Rajeshwar P Mookerjee

Summary

Affiliation: University College London
Country: UK

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Moderate hypothermia prevents cerebral hyperemia and increase in intracranial pressure in patients undergoing liver transplantation for acute liver failure
    Rajiv Jalan
    Liver Failure Group, Institute of Hepatology, Royal Free and University College London Medical School, London, United Kingdom
    Transplantation 75:2034-9. 2003
  2. pmc Towards goal-directed therapy of hepatorenal syndrome: we have the tools but we need the trials
    Rajeshwar P Mookerjee
    Liver Failure Group, Institute of Hepatology, 69 75 Chenies Mews, London WC1E 6HX, UK
    Crit Care 12:119. 2008
  3. doi request reprint Acute-on chronic liver failure
    Rajiv Jalan
    Liver Failure Group, UCL Institute for Liver and Digestive Health, UCL Medical School, Royal Free Hospital, Rowland Hill Street, London, United Kingdom
    J Hepatol 57:1336-48. 2012
  4. ncbi request reprint The molecular pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy
    Rajiv Jalan
    Institute of Hepatology, University College London Medical School, 69 75 Chenies Mews, UK
    Int J Biochem Cell Biol 35:1175-81. 2003
  5. ncbi request reprint L-Ornithine phenylacetate (OP): a novel treatment for hyperammonemia and hepatic encephalopathy
    R Jalan
    Liver Failure Group, The Institute of Hepatology, Division of Medicine, University College London, 69 75 Chenies Mews, London WC1E 6H, UK
    Med Hypotheses 69:1064-9. 2007
  6. pmc Enhanced renal ammonia excretion following volume expansion in patients with well compensated cirrhosis of the liver
    R Jalan
    Liver Failure Group, Institute of Hepatology, University College London Medical School, 69 75 Chenies Mews, London, UK
    Gut 52:1041-5. 2003
  7. ncbi request reprint Intracranial hypertension in acute liver failure: pathophysiological basis of rational management
    Rajiv Jalan
    Liver Failure Group, Institute of Hepatology, University College London Medical School, London, England
    Semin Liver Dis 23:271-82. 2003
  8. ncbi request reprint Reversal of diuretic-induced hepatic encephalopathy with infusion of albumin but not colloid
    Rajiv Jalan
    Liver Failure Group, Institute of Hepatology, University College London Medical School, London WC1E 6HX, UK
    Clin Sci (Lond) 106:467-74. 2004
  9. ncbi request reprint Paracetamol: are therapeutic doses entirely safe?
    Rajiv Jalan
    UCL Institute of Hepatology, University College London, London WC1E 6HX, UK
    Lancet 368:2195-6. 2006
  10. ncbi request reprint Acute liver failure: current management and future prospects
    Rajiv Jalan
    Liver Failure Group, Institute of Hepatology, University College London Medical School, London WC1E 6HX, UK
    J Hepatol 42:S115-23. 2005

Detail Information

Publications100

  1. ncbi request reprint Moderate hypothermia prevents cerebral hyperemia and increase in intracranial pressure in patients undergoing liver transplantation for acute liver failure
    Rajiv Jalan
    Liver Failure Group, Institute of Hepatology, Royal Free and University College London Medical School, London, United Kingdom
    Transplantation 75:2034-9. 2003
    ..The authors tested the hypothesis that increases in ICP during OLT for ALF can be prevented by moderate hypothermia...
  2. pmc Towards goal-directed therapy of hepatorenal syndrome: we have the tools but we need the trials
    Rajeshwar P Mookerjee
    Liver Failure Group, Institute of Hepatology, 69 75 Chenies Mews, London WC1E 6HX, UK
    Crit Care 12:119. 2008
    ....
  3. doi request reprint Acute-on chronic liver failure
    Rajiv Jalan
    Liver Failure Group, UCL Institute for Liver and Digestive Health, UCL Medical School, Royal Free Hospital, Rowland Hill Street, London, United Kingdom
    J Hepatol 57:1336-48. 2012
    ..This review focuses upon the current understanding of this syndrome from the clinical, prognostic and pathophysiologic perspectives and indicates potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for intervention...
