Chris Oliver

Summary

Affiliation: University of Birmingham
Country: UK

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint The early development of self-injurious behaviour: evaluating the role of social reinforcement
    C Oliver
    School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK
    J Intellect Disabil Res 49:591-9. 2005
  2. ncbi request reprint Phenomenology of self-restraint
    Chris Oliver
    School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK
    Am J Ment Retard 108:71-81. 2003
  3. ncbi request reprint The prevalence and phenomenology of repetitive behavior in genetic syndromes
    Joanna Moss
    Centre for Neurodevelopmental Disorders, School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
    J Autism Dev Disord 39:572-88. 2009
  4. doi request reprint The association between repetitive, self-injurious and aggressive behavior in children with severe intellectual disability
    Chris Oliver
    Cerebra Centre for Neurodevelopmental Disorders, School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    J Autism Dev Disord 42:910-9. 2012
  5. doi request reprint Delineation of behavioral phenotypes in genetic syndromes: characteristics of autism spectrum disorder, affect and hyperactivity
    Chris Oliver
    Centre for Neurodevelopmental Disorders, School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT UK
    J Autism Dev Disord 41:1019-32. 2011
  6. doi request reprint Self-injurious behaviour in Cornelia de Lange syndrome: 1. Prevalence and phenomenology
    C Oliver
    School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
    J Intellect Disabil Res 53:575-89. 2009
  7. ncbi request reprint Genomic imprinting and the expression of affect in Angelman syndrome: what's in the smile?
    Chris Oliver
    School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, UK
    J Child Psychol Psychiatry 48:571-9. 2007
  8. doi request reprint Self-injurious behaviour in people with intellectual disability
    Chris Oliver
    Cerebra Centre for Neurodevelopmental Disorders, School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK
    Curr Opin Psychiatry 23:412-6. 2010
  9. doi request reprint Behavioural phenotype of Cornelia de Lange syndrome: case-control study
    Chris Oliver
    Centre for Neurodevelopmental Disorders, School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    Br J Psychiatry 193:466-70. 2008
  10. ncbi request reprint Effects of social context on social interaction and self-injurious behavior in Cornelia de Lange syndrome
    Kate Arron
    School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom
    Am J Ment Retard 111:184-92. 2006

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications58

  1. ncbi request reprint The early development of self-injurious behaviour: evaluating the role of social reinforcement
    C Oliver
    School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK
    J Intellect Disabil Res 49:591-9. 2005
    ..In this 2-year prospective study, the pattern of social interactions related to the early presentation of self-injury were examined to identify a potential association with an increase in self-injury...
  2. ncbi request reprint Phenomenology of self-restraint
    Chris Oliver
    School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK
    Am J Ment Retard 108:71-81. 2003
    ..Results are discussed with reference to the purely topographical definition of self-restraint employed and the potential equivalence of protective devices and self-restraint...
  3. ncbi request reprint The prevalence and phenomenology of repetitive behavior in genetic syndromes
    Joanna Moss
    Centre for Neurodevelopmental Disorders, School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
    J Autism Dev Disord 39:572-88. 2009
    ..Prader-Willi, Cri-du-Chat and Smith-Magenis syndrome evidenced unique profiles of repetitive behavior. There is extreme heterogeneity of repetitive behavior across genetic syndromes, highlighting syndrome specific profiles...
  4. doi request reprint The association between repetitive, self-injurious and aggressive behavior in children with severe intellectual disability
    Chris Oliver
    Cerebra Centre for Neurodevelopmental Disorders, School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    J Autism Dev Disord 42:910-9. 2012
    ..High frequency repetitive or ritualistic behaviors independently predict challenging behavior and have the potential to be early risk markers for self-injury and aggression of clinical significance...
  5. doi request reprint Delineation of behavioral phenotypes in genetic syndromes: characteristics of autism spectrum disorder, affect and hyperactivity
    Chris Oliver
    Centre for Neurodevelopmental Disorders, School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT UK
    J Autism Dev Disord 41:1019-32. 2011
    ..Heightened levels of overactivity and impulsivity were identified in FXS, AS and SMS while low levels were identified in PWS. These findings confirm and extend previously reported behavioral phenotypes...
  6. doi request reprint Self-injurious behaviour in Cornelia de Lange syndrome: 1. Prevalence and phenomenology
    C Oliver
    School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
    J Intellect Disabil Res 53:575-89. 2009
    ..Self-injurious behaviour is frequently identified as part of the behavioural phenotype of Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS). We conducted a case-control study of the prevalence and phenomenology of self-injurious behaviour (SIB) in CdLS...
