protein Sci 12:1804-7. 2003
    ..If true, this would have important implications for the understanding, diagnosis, and management of glycogen storage diseases. There is thus a clear need to test this hypothesis through enzymatic assays and structural studies...
  19. ncbi request reprint Genomic analysis of secretion systems
    Mark J Pallen
    Bacterial Pathogenesis and Genomics Unit, Division of Immunity and Infection, The Medical School, University of Birmingham, Vincent Drive, B15 2TT, Birmingham, UK
    Curr Opin Microbiol 6:519-27. 2003
    ....
  20. ncbi request reprint Tricorn-like proteases in bacteria
    M J Pallen
    Microbial Genomics and Pathogenesis Unit, Division of Immunity and Infection, The Medical School, University of Birmingham, B15 2TT, Birmingham, UK
    Trends Microbiol 9:518-21. 2001
    ..We propose various hypotheses as to the function of these domains that can now be tested in the laboratory...
  21. pmc Phylogenetic comparisons reveal multiple acquisitions of the toxin genes by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains of different evolutionary lineages
    Sue M Turner
    Division of Immunity and Infection, The Medical School, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom, and St Luke s Episcopal Hospital, Houston, TX 77083, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 44:4528-36. 2006
    ..coli revealed that they were not abundant. These observations have significant implications for disease epidemiology and for the design of effective vaccines...
  22. pmc The Flag-2 locus, an ancestral gene cluster, is potentially associated with a novel flagellar system from Escherichia coli
    Chuan Peng Ren
    Bacterial Pathogenesis and Genomics Unit, Division of Immunity and Infection, Medical School, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, England B15 2TT
    J Bacteriol 187:1430-40. 2005
    ..The fact that the Flag-2 gene cluster was not discovered in the first 10 Escherichia/Shigella genome sequences studied emphasizes the importance of maintaining an energetic program of genome sequencing for this important taxonomic group...
  23. pmc SepL resembles an aberrant effector in binding to a class 1 type III secretion chaperone and carrying an N-terminal secretion signal
    Rasha Younis
    School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, United Kingdom
    J Bacteriol 192:6093-8. 2010
    ..We also show that short N-terminal fragments (≤70 amino acids) from SepL are capable of targeting fusion proteins for secretion and translocation...
  24. pmc coliBASE: an online database for Escherichia coli, Shigella and Salmonella comparative genomics
    Roy R Chaudhuri
    Bacterial Pathogenesis and Genomics Unit, Division of Immunity and Infection, Medical School, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    Nucleic Acids Res 32:D296-9. 2004
    ..are also available at http://campy.bham.ac.uk and http://clostri. bham.ac.uk, respectively. An example of the power of E.coli comparative analyses such as those available through coliBASE is presented...
  25. ncbi request reprint Tetratricopeptide-like repeats in type-III-secretion chaperones and regulators
    Mark J Pallen
    Division of Immunity and Infection, Medical School, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
    FEMS Microbiol Lett 223:53-60. 2003
    ....
  26. doi request reprint Type VI secretion: a beginner's guide
    Lewis Eh Bingle
    Centre for Systems Biology, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK
    Curr Opin Microbiol 11:3-8. 2008
    ..In accordance with the general rule that the expression of protein secretion systems is tightly regulated, expression of type VI secretion is controlled at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels...
  27. pmc Gene doctoring: a method for recombineering in laboratory and pathogenic Escherichia coli strains
    David J Lee
    School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    BMC Microbiol 9:252. 2009
    ..coli K-12 strains. However, we have had limited success with these lambda-Red based recombination techniques in pathogenic E. coli strains, which has led us to develop an enhanced protocol for recombineering in such strains...
  28. ncbi request reprint Comparative cell wall core biosynthesis in the mycolated pathogens, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Corynebacterium diphtheriae
    Lynn G Dover
    School of Biosciences, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    FEMS Microbiol Rev 28:225-50. 2004
    ..In order to facilitate this aim, this review intends to illustrate the broad similarities and highlight the structural differences between the two bacterial envelopes and discuss the genetics of their biosynthesis...
  29. ncbi request reprint PDZ domains facilitate binding of high temperature requirement protease A (HtrA) and tail-specific protease (Tsp) to heterologous substrates through recognition of the small stable RNA A (ssrA)-encoded peptide
    Alison Spiers
    School of Biochemistry and Genetics, Medical School, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Framlington Place, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4HH, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 277:39443-9. 2002
    ....