  4. ncbi request reprint The molecular pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy
    Rajiv Jalan
    Institute of Hepatology, University College London Medical School, 69 75 Chenies Mews, UK
    Int J Biochem Cell Biol 35:1175-81. 2003
    ..The present review focuses upon the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of HE. Therapy of HE is directed primarily at reducing ammonia generation and increasing its detoxification...
  5. ncbi request reprint L-Ornithine phenylacetate (OP): a novel treatment for hyperammonemia and hepatic encephalopathy
    R Jalan
    Liver Failure Group, The Institute of Hepatology, Division of Medicine, University College London, 69 75 Chenies Mews, London WC1E 6H, UK
    Med Hypotheses 69:1064-9. 2007
    ..As both L-ornithine and phenylacetate are already available for human use, data showing its usefulness in ammonia lowering could translate quickly into providing the much needed therapy for HE patients...
  6. pmc Enhanced renal ammonia excretion following volume expansion in patients with well compensated cirrhosis of the liver
    R Jalan
    Liver Failure Group, Institute of Hepatology, University College London Medical School, 69 75 Chenies Mews, London, UK
    Gut 52:1041-5. 2003
    ..In patients with cirrhosis, hepatic encephalopathy is often precipitated by dehydration. This study tests the hypothesis that volume expansion in cirrhotic patients increases renal ammonia excretion...
  7. ncbi request reprint Intracranial hypertension in acute liver failure: pathophysiological basis of rational management
    Rajiv Jalan
    Liver Failure Group, Institute of Hepatology, University College London Medical School, London, England
    Semin Liver Dis 23:271-82. 2003
    ....
  8. ncbi request reprint Reversal of diuretic-induced hepatic encephalopathy with infusion of albumin but not colloid
    Rajiv Jalan
    Liver Failure Group, Institute of Hepatology, University College London Medical School, London WC1E 6HX, UK
    Clin Sci (Lond) 106:467-74. 2004
    ..These data support the notion that other factors, such as oxidative stress, act as adjuncts to ammonia in the pathogenesis of diuretic-induced HE and suggest a possible role for albumin infusion in its treatment...
  9. ncbi request reprint Paracetamol: are therapeutic doses entirely safe?
    Rajiv Jalan
    UCL Institute of Hepatology, University College London, London WC1E 6HX, UK
    Lancet 368:2195-6. 2006
  10. ncbi request reprint Acute liver failure: current management and future prospects
    Rajiv Jalan
    Liver Failure Group, Institute of Hepatology, University College London Medical School, London WC1E 6HX, UK
    J Hepatol 42:S115-23. 2005
  11. pmc Prospects for extracorporeal liver support
    R Jalan
    Liver Failure Group, Institute of Hepatology, University College London Medical School and University College London Hospitals, London UK
    Gut 53:890-8. 2004
  12. ncbi request reprint Pathogenesis of intracranial hypertension in acute liver failure: inflammation, ammonia and cerebral blood flow
    Rajiv Jalan
    Liver Failure Group, Institute of Hepatology, Royal Free and University College London Medical School and University College London Hospitals, 69 75 Chenies Mews, London WC1E 6HX, UK
    J Hepatol 41:613-20. 2004
    ..The study aims were to determine the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of increased intracranial pressure (ICP) in patients with acute liver failure (ALF) and its interplay with cerebral blood flow (CBF) and ammonia...
  13. ncbi request reprint Moderate hypothermia in patients with acute liver failure and uncontrolled intracranial hypertension
    Rajiv Jalan
    Institute of Hepatology, University College London, London, UK
    Gastroenterology 127:1338-46. 2004
    ..This study evaluates the clinical effects and pathophysiologic basis of hypothermia in patients with ALF and intracranial hypertension that is unresponsive to standard medical therapy...
  14. ncbi request reprint Hypothermia in acute liver failure
    Rajiv Jalan
    Liver Failure Group, Institute of Hepatology, London, United Kingdom
    Metab Brain Dis 19:215-21. 2004
    ..The present review explores the experimental and clinical data to define the role of hypothermia as a treatment modality for increased intracranial pressure in patients with acute liver failure...
