D Nutt

Summary

Affiliation: University of Bristol
Country: UK

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint NICE: The National Institute of Clinical Excellence -- or Eccentricity? Reflections on the Z-drugs as hypnotics
    David J Nutt
    Psychopharmacology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
    J Psychopharmacol 19:125-7. 2005
  2. ncbi request reprint The role of dopamine and norepinephrine in depression and antidepressant treatment
    David J Nutt
    Psychopharmacology Unit, School of Medical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
    J Clin Psychiatry 67:3-8. 2006
  3. ncbi request reprint Structural and functional brain changes in posttraumatic stress disorder
    David J Nutt
    Psychopharmacology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom
    J Clin Psychiatry 65:11-7. 2004
  4. pmc Addiction: the clinical interface
    D Nutt
    Psychopharmacology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
    Br J Pharmacol 154:397-405. 2008
  5. ncbi request reprint Blockade of alcohol's amnestic activity in humans by an alpha5 subtype benzodiazepine receptor inverse agonist
    David J Nutt
    Psychopharmacology Unit, Dorothy Hodgkin Building, University of Bristol, Whitson Street, Bristol, BS1 3NY, UK
    Neuropharmacology 53:810-20. 2007
  6. ncbi request reprint Consensus statement and research needs: the role of dopamine and norepinephrine in depression and antidepressant treatment
    David J Nutt
    Psychopharmacology Unit, School of Medical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
    J Clin Psychiatry 67:46-9. 2006
  7. ncbi request reprint Death and dependence: current controversies over the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
    David J Nutt
    University of Bristol, Psychopharmacology Unit, School of Medical Sciences, University Walk, Bristol, UK
    J Psychopharmacol 17:355-64. 2003
  8. pmc Infecting the brain to stop addiction?
    David Nutt
    Psychopharmacology Unit, University of Bristol, Dorothy Hodgkin Building, Bristol BS1 3NY, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:11193-4. 2004
  9. ncbi request reprint Overview of diagnosis and drug treatments of anxiety disorders
    David J Nutt
    Psychopharmacology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
    CNS Spectr 10:49-56. 2005
  10. ncbi request reprint Development of a rational scale to assess the harm of drugs of potential misuse
    David Nutt
    Psychopharmacology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
    Lancet 369:1047-53. 2007

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications87

  1. ncbi request reprint NICE: The National Institute of Clinical Excellence -- or Eccentricity? Reflections on the Z-drugs as hypnotics
    David J Nutt
    Psychopharmacology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
    J Psychopharmacol 19:125-7. 2005
  2. ncbi request reprint The role of dopamine and norepinephrine in depression and antidepressant treatment
    David J Nutt
    Psychopharmacology Unit, School of Medical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
    J Clin Psychiatry 67:3-8. 2006
    ..This research has identified novel potential targets, with the goal of developing new antidepressant drugs with better efficacy and faster onset of action than current "gold-standard" treatments...
  3. ncbi request reprint Structural and functional brain changes in posttraumatic stress disorder
    David J Nutt
    Psychopharmacology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom
    J Clin Psychiatry 65:11-7. 2004
    ..The findings of structural and functional neuroimaging studies of PTSD are reviewed as they relate to our current understanding of the pathophysiology of this disorder...
  4. pmc Addiction: the clinical interface
    D Nutt
    Psychopharmacology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
    Br J Pharmacol 154:397-405. 2008
    ..Finally, some pointers to future research and especially to drug development by pharma are elaborated...
  5. ncbi request reprint Blockade of alcohol's amnestic activity in humans by an alpha5 subtype benzodiazepine receptor inverse agonist
    David J Nutt
    Psychopharmacology Unit, Dorothy Hodgkin Building, University of Bristol, Whitson Street, Bristol, BS1 3NY, UK
    Neuropharmacology 53:810-20. 2007
    ....
  6. ncbi request reprint Consensus statement and research needs: the role of dopamine and norepinephrine in depression and antidepressant treatment
    David J Nutt
    Psychopharmacology Unit, School of Medical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
    J Clin Psychiatry 67:46-9. 2006
    ..In addition, the faculty discussed the importance of patient psychoeducation and self-management as well as the ways in which disease models of depression affect treatment...