  7. ncbi request reprint Genomic imprinting and the expression of affect in Angelman syndrome: what's in the smile?
    Chris Oliver
    School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, UK
    J Child Psychol Psychiatry 48:571-9. 2007
    ....
  8. doi request reprint Self-injurious behaviour in people with intellectual disability
    Chris Oliver
    Cerebra Centre for Neurodevelopmental Disorders, School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK
    Curr Opin Psychiatry 23:412-6. 2010
    ..To provide a critical evaluation of a broad range of peer-reviewed published studies of relevance to self-injurious behaviour in people with intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders...
  9. doi request reprint Behavioural phenotype of Cornelia de Lange syndrome: case-control study
    Chris Oliver
    Centre for Neurodevelopmental Disorders, School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    Br J Psychiatry 193:466-70. 2008
    ..Cornelia de Lange syndrome is associated with abnormalities on chromosomes 5, 10 and X...
  10. ncbi request reprint Effects of social context on social interaction and self-injurious behavior in Cornelia de Lange syndrome
    Kate Arron
    School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom
    Am J Ment Retard 111:184-92. 2006
    ..The implications for gene-environment interactions are discussed...
  11. ncbi request reprint Effects of environmental events on smiling and laughing behavior in Angelman syndrome
    Chris Oliver
    School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, UK
    Am J Ment Retard 107:194-200. 2002
    ..The findings illustrate the need to divert attention to the examination of environmental influences on purported phenotypic behavior in genetic syndromes...
  12. ncbi request reprint Cognitive deterioration in adults with Down syndrome: effects on the individual, caregivers, and service use
    C Oliver
    School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, United Kingdom
    Am J Ment Retard 105:455-65. 2000
    ..Results suggest a potential role for caregiver difficulties in influencing life experiences of adults with Down syndrome showing cognitive decline...
  13. ncbi request reprint A molecular to molar analysis of communicative and problem behaviors
    C Oliver
    University of Birmingham, School of Psychology, UK
    Res Dev Disabil 20:197-213. 1999
    ..The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of conducting descriptive analyses and for enhancing the efficacy of interventions for problem behavior...
  14. ncbi request reprint Effects of increasing task load on memory impairment in adults with Down syndrome
    Chris Oliver
    School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, United Kingdom
    Am J Ment Retard 110:339-45. 2005
    ..Implications for identification of dementia and age-related cognitive change are discussed...
  15. doi request reprint Social behavior and characteristics of autism spectrum disorder in Angelman, Cornelia de Lange, and Cri du Chat syndromes
    Joanna Moss
    Cerebra Center for Neurodevelopmental Disorders, Psychology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, Edgbaston B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    Am J Intellect Dev Disabil 118:262-83. 2013
    ..Social motivation, social communication, and enjoyment were significantly lower in CdLS. The findings highlight the importance of detailed observation when evaluating ASD and social behavior in genetic syndromes...
  16. doi request reprint Age related change in social behavior in children with Angelman syndrome
    Dawn Adams
    Cerebra Centre for Neurodevelopmental Disorders, School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, UK
    Am J Med Genet A 155:1290-7. 2011
    ..4-15.9 years) only in the social interaction condition. This trajectory of a decline in resource soliciting behaviors with age is consistent with predictions based on kinship theory...
  17. doi request reprint Social anxiety in Cornelia de Lange syndrome
    Caroline Richards
    School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    J Autism Dev Disord 39:1155-62. 2009
    ..Individuals with CdLS demonstrate a heightened probability of anxiety related behavior during social interaction but only at the point at which social demand is high...
  18. doi request reprint Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder symptomatology and related behavioural characteristics in individuals with Down syndrome
    Jo Moss
    Cerebra Centre for Neurodevelopmental Disorders, School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, UK
    Autism 17:390-404. 2013
    ..Individuals with DS+ASD show broad similarities with individuals with idiopathic ASD with regard to ASD and behavioural characteristics but may also show some areas of subtle difference from this group. ..
  19. ncbi request reprint Relationship among challenging, repetitive, and communicative behaviors in children with severe intellectual disabilities
    Jane Petty
    School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, England
    Am J Intellect Dev Disabil 114:356-68. 2009
    ..The importance of the temporal and functional relationship between imperative communicative acts and challenging behavior is discussed...