  15. ncbi request reprint Pathophysiological basis of therapy of raised intracranial pressure in acute liver failure
    Rajiv Jalan
    Liver Failure Group, Institute of Hepatology, University College London Medical School, 69 75 Chenies Mews, London WC1E 6HX, UK
    Neurochem Int 47:78-83. 2005
    ..The recent advance in our understanding of the pathophysiological basis of intracranial hypertension has provided the platform for the discovery of new treatments...
  16. ncbi request reprint Oral amino acid load mimicking hemoglobin results in reduced regional cerebral perfusion and deterioration in memory tests in patients with cirrhosis of the liver
    Rajiv Jalan
    Liver Failure Group, Institute of Hepatology, University College London Medical School, London, United Kingdom
    Metab Brain Dis 18:37-49. 2003
    ..The model of simulating the metabolic effects of an upper gastrointestinal bleed in patients with cirrhosis of the liver seems to be useful in studying the metabolism of hepatic encephalopathy...
  17. ncbi request reprint Hypothermia for the management of intracranial hypertension in acute liver failure
    Rajiv Jalan
    Institute of Hepatology, University College London Medical School and Hospital, London, United Kingdom
    Metab Brain Dis 17:437-44. 2002
    ..The present review focuses upon the clinical aspects of using hypothermia as a treatment of increased intracranial pressure in patients with ALF...
  18. ncbi request reprint Liver derived pro-inflammatory cytokines may be important in producing intracranial hypertension in acute liver failure
    Rajiv Jalan
    Institute of Hepatology, University College London Medical School, 69 75 Chenies Mews London WC1E 6HX, UK
    J Hepatol 37:536-8. 2002
    ....
  19. ncbi request reprint Restoration of cerebral blood flow autoregulation and reactivity to carbon dioxide in acute liver failure by moderate hypothermia
    R Jalan
    Institute of Hepatology, University College London Medical School, London, England
    Hepatology 34:50-4. 2001
    ....
  20. ncbi request reprint Role of ammonia and inflammation in minimal hepatic encephalopathy
    D L Shawcross
    Liver Failure Group, The UCL Institute of Hepatology, Division of Medicine, University College London, 69 75 Chenies Mews, London, WC1E 6HX, UK
    Metab Brain Dis 22:125-38. 2007
    ....
  21. ncbi request reprint Extracorporeal liver support with molecular adsorbents recirculating system in patients with severe acute alcoholic hepatitis
    Rajiv Jalan
    Liver Failure Group, Institute of Hepatology, University College London Medical School and University College London Hospitals, 69 75 Chenies Mews, London WC1E 6HX, UK
    J Hepatol 38:24-31. 2003
    ..The aim of this paper is to assess the safety, efficacy and feasibility of using MARS in patients with severe AH...
  22. ncbi request reprint Acute-on-chronic liver failure: pathophysiological basis of therapeutic options
    Rajiv Jalan
    Institute of Hepatology, University College, London Medical School and UCL Hospitals, London, UK
    Blood Purif 20:252-61. 2002
    ..Because liver failure, whether of the acute or acute-on-chronic variety, is potentially reversible, the stage is set for the application of newer liver-support strategies to enhance the recovery process...
  23. doi request reprint Acute endotoxemia following transjugular intrahepatic stent-shunt insertion is associated with systemic and cerebral vasodilatation with increased whole body nitric oxide production in critically ill cirrhotic patients
    R Jalan
    Liver Failure Group, UCL Hepatology, Upper Third Medical School, UCL Medical School, Rowland Hill Street, Royal Free Hospital, London NW3 2PF, UK
    J Hepatol 54:265-71. 2011
    ..This study explored the hypothesis that TIPSS insertion results in acute endotoxemia which is associated with increased nitric oxide production resulting in systemic and cerebral vasodilatation...
  24. ncbi request reprint Bio-artificial liver support for acute liver failure: should we be using it to treat patients?