  7. ncbi request reprint Death and dependence: current controversies over the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
    David J Nutt
    University of Bristol, Psychopharmacology Unit, School of Medical Sciences, University Walk, Bristol, UK
    J Psychopharmacol 17:355-64. 2003
    ..There is no evidence they are addictive in the formal sense of leading to a drug dependence syndrome. Some suggestions on the way these issues can be more precisely defined and studied in future are given...
  8. pmc Infecting the brain to stop addiction?
    David Nutt
    Psychopharmacology Unit, University of Bristol, Dorothy Hodgkin Building, Bristol BS1 3NY, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:11193-4. 2004
  9. ncbi request reprint Overview of diagnosis and drug treatments of anxiety disorders
    David J Nutt
    Psychopharmacology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
    CNS Spectr 10:49-56. 2005
    ....
  10. ncbi request reprint Development of a rational scale to assess the harm of drugs of potential misuse
    David Nutt
    Psychopharmacology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
    Lancet 369:1047-53. 2007
    ..Our methodology offers a systematic framework and process that could be used by national and international regulatory bodies to assess the harm of current and future drugs of abuse...
  11. ncbi request reprint Consensus statement on the benefit to the community of ESEMeD (European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders) survey data on depression and anxiety
    David J Nutt
    University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom
    J Clin Psychiatry 68:42-8. 2007
    ..In addition, how this large and unique dataset may be utilized for maximum benefit to patients is outlined...
  12. ncbi request reprint Evidence-based guidelines for management of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adolescents in transition to adult services and in adults: recommendations from the British Association for Psychopharmacology
    D J Nutt
    Psychopharmacology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol, and Bethlem Royal Hospital, Kent, UK
    J Psychopharmacol 21:10-41. 2007
    ..We hope that, by the time these guidelines are updated, much evidence will be available to address the many directions for future research that are detailed here...
  13. ncbi request reprint The other face of depression, reduced positive affect: the role of catecholamines in causation and cure
    David Nutt
    University of Bristol Psychopharmacology Unit, Bristol, UK
    J Psychopharmacol 21:461-71. 2007
    ..Focusing treatment on the predominant or driving symptomatology for an individual patient with major depression could potentially improve rates of response and remission...
  14. ncbi request reprint Informed consent--a new approach to drug regulation?
    David J Nutt
    University of Bristol, Psychopharmacology Unit, Dorothy Hodgkin Building, Bristol UK
    J Psychopharmacol 20:3-4. 2006
  15. ncbi request reprint Alcohol alternatives--a goal for psychopharmacology?
    David J Nutt
    Psychopharmacology Unit, University of Bristol, Dorothy Hodgkin Building, Whitson Street, Bristol BS1 3NY, UK
    J Psychopharmacol 20:318-20. 2006
  16. ncbi request reprint Generalized anxiety disorder: A comorbid disease
    David Nutt
    Psychopharmacology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom
    Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 16:S109-18. 2006
    ..Prescribing physicians must take into account these abnormalities when choosing a drug. Effective diagnosis and treatment should improve patients' quality of life and their prognosis for recovery...
  17. doi request reprint Early onset anxiolytic efficacy after a single dose of pregabalin: double-blind, placebo- and active-comparator controlled evaluation using a dental anxiety model
    D Nutt
    Psychopharmacology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
    J Psychopharmacol 23:867-73. 2009
    ..Additional research is needed to determine whether anxiolytic effect occurs in generalized anxiety disorder populations by day 1 or within 3-4 h post-first dose...
  18. ncbi request reprint New insights into the role of the GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor in psychiatric disorder
    D J Nutt
    Psychopharmacology Unit, School of Medical Sciences, University of Bristol, University Walk, Bristol BS8 1TD, UK
    Br J Psychiatry 179:390-6. 2001
    ..In the 40 years since the first benzodiazepine was brought into clinical use there has been a substantial growth in understanding the molecular basis of action of these drugs and the role of their receptors in disease states...
  19. ncbi request reprint Tolerability and safety aspects of mirtazapine
    David J Nutt
    University of Bristol, Psychopharmacology Unit, Bristol, UK
    Hum Psychopharmacol 17:S37-41. 2002
    ..In conclusion, mirtazapine has a good tolerability and safety profile that demonstrates several benefits over other antidepressants...