  20. ncbi request reprint Prevalence of autism spectrum phenomenology in Cornelia de Lange and Cri du Chat syndromes
    Joanna F Moss
    University of Birmingham, UK
    Am J Ment Retard 113:278-91. 2008
    ..2%). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder characteristics is heightened in Cornelia de Lange syndrome. The profile of characteristics is atypical to that of idiopathic autism...
  21. doi request reprint Delineating the profile of autism spectrum disorder characteristics in Cornelia de Lange and Fragile X syndromes
    Joanna Moss
    Cerebra Centre for Neurodevelopmental Disorders, University of Birmingham, School of Psychology, Birmingham, Edgbaston, United Kingdom
    Am J Intellect Dev Disabil 118:55-73. 2013
    ..The findings have implications for intervention in genetic syndromes and conceptualization of autism spectrum disorder in the wider population...
  22. doi request reprint Experimental functional analysis of aggression in children with Angelman syndrome
    Rachel Strachan
    Cerebra Centre for Neurodevelopmental Disorders, School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
    Res Dev Disabil 30:1095-106. 2009
    ..We hypothesise that the commonly reported aggressive behavior in children with Angelman syndrome will be attention maintained...
  23. ncbi request reprint Descriptive functional analysis of behavioral excesses shown by adults with Down syndrome and dementia
    David Millichap
    School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, UK
    Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 18:844-54. 2003
    ..The study examined the hypothesis that a functional relationship exists between social environmental events and behavioral excesses in individuals with Down syndrome and dementia...
  24. ncbi request reprint Structural and environmental characteristics of stereotyped behaviors
    Scott Hall
    University of Birmingham, United Kingdom
    Am J Ment Retard 108:391-402. 2003
    ..Results suggest that an examination of individual topographies of stereotyped behaviors and their structural and environmental characteristics may provide useful insights for understanding the origins of these behaviors...
  25. doi request reprint Characteristics of autism spectrum disorder in Cornelia de Lange syndrome
    Jo Moss
    Cerebra Centre for Neurodevelopmental Disorders, School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
    J Child Psychol Psychiatry 53:883-91. 2012
    ..In this study we examine the ASD profile in CdLS in comparison to a matched group of individuals with ASD...
  26. ncbi request reprint The assessment of food-related problems in individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome
    Helen Russell
    University of Birmingham, UK
    Br J Clin Psychol 42:379-92. 2003
    ..The objective of this study was to develop an informant-based questionnaire to assess food-related problems in people with Prader-Willi syndrome and to conduct an examination of psychometric properties...
  27. doi request reprint Task-switching deficits and repetitive behaviour in genetic neurodevelopmental disorders: data from children with Prader-Willi syndrome chromosome 15 q11-q13 deletion and boys with Fragile X syndrome
    Kate A Woodcock
    University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
    Cogn Neuropsychol 26:172-94. 2009
    ..This proposal is discussed in the context of neurocognitive pathways between genes and behaviour...
  28. doi request reprint Neural correlates of task switching in paternal 15q11-q13 deletion Prader-Willi syndrome
    Kate A Woodcock
    Cerebra Centre for Neurodevelopmental Disorders, School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, B15 2TT UK
    Brain Res 1363:128-42. 2010
    ....
  29. ncbi request reprint Preliminary analysis of the psychometric properties of the Mood, Interest & Pleasure Questionnaire (MIPQ) for adults with severe and profound learning disabilities
    Elaine Ross
    School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, UK
    Br J Clin Psychol 42:81-93. 2003
    ..The aims of this study were to develop an informant questionnaire on affect for use in relation to adults with severe and profound learning disabilities and to examine its psychometric properties...
  30. doi request reprint Dorsal and ventral stream mediated visual processing in genetic subtypes of Prader-Willi syndrome
    Kate A Woodcock
    University of Birmingham, School of Psychology, Edgbaston, United Kingdom
    Neuropsychologia 47:2367-73. 2009
    ..It is proposed that children with PWS deletion show a relative strength in visual processing in the ventral stream along with a specific deficit in dorsal stream processing. In contrast, children with PWS disomy show neither effect...
  31. ncbi request reprint The relationship between levels of mood, interest and pleasure and 'challenging behaviour' in adults with severe and profound intellectual disability
    E Ross
    School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
    J Intellect Disabil Res 46:191-7. 2002
    ..The aim of the present study was to explore whether there is an association between constructs relating closely to the core symptoms of depression and challenging behaviours in adults with severe and profound ID...
  32. doi request reprint The behavioural phenotype of Smith-Magenis syndrome: evidence for a gene-environment interaction
    L Taylor
    Centre for Neurodevelopmental Disorders, School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
    J Intellect Disabil Res 52:830-41. 2008
    ....