    Rajiv Jalan
    Institute of Hepatology, University College London Medical School, United Kingdom
    Transplantation 73:165-6. 2002
  25. ncbi request reprint Hypothermia for the management of intracranial hypertension in acute liver failure
    R Jalan
    Institute of Hepatology, University College London Medical School and Hospital, 69 75 Chenies Mews, London WC1E 6HX, UK
    Curr Opin Crit Care 7:257-62. 2001
    ..This article focuses on the use of moderate hypothermia for the treatment of increased intracranial pressure in patients with acute liver failure...
  26. ncbi request reprint Worsening of cerebral hyperemia by the administration of terlipressin in acute liver failure with severe encephalopathy
    Debbie L Shawcross
    Liver Failure Group, Institute of Hepatology, Royal Free and University College London Medical School, London, UK
    Hepatology 39:471-5. 2004
    ..These data suggest the need to exercise extreme caution in the use of terlipressin in these patients in view of its potentially deleterious consequences on cerebral hemodynamics...
  27. ncbi request reprint Inflammation is an important determinant of levels of the endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) in acute liver failure
    Rajeshwar P Mookerjee
    Liver Failure Group, Institute of Hepatology, Division of Medicine, University College London, London, UK
    Liver Transpl 13:400-5. 2007
    ..In conclusion, our data show a significant correlation between ADMA levels and proinflammatory cytokines, supporting a hypothesis that proinflammatory cytokines may regulate ADMA metabolism in ALF...
  28. ncbi request reprint Albumin dialysis reduces portal pressure acutely in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis
    Sambit Sen
    Liver Failure Group, Institute of Hepatology, University College London Medical School, 69 75 Chenies Mews, London WC1E 6HX, UK
    J Hepatol 43:142-8. 2005
    ..This study evaluates the acute effects of albumin dialysis, using the Molecular Adsorbents Recirculating System (MARS), on portal pressure in AH...
  29. ncbi request reprint Pathophysiological effects of albumin dialysis in acute-on-chronic liver failure: a randomized controlled study
    Sambit Sen
    Liver Failure Group, Institute of Hepatology, University College London, London, UK
    Liver Transpl 10:1109-19. 2004
    ..These results should temper the liberal use of MARS until further data is available...
  30. ncbi request reprint Low myo-inositol and high glutamine levels in brain are associated with neuropsychological deterioration after induced hyperammonemia
    D L Shawcross
    Institute of Hepatology, University College London, London, WC1E 6HX United Kingdom
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 287:G503-9. 2004
    ....
  31. doi request reprint Reduction in hyperammonaemia by ornithine phenylacetate prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced brain edema and coma in cirrhotic rats
    Gavin Wright
    Liver Failure Group, UCL Institute of Hepatology, Royal Free Hospital, London, UK
    Liver Int 32:410-9. 2012
    ..The aims were to test whether treatment with the ammonia-lowering agent ornithine phenylacetate (OP) and/or anti-TNF-α (infliximab) prevent the deleterious brain consequences of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in cirrhotic rats...
  32. ncbi request reprint Alterations in the functional capacity of albumin in patients with decompensated cirrhosis is associated with increased mortality
    Rajiv Jalan
    Liver Failure Group, Institute of Hepatology, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    Hepatology 50:555-64. 2009
    ..A significant negative correlation between IMAR and the fatty acid binding coefficients for sites 1 and 2 (P < 0.001 for both) was observed, indicating possible sites of association on the protein...
  33. doi request reprint Role of toll-like receptor 4 in mediating multiorgan dysfunction in mice with acetaminophen induced acute liver failure
    Naina Shah
    Liver Failure Group, UCL Institute for Liver and Digestive Health, Royal Free Hospital, London, United Kingdom
    Liver Transpl 19:751-61. 2013
    ..In conclusion, these data provide evidence for an important role of the TLR4 antagonist in the prevention of the progression of APAP-induced ALF and MOD...
  34. doi request reprint Prevention of acute kidney injury in a rodent model of cirrhosis following selective gut decontamination is associated with reduced renal TLR4 expression
    Naina Shah
    UCL Institute of Hepatology, UCL Medical School, Royal Free Hospital, London, UK
    J Hepatol 56:1047-53. 2012
    ....