  20. ncbi request reprint Neurobiological mechanisms in generalized anxiety disorder
    D J Nutt
    Psychopharmacology Unit, University of Bristol, UK
    J Clin Psychiatry 62:22-7; discussion 28. 2001
    ..Variations in sleep patterns have also been assessed and indicate a biological separation from depression...
  21. ncbi request reprint The neuropharmacology of serotonin and noradrenaline in depression
    David J Nutt
    Psychopharmacology Unit, School of Medical Sciences, University of Bristol, UK
    Int Clin Psychopharmacol 17:S1-12. 2002
    ..Taken together, the data collected over the last 40 years have allowed the emergence of a unified monoamine hypothesis of antidepressant drug action...
  22. ncbi request reprint Generalized anxiety disorder: comorbidity, comparative biology and treatment
    David J Nutt
    School of Medical Sciences, University of Bristol, UK
    Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 5:315-25. 2002
    ..Finally, current pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options for GAD are reviewed, with particular attention being paid to published clinical-trial data...
  23. ncbi request reprint The psychobiology of posttraumatic stress disorder
    D J Nutt
    School of Medical Sciences, University of Bristol, United Kingdom
    J Clin Psychiatry 61:24-9; discussion 30-2. 2000
    ..This article reviews current knowledge regarding the psychobiology of PTSD and considers specific agents that are emerging as key modulators of this pathological process...
  24. doi request reprint Establishing non-inferiority in treatment trials in psychiatry: guidelines from an Expert Consensus Meeting
    D Nutt
    Psychopharmacology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
    J Psychopharmacol 22:409-16. 2008
    ..This article presents the conclusions of this consensus and illustrates it using published data in the field of antidepressant treatment of generalized anxiety disorder...
  25. ncbi request reprint Alcohol and the brain. Pharmacological insights for psychiatrists
    D Nutt
    Division of Psychiatry, School of Medical Sciences, University Walk, Bristol
    Br J Psychiatry 175:114-9. 1999
    ..A greater understanding of the brain mechanisms underlying the adverse effects of alcohol is now possible, thanks to significant research advances made over the past decade...
  26. ncbi request reprint Noradrenergic mechanisms in the prefrontal cortex
    D J Nutt
    Psychopharmacology Unit, School of Medical Sciences, University of Bristol, UK
    J Psychopharmacol 11:163-8. 1997
    ..Finally, a new class of drugs, which show selectivity for imidazoline receptors is described. These compounds are shown to similarly increase extracellular NA in the PFC. Their potential utility as clinical treatments is discussed...
  27. ncbi request reprint Treatment of depression and concomitant anxiety
    D Nutt
    Psychopharmacology Unit, School of Medical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
    Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 10:S433-7. 2000
    ..This paper will provide evidence to demonstrate the short- and long-term efficacy of SSRIs in the treatment of depression and comorbid anxiety, with most clinical evidence supporting the anxiolytic profile of the SSRI paroxetine...
  28. ncbi request reprint The pharmacology of anxiety
    C Durant
    Psychopharmacology Unit, University of Bristol, Dorothy Hodgkin Building, Whitson Street, Bristol BS1 3NY, UK
    Curr Top Behav Neurosci 2:303-30. 2010
    ..Future research in this field will greatly benefit from recent advances in neuroimaging techniques and the discovery of novel ligands targeting specific receptors...
  29. ncbi request reprint Tryptophan depletion and its implications for psychiatry
    C Bell
    Psychopharmacology Unit, School of Medical Sciences, Bristol, UK
    Br J Psychiatry 178:399-405. 2001
    ....
  30. ncbi request reprint Impulsiveness and the prolactin response to d-fenfluramine
    J Evans
    Division of Psychiatry, University of Bristol, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 149:147-52. 2000
    ..It is unknown whether this is because serotonin function plays a part in determining the dimension of trait impulsiveness in the general population or whether this is restricted to these behaviourally extreme groups...
  31. doi request reprint Does alcohol increase the risk of overdose death: the need for a translational approach
    Matt Hickman
    Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, UK
    Addiction 103:1060-2. 2008
    ..We argue for a translational approach to addiction science, using an important current research question as a case study...