  30. ncbi request reprint An analysis of type-III secretion gene clusters in Chromobacterium violaceum
    Helen J Betts
    Bacterial Pathogenesis and Genomics Unit, Division of Immunity and Infection, Institute for Biomedical Research, Medical School, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT UK
    Trends Microbiol 12:476-82. 2004
    ....
  31. ncbi request reprint Genomic analysis of the protein secretion systems in Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824
    Mickael Desvaux
    The Institute for Biomedical Research IBR, The University of Birmingham The Medical School, Division of Immunity and Infection, Bacterial Pathogenesis and Genomics Unit, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1745:223-53. 2005
    ..This investigation highlights the potential use of this saprophytic bacterium in biotechnological and biomedical applications as well as a model organism for studying protein secretion in pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria...
  32. ncbi request reprint Variation in bacterial flagellins: from sequence to structure
    Scott A Beatson
    Division of Immunity and Infection, University of Birmingham Medical School, Vincent Drive, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK, B15 2TT
    Trends Microbiol 14:151-5. 2006
    ..Flagellins provide a striking illustration of the twin evolutionary themes of conservation and variability...
  33. doi request reprint Bacterial flagellar diversity and evolution: seek simplicity and distrust it?
    Lori A S Snyder
    University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
    Trends Microbiol 17:1-5. 2009
    ..However, a fresh examination of the phylogenetic distribution of flagellar genes warns against a simplistic model of early flagellar evolution...
  34. pmc Regulators encoded in the Escherichia coli type III secretion system 2 gene cluster influence expression of genes within the locus for enterocyte effacement in enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7
    Lihong Zhang
    Bacterial Pathogenesis and Genomics Unit, Division of Immunity and Infection, Medical School, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    Infect Immun 72:7282-93. 2004
    ..quot; It also seems likely that variations in the ETT2 regulator repertoire might account for strain-to-strain variation in secretion of LEE-encoded proteins...
  35. pmc The ETT2 gene cluster, encoding a second type III secretion system from Escherichia coli, is present in the majority of strains but has undergone widespread mutational attrition
    Chuan Peng Ren
    Bacterial Pathogenesis and Genomics Unit, Division of Immunity and Infection, Medical School, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    J Bacteriol 186:3547-60. 2004
    ..coli strains. Intact versions of both ETT2-related clusters are apparently present in enteroaggregative E. coli strain O42...
  36. ncbi request reprint Point mutations in the DNA- and cNMP-binding domains of the homologue of the cAMP receptor protein (CRP) in Mycobacterium bovis BCG: implications for the inactivation of a global regulator and strain attenuation
    Claire L Spreadbury
    Division of Immunity and Infection, The Medical School, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    Microbiology 151:547-56. 2005
    ..bovis BCG strains. This raises the possibility that a contributing factor to the attenuation of BCG strains may be an inability of this global regulator to control the expression of genes required for in vivo survival and persistence...
  37. pmc xBASE, a collection of online databases for bacterial comparative genomics
    Roy R Chaudhuri
    Division of Immunity and Infection, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
    Nucleic Acids Res 34:D335-7. 2006
    ..Examples of how the databases have been, and continue to be, used to generate hypotheses for subsequent laboratory investigation are presented. xBASE is available online at http://xbase.bham.ac.uk...
  38. pmc xBASE2: a comprehensive resource for comparative bacterial genomics
    Roy R Chaudhuri
    Centre for Systems Biology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    Nucleic Acids Res 36:D543-6. 2008
    ..bham.ac.uk), now provides comprehensive coverage of all bacterial genomes and features an updated modularized backend and an improved user interface, which includes a taxonomy browser and a powerful full-text search facility...
  39. pmc Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli exploits EspA filaments for attachment to salad leaves
    Robert K Shaw
    Division of Immunity and Infection, School of Medicine, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom
    Appl Environ Microbiol 74:2908-14. 2008
    ..In this study we have shown that EHEC O157 and O26 strains use the fT3SS apparatus for attachment to leaves. Leaf attachment was independent of effector protein translocation...
  40. pmc Mutations affecting the Rossman fold of isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase are correlated with low-level mupirocin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus
    Martin Antonio
    Microbial Genomics and Pathogenesis Unit, Division of Immunity and Infection, The Medical School, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, BT15 2TT, United Kingdom
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:438-42. 2002
    ..The importance of the V588F mutation was confirmed by an allele-specific PCR survey of 32 additional strains. Additional mutations of uncertain significance were found in residues clustered on the surface of the IleS protein...