  35. doi request reprint Evidence of neutrophil functional defect despite inflammation in stable cirrhosis
    Giovanni Tritto
    Liver Failure Group, UCL Hepatology, Royal Free Hospital, London, UK Hepatology Unit, Cardarelli Hospital, Napoli, Italy
    J Hepatol 55:574-81. 2011
    ..The aims of this study were (i) to evaluate whether patients with stable cirrhosis have a similar transmissible neutrophil defect and (ii) to explore the possible mechanisms...
  36. ncbi request reprint Increasing dimethylarginine levels are associated with adverse clinical outcome in severe alcoholic hepatitis
    Rajeshwar P Mookerjee
    Liver Failure Group, The UCL Institute of Hepatology, Division of Medicine, University College London, UK
    Hepatology 45:62-71. 2007
    ..Elevated dimethylarginines may serve as important biological markers of deleterious outcome in alcoholic hepatitis...
  37. pmc Tumour necrosis factor alpha is an important mediator of portal and systemic haemodynamic derangements in alcoholic hepatitis
    R P Mookerjee
    Liver Failure Group, Institute of Hepatology, London, UK
    Gut 52:1182-7. 2003
    ..The role of proinflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of portal hypertension is unclear...
  38. pmc Nitric oxide and L-arginine metabolism in a devascularized porcine model of acute liver failure
    Vikram Sharma
    UCL Institute of Hepatology, Royal Free Campus, University College London, London, UK
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 303:G435-41. 2012
    ..In this model of early-phase ALF, arginine deficiency or higher ADMA levels do not limit whole body NO production. Arginine deficiency is caused by arginase-related arginine clearance in which arginine production is stimulated de novo...
  39. ncbi request reprint Remote ischaemic preconditioning of the hind limb reduces experimental liver warm ischaemia-reperfusion injury
    S Kanoria
    Hepatopancreatobiliary and Liver Transplant Unit, University Department of Surgery, Royal Free Hospital, London, UK
    Br J Surg 93:762-8. 2006
    ..Remote ischaemic preconditioning (RIPC) of a limb has been shown to reduce IRI to the heart. This study determined the effect of brief remote ischaemia to the limb in reducing early liver warm IRI...
  40. doi request reprint Ammonia reduction with ornithine phenylacetate restores brain eNOS activity via the DDAH-ADMA pathway in bile duct-ligated cirrhotic rats
    Vairappan Balasubramaniyan
    Liver Failure Group, UCL Institute of Hepatology, Royal Free Hospital, London, United Kingdom
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 302:G145-52. 2012
    ..We show a marked abnormality of NO regulation in cirrhotic rat brains, which can be restored by reduction in ammonia concentration using OP...
  41. doi request reprint Effect of probiotic treatment on deranged neutrophil function and cytokine responses in patients with compensated alcoholic cirrhosis
    Vanessa Stadlbauer
    Liver Failure Group, The Institute of Hepatology, Division of Medicine, University College London, 69 75 Chenies Mews, London WC1E 6HX, UK
    J Hepatol 48:945-51. 2008
    ..As probiotics may decrease Gram-negative gut organisms, we hypothesised that probiotic treatment would restore neutrophil function...
  42. ncbi request reprint Review article: the molecular adsorbents recirculating system (MARS) in liver failure
    S Sen
    Institute of Hepatology, University College London Medical School and University College London Hospitals, UK
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 16:32-8. 2002
    ..Data regarding MARS experience in acute liver failure and in primary graft dysfunction are encouraging but limited. Its real usefulness in these settings is, at present, under evaluation in randomized controlled clinical trials...
  43. pmc Role of Toll-like receptors 2, 4, and 9 in mediating neutrophil dysfunction in alcoholic hepatitis
    V Stadlbauer
    Institute of Hepatology, UCL Medical School, 68 75 Chenies Mews, London WC1E 6H, UK
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 296:G15-22. 2009
    ..Albumin, an endotoxin scavenger, prevents the deleterious effect of patients' plasma on neutrophil phagocytosis, resting burst, and TLR expression...