  33. doi request reprint Behavioural characteristics associated with dementia assessment referrals in adults with Down syndrome
    D Adams
    School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, UK
    J Intellect Disabil Res 52:358-68. 2008
    ....
  34. ncbi request reprint The assessment of mood in adults who have severe or profound mental retardation
    Elaine Ross
    School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
    Clin Psychol Rev 23:225-45. 2003
    ..Finally, it is noted that research drawing on more rigorous methodology is required to interpret the emotional states of individuals with severe and profound mental retardation...
  35. ncbi request reprint Self-injurious behaviour in young children with Lesch-Nyhan syndrome
    S Hall
    School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, UK
    Dev Med Child Neurol 43:745-9. 2001
    ..The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed...
  36. ncbi request reprint Early development of self-injurious behavior: an empirical study
    S Hall
    School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, UK
    Am J Ment Retard 106:189-99. 2001
    ..This association might be considered as a risk marker for the exacerbation of SIB. Implications of this finding for targeting early interventions for SIB are discussed...
  37. ncbi request reprint The treatment of severe self-injurious behavior by the systematic fading of restraints: effects on self-injury, self-restraint, adaptive behavior, and behavioral correlates of affect
    C Oliver
    School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, UK
    Res Dev Disabil 19:143-65. 1998
    ..The reasons for a decrease in SIB with a corresponding decrease in restriction in the absence of any manipulation of contingencies for SIB are discussed, with particular reference to stimulus control...
  38. doi request reprint Descriptive analysis of challenging behaviours shown by adults with acquired brain injury
    B Rahman
    School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK
    Neuropsychol Rehabil 20:212-38. 2010
    ..It is suggested that formal functional assessments within the field of neurorehabilitation may lead to better treatment outcomes...
  39. ncbi request reprint Self-injurious behaviour in Cornelia de Lange syndrome: 2. Association with environmental events
    J Sloneem
    School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
    J Intellect Disabil Res 53:590-603. 2009
    ..Self-injurious behaviour is commonly seen in Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS). However, there has been limited research into the aetiology of self-injury in CdLS and whether environmental factors influence the behaviour...
  40. ncbi request reprint The nature of social preference and interactions in Smith-Magenis syndrome
    Lucy Wilde
    Cerebra Centre for Neurodevelopmental Disorders, School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston B15 2TT, UK Electronic address
    Res Dev Disabil 34:4355-65. 2013
    ..The marked preference for interacting with adults over peers in Smith-Magenis syndrome indicates atypicality of social interaction in this syndrome. ..
  41. doi request reprint Coping with challenges to memory in people with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: observation of behaviour in response to analogues of everyday situations
    Jan Rachel Oyebode
    School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
    Aging Ment Health 13:46-53. 2009
    ..To describe ways of coping in people with mild to moderate AD when faced with situations that are challenging to their memory...
  42. ncbi request reprint Self-injurious behavior, self-restraint, and compulsive behaviors in Cornelia de Lange syndrome
    Philippa Hyman
    University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, United Kingdom
    Am J Ment Retard 107:146-54. 2002
    ..Findings extend the compulsive behavior theory and highlight areas for further research...
  43. doi request reprint Phenotype-environment interactions in genetic syndromes associated with severe or profound intellectual disability
    Penny Tunnicliffe
    The Cerebra Centre for Neurodevelopmental Disorders, School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    Res Dev Disabil 32:404-18. 2011
    ..The review also evaluates the current status of research and the methods typically employed. Implications for intervention, future research and extending existing causal models of challenging behavior are discussed...
  44. ncbi request reprint The association between environmental events and self-injurious behaviour in Cornelia de Lange syndrome
    J Moss
    School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
    J Intellect Disabil Res 49:269-77. 2005
    ..Additionally, the association between setting events and more specific environmental events was examined...
  45. doi request reprint Facial expression of affect in children with Cornelia de Lange syndrome
    L Collis
    School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
    J Intellect Disabil Res 52:207-15. 2008
    ..In this study, we use an objective measure of facial expression to compare affect in CdLS with that seen in Cri du Chat syndrome (CDC) and a group of individuals with a mixed aetiology of intellectual disabilities (ID)...
  46. ncbi request reprint Causal explanations, concern and optimism regarding self-injurious behaviour displayed by individuals with Cornelia de Lange syndrome: the parents' perspective
    P Hyman
    School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
    J Intellect Disabil Res 45:326-34. 2001
    ..There was no evidence that a deterministic perspective had been adopted by parents and causal explanations were unrelated to optimism for future change...