  32. pmc Emotional symptoms in children: The effect of maternal depression, life events, and COMT genotype
    Jonathan Evans
    University of Bristol, Cotham Hill, UK
    Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 150:209-18. 2009
    ..Although some studies indicate a role for COMT in emotionality, anxiety, and depression in adults, no direct effect or interaction of COMT genotype was observed in this large sample of young children...
  33. ncbi request reprint Human functional neuroimaging connectivity research in dependence
    Mark Daglish
    Psychopharmacology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
    Rev Neurosci 16:151-7. 2005
    ..Studies of brain connectivity can now begin to help further unravel the tangle of disparate brain regions and their connections that underpin the psychopharmacological processes of dependence...
  34. ncbi request reprint Rob Kerwin--an appreciation
    David Nutt
    Psychopharmacology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
    J Psychopharmacol 21:237. 2007
  35. doi request reprint Effects of stressful life events, maternal depression and 5-HTTLPR genotype on emotional symptoms in pre-adolescent children
    Ricardo Araya
    University of Bristol, United Kingdom
    Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 150:670-82. 2009
    ..Young cohorts are essential to improve our understanding of the impact of development on gene and environment interactions...
  36. ncbi request reprint Potential novel anxiolytic drugs
    D Christmas
    Psychopharmacology Unit, University of Bristol, Level 5, Dorothy Hodgkin Building, Whitson Street, Bristol BS1 3NY, UK
    Curr Pharm Des 14:3534-46. 2008
    ..We review GABA, serotonin, glutamate, noradrenaline, dopamine and some neuropeptides herein...
  37. ncbi request reprint Effects on sleep architecture of pindolol, paroxetine and their combination in healthy volunteers
    Caroline Bell
    Psychopharmacology Unit, School of Medical Sciences, University of Bristol, University Walk, Bristol BS8 1TD, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 166:102-10. 2003
    ..Animal studies have suggested that this increased response occurs because of 5HT(1A) antagonist properties of pindolol, which in combination with a serotonergic antidepressant produces a synergistic increase in 5HT in the synapse...
  38. ncbi request reprint Acute tryptophan depletion alters gastrointestinal and anxiety symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome
    Jonathan Shufflebotham
    Clinical Science at South Bristol, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom
    Am J Gastroenterol 101:2582-7. 2006
    ..To assess the effect of acute changes in serotonin (5-HT) synthesis using the acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) paradigm on gastrointestinal (GI) and mood symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)...
  39. ncbi request reprint Effects of contextual priming on reactions to craving and withdrawal stimuli in alcohol-dependent participants
    B Feldtkeller
    Psychopharmacology Unit School of Medical Sciences, University of Bristol, United Kingdom
    Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 9:343-51. 2001
    ..Results are discussed in light of current cognitive approaches to alcohol dependence...
  40. ncbi request reprint Acute carbon dioxide exposure in healthy adults: evaluation of a novel means of investigating the stress response
    J Kaye
    University Research Centre for Neuroendocrinology, Bristol Royal Infirmary, Bristol, UK
    J Neuroendocrinol 16:256-64. 2004
    ..A single breath of 35% CO(2) safely and reliably produced sympathetic and HPA axis activation and should prove a useful addition to currently available laboratory tests of the human stress response...
  41. ncbi request reprint Management of insomnia: treatments and mechanismsi
    Sue Wilson
    Psychopharmacology Unit, University of Bristol, Dorothy Hodgkin Building, Whitson Street, Bristol BS1 3NY, UK
    Br J Psychiatry 191:195-7. 2007
    ..This article briefly describes current treatments, both evidence-based and common practice, and goes on to describe some emerging approaches...
  42. doi request reprint Assessment of GABAA benzodiazepine receptor (GBzR) sensitivity in patients with alcohol dependence
    Claire Taylor
    Psychopharmacology Unit, Dorothy Hodgkin Building, Whitson Street, Bristol BS1 3NY, UK
    Alcohol Alcohol 43:614-8. 2008
    ..The aim of this study was to measure GABAA benzodiazepine receptor (GBzR) sensitivity in alcohol-dependent patients and compare with matched non-dependent drinkers...
  43. doi request reprint Women with diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome show an increased pressure response to 35% carbon dioxide stress challenge
    Jonathan Shufflebotham
    Clinical Science at South Bristol, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
    Stress 12:30-6. 2009
    ..05). These findings demonstrate that females with diarrhoea-predominant IBS have an exaggerated pressor response to 35% CO(2) stress challenge, suggesting a more stress-responsive sympathetic nervous system...