  44. doi request reprint Role of artificial liver support in hepatic encephalopathy
    V Stadlbauer
    Institute of Hepatology, University College London Medical School, 69 75 Chenies Mews, London WC1E 6HX, UK
    Metab Brain Dis 24:15-26. 2009
    ..Further studies are required to better understand the mechanism, however, artificial liver support can be added to the therapeutic bundle in treating HE...
  45. doi request reprint Relationship between activation of the sympathetic nervous system and renal blood flow autoregulation in cirrhosis
    Vanessa Stadlbauer
    Liver Failure Group, Institute of Hepatology, Division of Medicine, University College London, London, England
    Gastroenterology 134:111-9. 2008
    ....
  46. ncbi request reprint Increased gene and protein expression of the novel eNOS regulatory protein NOSTRIN and a variant in alcoholic hepatitis
    Rajeshwar P Mookerjee
    Liver Failure Group, Institute of Hepatology, Division of Medicine, University College London, London, England
    Gastroenterology 132:2533-41. 2007
    ..Our aims were to quantify and compare hepatic expression of eNOS, NOSTRIN, NOSIP, and caveolin-1 in alcoholic cirrhosis with or without superimposed alcoholic hepatitis and in normal livers...
  47. doi request reprint Importance of Connexin-43 based gap junction in cirrhosis and acute-on-chronic liver failure
    Vairappan Balasubramaniyan
    Liver Failure Group, UCL Institute for Liver and Digestive Health, Royal Free Hospital, Pond Street, London NW3 2PF, UK
    J Hepatol 58:1194-200. 2013
    ..The aims of the study were to test the hypothesis that inflammation drives the increased expression of hepatic Cx43 and to determine its role by Cx43 inhibition...
  48. doi request reprint The role of liver biopsy in the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with acute deterioration of alcoholic cirrhosis
    Rajeshwar P Mookerjee
    UCL Institute of Hepatology, UCL Medical School, Royal Free Hospital, United Kingdom
    J Hepatol 55:1103-11. 2011
    ..The aim of this study was to systematically assess the diagnostic and prognostic value of early liver biopsy in patients who require hospital admission with acute deterioration of alcoholic cirrhosis...
  49. ncbi request reprint Neutrophil dysfunction in alcoholic hepatitis superimposed on cirrhosis is reversible and predicts the outcome
    Rajeshwar P Mookerjee
    Liver Failure Group, Institute of Hepatology, Division of Medicine, University College London, London, UK
    Hepatology 46:831-40. 2007
    ..The neutrophil dysfunction in cirrhosis and AH is reversible, with endotoxin-removal strategies providing new targets for intervention...
  50. ncbi request reprint Treatment of phenytoin toxicity by the molecular adsorbents recirculating system (MARS)
    Sambit Sen
    Institute of Hepatology, University College London Medical School and University College London Hospitals, England
    Epilepsia 44:265-7. 2003
    ..We attempted to demonstrate that severe PHT toxicity can be treated successfully with the Molecular Adsorbents Recirculating System (MARS). The mechanism of drug removal by the system also was studied...
  51. ncbi request reprint Systemic inflammatory response exacerbates the neuropsychological effects of induced hyperammonemia in cirrhosis
    Debbie L Shawcross
    Liver Failure Group, Institute of Hepatology, University College London Medical School, 69 75, Chenies Mews, London WC1E 6HX, UK
    J Hepatol 40:247-54. 2004
    ..We tested the hypothesis that SIRS mediators, such as nitric oxide and proinflammatory cytokines, may exacerbate the neuropsychological effects of hyperammonemia in cirrhosis...
  52. ncbi request reprint Hepatic guanylate cyclase activity is decreased in a model of cirrhosis: a quantitative cytochemistry study
    Nathan A Davies
    The UCL Institute of Hepatology, Division of Medicine, University College London, 69 75 Chenies Mews, London, UK
    FEBS Lett 580:2123-8. 2006
    ..Our results show a significant reduction in GC activity, indicating that vascular regulation is likely to be substantially affected irrespective of NO generation in this disease model...
  53. ncbi request reprint Effect of albumin dialysis on intracranial pressure increase in pigs with acute liver failure: a randomized study
    Sambit Sen
    Liver Failure Group, The UCL Institute of Hepatology, Division of Medicine, Royal Free and University College Medical School, London
    Crit Care Med 34:158-64. 2006
    ....