  47. ncbi request reprint Risk markers associated with challenging behaviours in people with intellectual disabilities: a meta-analytic study
    K McClintock
    University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK
    J Intellect Disabil Res 47:405-16. 2003
    ..The meta-analysis highlighted the paucity of methodologically robust studies of risk markers for challenging behaviours and the lack of data on incidence, prevalence and chronicity of challenging behaviour in this population...
  48. ncbi request reprint A specific pathway can be identified between genetic characteristics and behaviour profiles in Prader-Willi syndrome via cognitive, environmental and physiological mechanisms
    K A Woodcock
    School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
    J Intellect Disabil Res 53:493-500. 2009
    ....
  49. ncbi request reprint The relationship between acquired impairments of executive function and behaviour change in adults with Down syndrome
    D Adams
    Centre for Neurodevelopmental Disorders, University of Birmingham, School of Psychology, Birmingham, UK
    J Intellect Disabil Res 54:393-405. 2010
    ....
  50. doi request reprint The age related prevalence of aggression and self-injury in persons with an intellectual disability: a review
    Louise Davies
    Cerebra Centre for Neurodevelopmental Disorders, School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    Res Dev Disabil 34:764-75. 2013
    ..These conclusions have implications for the understanding of the development of different forms of challenging behaviour and the importance of early intervention strategies...
  51. doi request reprint "You have to sit and explain it all, and explain yourself." Mothers' experiences of support services for their offspring with a rare genetic intellectual disability syndrome
    Gemma Maria Griffith
    School of Psychology, Bangor University, Brigantia Building, Penrhalt Road, Bangor, LL57 2AS, UK
    J Genet Couns 20:165-77. 2011
    ..Accessing appropriate social care services was reported to be a lengthy and complex process. These data may help inform care service providers about how best to support adults with rare genetic syndromes and their families...
  52. doi request reprint A review of defining and measuring sociability in children with intellectual disabilities
    FAY COOK
    Cerebra Centre for Neurodevelopmental Disorders, School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, England B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    Res Dev Disabil 32:11-24. 2011
    ..The review calls for researchers to provide definitions for the concepts under investigation and their relationship to measures employed in research...
  53. doi request reprint The expression and assessment of emotions and internal states in individuals with severe or profound intellectual disabilities
    Dawn Adams
    School of Psychology, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom
    Clin Psychol Rev 31:293-306. 2011
    ..This will allow for identification of robust methodologies used in assessing the expression of these internal states, some of which may be useful when considering how to assess emotions within individuals with intellectual disabilities...
  54. pmc Effects of social proximity on multiple aggressive behaviors
    C Oliver
    School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, United Kingdom
    J Appl Behav Anal 34:85-8. 2001
    ..Topographies of aggression emerged sequentially across the close-proximity sessions, and all topographies were reduced to zero following extended sessions of this condition...
  55. ncbi request reprint Associations between repetitive questioning, resistance to change, temper outbursts and anxiety in Prader-Willi and Fragile-X syndromes
    K Woodcock
    School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK
    J Intellect Disabil Res 53:265-78. 2009
    ..In this study we investigated the context and antecedents to the repetitive behaviours and the association with other behavioural phenotypic characteristics in order to generate testable hypotheses regarding the cause of the behaviours...
  56. ncbi request reprint Environmental influences on the behavioral phenotype of Angelman syndrome
    Kate Horsler
    Birmingham University, UK
    Am J Ment Retard 111:311-21. 2006
    ..The findings highlight the importance of examining environmental and social influences on purported phenotypic behavior in genetic syndromes...
  57. ncbi request reprint The cognitive effects of modulating the glycine site of the NMDA receptor with high-dose glycine in healthy controls
    Colin Palmer
    Behavioural Neuroscience Laboratory, School of Psychology, Psychiatry and Psychological Medicine, Monash University, Victoria, Australia
    Hum Psychopharmacol 23:151-9. 2008
    ....
  58. ncbi request reprint Effects of a combined extract of Ginkgo biloba and Bacopa monniera on cognitive function in healthy humans
    Pradeep J Nathan
    Neuropsychopharmacology Laboratory, Brain Sciences Institute, Swinburne University, Victoria, Australia
    Hum Psychopharmacol 19:91-6. 2004
    ..These findings suggest that at least within the current treatment duration and doses, an extract containing Ginkgo biloba and Bacopa monniera had no cognitive enhancing effects in healthy subjects...