  44. ncbi request reprint GABAA receptors: subtypes, regional distribution, and function
    David Nutt
    Psychopharmacology Unit, University ofBristol School of Medicine Sciences, Bristol, United Kingdom
    J Clin Sleep Med 2:S7-11. 2006
    ..Advances in genetic engineering have led to the development of transgenic mouse models that have further refined our understanding of the pharmacology and physiology for various GABAA receptor subunits...
  45. ncbi request reprint Depleting serotonin enhances both cardiovascular and psychological stress reactivity in recovered patients with anxiety disorders
    Simon J C Davies
    Psychopharmacology Unit, University of Bristol, Whitson Street, Bristol BS1 8NY, United Kingdom
    J Clin Psychopharmacol 26:414-8. 2006
    ....
  46. ncbi request reprint Relationship of neurotransmitters to the symptoms of major depressive disorder
    David J Nutt
    Psychopharmacology Unit, University of Bristol, United Kingdom
    J Clin Psychiatry 69:4-7. 2008
    ....
  47. ncbi request reprint Resolution of sleepiness and fatigue in major depressive disorder: A comparison of bupropion and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
    George I Papakostas
    Depression Clinical and Research Program, Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 60:1350-5. 2006
    ....
  48. ncbi request reprint Understanding the neurobiology of comorbidity in anxiety disorders
    David J Nutt
    Psychopharmacology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom
    CNS Spectr 11:13-20. 2006
    ..Sufficient and significant differences between these disorders support the view that they are independent entities. Shared abnormalities in the 5HT1A receptor function, for example, may help explain some of the comorbidity...
  49. ncbi request reprint Low sensitivity of the positron emission tomography ligand [11C]diprenorphine to agonist opiates
    Susan P Hume
    Hammersmith Imanet Ltd, Hammersmith Hospital, London, United Kingdom
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 322:661-7. 2007
    ..Alternative means may be needed to address clinical issues regarding opioid receptor occupancy that are required to optimize treatment strategies...
  50. doi request reprint GABA-A receptors and the response to CO(2) inhalation - a translational trans-species model of anxiety?
    Jayne E Bailey
    Psychopharmacology Unit, University of Bristol, Dorothy Hodgkin Building, Whitson Street, Bristol BS1 3NY, UK
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 90:51-7. 2008
    ..This paper reviews some of the evidence and attempts to relate and compare these findings across species from the human to the Drosophila...
  51. ncbi request reprint In vitro and in vivo effect of BU99006 (5-isothiocyanato-2-benzofuranyl-2-imidazoline) on I2 binding in relation to MAO: evidence for two distinct I2 binding sites
    Louise M Paterson
    Psychopharmacology Unit, Dorothy Hodgkin Building, University of Bristol, Whitson Street, Bristol, BS1 3NY, UK
    Neuropharmacology 52:395-404. 2007
    ..These data indicate that the high affinity site which is occupied by [(3)H]2BFI and irreversibly binds BU99006, is not the same as that which causes inhibition of MAO, and may point to the existence of another I(2) binding site...
  52. doi request reprint Do SSRIs or antidepressants in general increase suicidality? WPA Section on Pharmacopsychiatry: consensus statement
    Hans Jurgen Moller
    Department of Psychiatry, Ludwig Maximilians University Munchen, Nussbaumstrasse 7, 80336 Munich, Germany
    Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 258:3-23. 2008
    ..It is the major problem facing efforts to identify the possible 'suicidal effects' of antidepressants...
  53. ncbi request reprint A translational, caffeine-induced model of onset insomnia in rats and healthy volunteers
    Louise M Paterson
    Psychopharmacology Unit, University of Bristol, Dorothy Hodgkin Building, Whitson Street, Bristol, BS1 3NY, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 191:943-50. 2007
    ..Insomnia is a common and disabling complaint for which there is a need for improved treatments. Successful drug discovery relies on the use of appropriate animal models to assess likely outcome in the clinic...