  41. ncbi request reprint Bacterial genomes for the masses: relevance to the clinical laboratory
    Mark J Pallen
    Division on Immunity and Infection, Medical School, University of Birmingham, UK
    Methods Mol Biol 266:3-15. 2004
    ..quot; Current progress and future prospects for exploitation of genome sequences in clinical bacteriology are reviewed...
  42. pmc Genome sequencing shows that European isolates of Francisella tularensis subspecies tularensis are almost identical to US laboratory strain Schu S4
    Roy R Chaudhuri
    Division of Immunity and Infection, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, United Kindgom
    PLoS ONE 2:e352. 2007
    ..However, a handful of isolates from this subspecies was obtained in the 1980s from ticks and mites from Slovakia and Austria. Our aim was to uncover the origins of these enigmatic European isolates...
  43. pmc Analysis of host response to bacterial infection using error model based gene expression microarray experiments
    Dov J Stekel
    School of Biosciences, The University of Birmingham Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    Nucleic Acids Res 33:e53. 2005
    ..We demonstrate the effectiveness of error model based microarray experiments and propose this as a general strategy for a microarray-based screening of large collections of biological samples...
  44. ncbi request reprint Laboratory strains of Escherichia coli: model citizens or deceitful delinquents growing old disgracefully?
    Jon L Hobman
    School of Biosciences, The Medical School, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK
    Mol Microbiol 64:881-5. 2007
    ..Fortunately, a flood of information from high-throughput genome sequencing, together with a new 'eco-evo' view of this model organism, promises to help put K-12 better into context...
  45. ncbi request reprint Sigma(s)-Dependent carbon-starvation induction of pbpG (PBP 7) is required for the starvation-stress response in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium
    William J Kenyon
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688, USA
    Microbiology 153:2148-58. 2007
    ..Lack of PBP 7, however, can be compensated for by further physiological changes developed in 24 h C-starved cells. This supports the dynamic overlapping and distinct nature of resistance pathways within the Salmonella SSR...
  46. ncbi request reprint Tetratricopeptide repeats in the type III secretion chaperone, LcrH: their role in substrate binding and secretion
    Petra J Edqvist
    Department of Molecular Biology, Umea University, SE 901 87 Umea, Sweden
    Mol Microbiol 59:31-44. 2006
    ....
  47. pmc A degenerate type III secretion system from septicemic Escherichia coli contributes to pathogenesis
    Diana Ideses
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Israel
    J Bacteriol 187:8164-71. 2005
    ..These results are the first demonstration of the importance of ETT2 for pathogenesis...
  48. pmc Subversion of actin dynamics by EspM effectors of attaching and effacing bacterial pathogens
    Ana Arbeloa
    Division of Cell and Molecular Biology, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK
    Cell Microbiol 10:1429-41. 2008
    ..These results suggest that the EspM effectors modulate actin dynamics by activating the RhoA signalling pathway...
  49. ncbi request reprint Sequencing and analysis of the genome of the Whipple's disease bacterium Tropheryma whipplei
    Stephen D Bentley
    The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, UK
    Lancet 361:637-44. 2003
    ..The causative agent, Tropheryma whipplei, is a Gram-positive bacterium about which little is known. Our aim was to investigate the biology of this organism by generating and analysing the complete DNA sequence of its genome...
  50. pmc Identification of amino acid residues within the N-terminal domain of EspA that play a role in EspA filament biogenesis and function
    Mona P Singh
    Division of Cell and Molecular Biology, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom
    J Bacteriol 190:2221-6. 2008
    ..In this study, we have shown that the N-terminal region of EspA has a role in EspA's protein stability, interaction with the CesAB chaperone, and filament biogenesis and function...
  51. pmc An extensive repertoire of type III secretion effectors in Escherichia coli O157 and the role of lambdoid phages in their dissemination
    Toru Tobe
    Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2 2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:14941-6. 2006
    ..Thus, type III secretion in E. coli is linked to a vast phage "metagenome," acting as a crucible for the evolution of pathogenicity...
  52. ncbi request reprint Type III secretion: what's in a name?
    Mickael Desvaux
    Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Centre de Recherche de Clermont Ferrand Theix, UR 454, Unite de Microbiologie, F 63122 Saint Genes Champanelle, France
    Trends Microbiol 14:157-60. 2006
    ....
  53. pmc Shifts from glucose to certain secondary carbon-sources result in activation of the extracytoplasmic function sigma factor sigmaE in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium
    William J Kenyon
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688, USA
    Microbiology 151:2373-83. 2005
    ....