  54. ncbi request reprint Interorgan ammonia, glutamate, and glutamine trafficking in pigs with acute liver failure
    Lars M Ytrebø
    Liver Failure Group, Institute of Hepatology, Univ College London, 69 75 Chenies Mews, London WC1E 6HX, UK
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 291:G373-81. 2006
    ..Furthermore, the kidneys are quantitatively as important as PDV in ammonia production, and the muscles play an important role in ammonia removal...
  55. ncbi request reprint Decompensation of chronic stable alcoholic liver disease by severe exfoliative dermatitis
    Debbie L Shawcross
    Institute of Hepatology, University College London Medical School, UK
    Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 15:433-5. 2003
    ....
  56. ncbi request reprint A model to study total hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury
    S Kanoria
    Hepato biliary and Liver Transplant Unit, Academic Department of Surgery, Royal Free Hospital, London NW3 2QG, UK
    Transplant Proc 36:2586-9. 2004
    ..However, these do not reflect the global ischemia that occurs during liver transplantation. A rabbit model of total hepatic ischemia without a portocaval shunt is described...
  57. ncbi request reprint The pathophysiologic basis of hepatic encephalopathy: central role for ammonia and inflammation
    D Shawcross
    Institute of Hepatology, University College London, 69 75 Chenies Mews, London, WC1E 6HX, United Kingdom
    Cell Mol Life Sci 62:2295-304. 2005
    ..We describe new developments in this area with respect to potential targets for future therapies...
  58. ncbi request reprint Brain cytokine flux in acute liver failure and its relationship with intracranial hypertension
    Gavin Wright
    Liver Failure Group, The Institute of Hepatology, Division of Medicine, University College London, 69 75 Chenies Mews, London, UK
    Metab Brain Dis 22:375-88. 2007
    ..In acute liver failure (ALF), it is unclear whether the systemic inflammatory response associated with intracranial hypertension is related to brain cytokine production...
  59. ncbi request reprint Acute liver failure: liver support therapies
    Vanessa Stadlbauer
    Liver Failure Group, The Institute of Hepatology, Division of Medicine, University College London, London, UK
    Curr Opin Crit Care 13:215-21. 2007
    ..We also describe specific and general therapeutic approaches based upon recent advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of acute liver failure...
  60. doi request reprint Acute-on-chronic liver failure: the liver and portal haemodynamics
    Rajeshwar P Mookerjee
    UCL Institute of Hepatology, Royal Free Campus, London, UK
    Curr Opin Crit Care 17:170-6. 2011
    ..It follows that understanding the drivers for rising portal pressure in ACLF will inform new therapies...
  61. ncbi request reprint Ammonia and hepatic encephalopathy: the more things change, the more they remain the same
    D L Shawcross
    Liver Failure Group, Institute of Hepatology, London, United Kingdom
    Metab Brain Dis 20:169-79. 2005
    ..This review focuses upon the original experiments of Nencki and Pavlov and describes how they fit into what we understand about the pathophysiology and treatment of hepatic encephalopathy today...
  62. doi request reprint Ammonia impairs neutrophil phagocytic function in liver disease
    Debbie L Shawcross
    Liver Failure Group, The University College London UCL Institute of Hepatology, Division of Medicine, University College London, London, UK
    Hepatology 48:1202-12. 2008
    ..The p38(MAPK) intracellular signaling pathways were activated in healthy neutrophils exposed to ammonia in association with increased burst activity. Neutrophil phagocytic dysfunction was abrogated by the addition of a p38(MAPK) agonist...
  63. ncbi request reprint Endotoxemia produces coma and brain swelling in bile duct ligated rats
    Gavin Wright
    Liver Failure Group, Institute of Hepatology, Division of Medicine, University College London, 69 75 Chenies Mews, London, UK
    Hepatology 45:1517-26. 2007
    ..Although the exact mechanism of how hyperammonemia and LPS facilitate cytotoxic edema and pre-coma in cirrhosis is not clear, our data support an important role for the nitrosation of brain proteins...