  54. ncbi request reprint The effect of 1-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl) isoquinoline on monoamine release and turnover in the rat frontal cortex
    Haya Abu Ghazaleh
    Psychopharmacology Unit, Dorothy Hodgkin Building, Whitson Street, Bristol BS1 3NY, UK
    Neurosci Lett 422:109-13. 2007
    ..In addition, BU98008 did not appear to affect serotonergic neurotransmission in the frontal cortex. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that BU98008 shares some functional similarities with known selective I(2)-BS ligands...
  55. ncbi request reprint Brain opioid receptor binding in early abstinence from opioid dependence: positron emission tomography study
    Tim M Williams
    Psychopharmacology Unit, University of Bristol, and Bristol Specialist Drug Service, Blackberry Hill Hospital, UK
    Br J Psychiatry 191:63-9. 2007
    ..Although opioid receptor function in humans is clearly reduced during opioid dependence, what happens to the receptor in early abstinence is not understood...
  56. ncbi request reprint The effect of nicotine on striatal dopamine release in man: A [11C]raclopride PET study
    Andrew J Montgomery
    MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital, London W12 0NN, United Kingdom
    Synapse 61:637-45. 2007
    ..These results support a role for the DA system in nicotine addiction, but reveal a more complex relationship than suggested by studies in animals...
  57. ncbi request reprint Imaging alcohol cue exposure in alcohol dependence using a PET 15O-H2O paradigm: results from a pilot study
    Anne R Lingford-Hughes
    Psychopharmacology Unit, University of Bristol, UK
    Addict Biol 11:107-15. 2006
    ..Comparisons with the finding in opiate dependence suggest a shared region, the anterior cingulate/left medial prefrontal cortex is involved in the cue response in dependent subjects but not controls...
  58. ncbi request reprint WCA Recommendations for the long-term treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder
    Dan J Stein
    Medical Research Council Research Unit on Anxiety Disorder, University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town, Tygerberg, South Africa
    CNS Spectr 8:31-9. 2003
    ..Only SSRIs have been proven effective and safe in long-term randomized controlled trials. Current guidelines from the Expert Consensus Panel for PTSD recommend treatment of chronic PTSD for a minimum of 12-24 months...
  59. ncbi request reprint WCA recommendations for the long-term treatment of panic disorder
    Mark H Pollack
    Division of Psychiatry, Huddinge University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
    CNS Spectr 8:17-30. 2003
    ..Long-term efficacy and ease of use are important considerations in treatment selection, as maintenance treatment is recommended for at least 12-24 months, and in some cases, indefinitely...
  60. ncbi request reprint WCA recommendations for the long-term treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder in adults
    John H Greist
    Healthcare Technology Systems, Inc, Madison, Wisconsin 53717, USA
    CNS Spectr 8:7-16. 2003
    ..Further, pharmacotherapy for a minimum of 1-2 years is recommended before very gradual withdrawal may be considered...
  61. ncbi request reprint Functional connectivity analysis of the neural circuits of opiate craving: "more" rather than "different"?
    Mark R C Daglish
    Psychopharmacology Unit, University of Bristol, UK
    Neuroimage 20:1964-70. 2003
    ..This argues that neural circuits of dependence and craving are not specific "craving" or "addiction" brain regions but are "normal" circuits activated to a greater degree...
  62. ncbi request reprint Correlation of subjective and objective sleep measurements at different stages of the treatment of depression
    Spilios V Argyropoulos
    Psychopharmacology Unit, University of Bristol, University Walk, Bristol BS8 1TD, UK
    Psychiatry Res 120:179-90. 2003
    ..The partial discrepancy between subjective and objective measures suggests that a cognitive element is combined with the biological element to produce the sleep problems reported by depressed patients...
  63. ncbi request reprint Caffeine and central noradrenaline: effects on mood, cognitive performance, eye movements and cardiovascular function
    Andrew Smith
    Centre for Occupational and Health Psychology, School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK
    J Psychopharmacol 17:283-92. 2003
    ..g cholinergic effects). Overall, the results suggest that caffeine counteracts reductions in the turnover of central noradrenaline. This mechanism may underlie the beneficial effects of caffeine seen in low alertness states...
  64. ncbi request reprint Behavioral, neuroendocrine and neurochemical effects of the imidazoline I2 receptor selective ligand BU224 in naive rats and rats exposed to the stress of the forced swim test
    David P Finn
    Psychopharmacology Unit, School of Medical Sciences, University Walk, Bristol, BS8 1TD, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 167:195-202. 2003
    ..Selective I(2) receptor ligands modulate central monoamine levels and activate the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and may have potential as antidepressants...
  65. ncbi request reprint Maintenance buprenorphine for opioid users
    Fergus D Law
    Psychopharmacology Unit, University of Bristol, School of Medical Sciences, BS8 1TD, Bristol, UK
    Lancet 361:634-5. 2003
  66. ncbi request reprint Psychotropic drugs, cardiac arrhythmia, and sudden death
    Harry J Witchel
    Department of Physiology and Cardiovascular Research Laboratories, School of Medical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom
    J Clin Psychopharmacol 23:58-77. 2003
    ....
  67. ncbi request reprint Long-term treatment strategies in anxiety disorders
    Christer Allgulander
    Karolinska Institute, Neurotec Department, Huddinge University Hospital, Stockholm
    Psychopharmacol Bull 36:79-92. 2002
    ....
  68. ncbi request reprint Distribution of [(3)H]BU224, a selective imidazoline I(2) binding site ligand, in rat brain
    Emma S J Robinson
    Psychopharmacology Unit, School of Medical Sciences, University of Bristol, University Walk, Bristol BS8 1TD, UK
    Eur J Pharmacol 450:55-60. 2002
    ..Therefore, the differences in functional effects observed with these compounds may reflect agonist and antagonist properties...
  69. ncbi request reprint Imaging the GABA-benzodiazepine receptor subtype containing the alpha5-subunit in vivo with [11C]Ro15 4513 positron emission tomography
    Anne Lingford-Hughes
    Psychopharmacology Unit, School of Medical Science, University of Bristol, UK
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 22:878-89. 2002
    ..The authors conclude that [11C]Ro15 4513 PET labels in vivo the GABA-benzodiazepine receptor containing the alpha5 subtype in limbic structures and can be used to further explore the functional role of this subtype in humans...
  70. ncbi request reprint Inhalation of 35% CO(2) results in activation of the HPA axis in healthy volunteers
    Spilios V Argyropoulos
    Psychopharmacology Unit, School of Medical Sciences, University of Bristol, University Walk, UK
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 27:715-29. 2002
    ....
  71. ncbi request reprint WCA recommendations for the long-term treatment of social phobia
    Michael Van Ameringen
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    CNS Spectr 8:40-52. 2003
    ..In light of the chronicity and disability associated with social phobia, as well as the high relapse rate after short-term therapy, it is recommended that effective treatment be continued for at least 12 months...
  72. ncbi request reprint WCA recommendations for the long-term treatment of generalized anxiety disorder
    Christer Allgulander
    Department of Psychiatry, Harvard University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    CNS Spectr 8:53-61. 2003
    ..Treatment gains after a 12-week course of CBT may be maintained for up to 1 year. Currently, no guidelines exist for the long-term treatment of GAD...
  73. pmc Treatment of anxiety and depressive disorders in patients with cardiovascular disease
    Simon J C Davies
    Psychopharmacology Unit, Dorothy Hodgkin Building, Bristol BS1 3NY
    BMJ 328:939-43. 2004
  74. ncbi request reprint Tryptophan depletion does not modify response to CCK-4 challenge in patients with panic disorder after treatment with citalopram
    Innar Tõru
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 186:107-12. 2006
    ..Data by [Bell et al. J Psychopharmacol (2002) 16:5-14] suggest that a decrease in 5-HT neurotransmission predisposes to panic attacks and that the antipanic effect of SSRIs depends upon the availability of 5-HT in the brain...
  75. ncbi request reprint A validation of the 7.5% CO2 model of GAD using paroxetine and lorazepam in healthy volunteers
    Jayne E Bailey
    Psychopharmacology Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, University of Bristol, United Bristol Healthcare Trust, UK
    J Psychopharmacol 21:42-9. 2007
    ..In these studies we have shown that this CO2 model of anxiety is sensitive to lorazepam and to a lesser extent paroxetine. This gives support to its utility as an experimental model of general anxiety disorder in healthy volunteers...
  76. ncbi request reprint Autoradiographical distribution of imidazoline binding sites in monoamine oxidase A deficient mice
    Neil J Anderson
    Department of Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences, Bristol, UK
    J Neurochem 96:1551-9. 2006
    ..Using the MAO-A knockout mice it was also possible to demonstrate a non-MAO-A population of binding sites labelled by the putative I-BS endogenous ligand, harmane...
  77. ncbi request reprint The use of sleep measures to compare a new 5HT1A agonist with buspirone in humans
    Sue J Wilson
    Psychopharmacology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
    J Psychopharmacol 19:609-13. 2005
    ..Wakefulness in sleep was significantly greatest after morning eptapirone. REM sleep effects were greatest after evening eptapirone, suggesting a greater effect on central serotonin receptors than that of buspirone...
  78. ncbi request reprint Evidence-based guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of anxiety disorders: recommendations from the British Association for Psychopharmacology
    David S Baldwin
    Division of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK
    J Psychopharmacol 19:567-96. 2005
    ..The guidelines cover the diagnosis of anxiety disorders and key steps in clinical management, including acute treatment, relapse prevention and approaches for patients who do not respond to first-line treatments...
  79. ncbi request reprint In vitro and ex vivo distribution of [3H]harmane, an endogenous beta-carboline, in rat brain
    Neil J Anderson
    Department of Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences, University Walk, Clifton, Bristol, BS8 1TD, UK
    Neuropharmacology 50:269-76. 2006
    ..Further evidence for a non-MAO, IBS [3H]harmane population has not been shown but the high level of expression of the MAO-A site is likely to have masked the much smaller population of I2BS...
  80. ncbi request reprint Characterisation of imidazoline I2 binding sites in pig brain
    Neil J Anderson
    Department of Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences, University Walk, Clifton, Bristol BS8 1TD, UK
    Eur J Pharmacol 519:68-74. 2005
    ....
  81. ncbi request reprint The uptake of a fluorescently labelled antisense oligonucleotide in vitro and in vivo
    Emma S J Robinson
    Department of Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences, University Walk, Clifton, Bristol, UK
    J Neurosci Methods 147:48-54. 2005
    ..These data provide further evidence for the uptake and distribution of antisense oligonucleotides in neuronal tissue in vivo...
  82. ncbi request reprint Acute tryptophan depletion. Part II: clinical effects and implications
    Caroline J Bell
    Department of Psychological Medicine, Christchurch School of Medicine and Health Sciences, New Zealand
    Aust N Z J Psychiatry 39:565-74. 2005
    ..This article details the clinical studies to date and discusses the implications of this research methodology...
  83. ncbi request reprint Behavioral and cardiovascular effects of 7.5% CO2 in human volunteers
    Jayne E Bailey
    Psychopharmacology Unit, University of Bristol, The Henry Wellcome Laboratories for Integrative Neuroscience and Endocrinology, Dorothy Hodgkin Building, Bristol, United Kingdom
    Depress Anxiety 21:18-25. 2005
    ....
  84. ncbi request reprint Estimation of endogenous noradrenaline release in rat brain in vivo using [3H]RX 821002
    Robin J Tyacke
    Psychopharmacology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS1 3NY, UK
    Synapse 55:126-32. 2005
    ....
  85. ncbi request reprint Tryptophan depletion reverses the therapeutic effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in social anxiety disorder
    Spilios V Argyropoulos
    Psychopharmacology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom
    Biol Psychiatry 56:503-9. 2004
    ..The present study tested the hypothesis that temporary reduction in central 5-HT transmission, through acute tryptophan depletion, could reverse the therapeutic effect of the SSRIs in social anxiety disorder (SAD) patients...
  86. ncbi request reprint Imidazoline2 (I2) receptor- and alpha2-adrenoceptor-mediated modulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in control and acute restraint stressed rats
    David P Finn
    Psychopharmacology Unit, School of Medical Sciences, Bristol, UK
    J Psychopharmacol 18:47-53. 2004
    ....
  87. ncbi request reprint Does 5-HT restrain panic? A tryptophan depletion study in panic disorder patients recovered on paroxetine
    Caroline Bell
    Psychopharmacology Unit, School of Medical Sciences, University of Bristol, UK
    J Psychopharmacol 16:5-14. 2002
    ..This implies that in panic disorder increased 5-HT availability is important in maintaining the response to SSRIs...