  64. ncbi request reprint Albumin dialysis: a new therapeutic strategy for intoxication from protein-bound drugs
    Sambit Sen
    Liver Failure Group, Institute of Hepatology, 69 75 Chenies Mews, London WC1E 6HX, UK
    Intensive Care Med 30:496-501. 2004
    ..The present study investigates whether albumin dialysis in the form of the Molecular Adsorbents Recirculating System (MARS) is effective in removal of protein-bound drugs...
  65. ncbi request reprint Management of hepatic encephalopathy in patients with cirrhosis
    Gavin Wright
    Liver Failure Group, The UCL Institute of Hepatology, Division of Medicine, University College London, 69 75 Chenies Mews, London WC1E 6HX, UK
    Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 21:95-110. 2007
    ..The present review describes the pathophysiological basis of hepatic encephalopathy and evaluates the available therapies...
  66. ncbi request reprint Albumin dialysis and Molecular Adsorbents Recirculating System (MARS) for acute Wilson's disease
    Sambit Sen
    Liver Failure Group, Institute of Hepatology, University College London Hospitals, London, UK
    Liver Transpl 8:962-7. 2002
    ..These data suggest that MARS removes copper efficiently and can be used to bridge patients with Wilson's disease and ALF to LTx...
  67. ncbi request reprint 'Nipped in the Budd': hepatic venous outflow obstruction in evolution
    Haris Karageorgiou
    Gastroenterology and Hepatology Unit, Department of Gastroenterology, University College London Hospitals, London, UK
    Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 17:65-8. 2005
    ....
  68. pmc Evidence for altered hepatic gluconeogenesis in patients with cirrhosis using in vivo 31-phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy
    K K Changani
    Magnetic Resonance Unit, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College School of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK
    Gut 49:557-64. 2001
    ....
  69. ncbi request reprint Systemic and regional changes in plasma endothelin following transient increase in portal pressure
    Dharmesh Kapoor
    Liver Failure Group, Institute of Hepatology, University College London, 69 75 Chenies Mews, London WC1E 6HX, UK
    Liver Transpl 9:32-9. 2003
    ..These hemodynamic changes are accompanied by increases in arterial, renal vein, and hepatic vein ET-1 concentrations, which may possibly mediate the observed findings...
  70. ncbi request reprint Dispelling myths in the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy
    Debbie Shawcross
    Institute of Hepatology, University College London, London WC1E 6HX, UK
    Lancet 365:431-3. 2005
    ..Guidelines for the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy suggest ammonia reduction as the main focus, based on strategies to reduce ammonia's generation and absorption in the colon by using lactulose and a reduced protein diet...
  71. doi request reprint Cracking the ENCODE: from transcription to therapeutics
    Gautam Mehta
    University College London, Institute of Hepatology, London, UK
    Hepatology 57:2532-5. 2013
    ..Overall, the project provides new insights into the organization and regulation of our genes and genome, and is an expansive resource of functional annotations for biomedical research...
  72. pmc Management of hepatic encephalopathy
    G Wright
    University College London Institute of Hepatology, The Royal Free Hospital, Pond Street, London NW3 2PF, UK
    Int J Hepatol 2011:841407. 2011
    ..We discuss current evidence supporting the use of interventions for both the general management of chronic HE and that necessary for more acute and advanced disease...
  73. ncbi request reprint The treatment of hepatic encephalopathy
    Marsha Y Morgan
    Centre for Hepatology, Division of Medicine, Royal Free Campus, Royal Free and University College Medical School, University College London, London, UK
    Metab Brain Dis 22:389-405. 2007
    ..The content of this discussion is summarized...
  74. ncbi request reprint L-ornithine and phenylacetate synergistically produce sustained reduction in ammonia and brain water in cirrhotic rats
    Nathan A Davies
    Liver Failure Group, Institute of Hepatology, University College London, UK
    Hepatology 50:155-64. 2009
    ....
  75. ncbi request reprint Role of aquaporin-4 in the development of brain oedema in liver failure
    Gavin Wright
    Institute of Hepatology, University College London, London, UK
    J Hepatol 53:91-7. 2010
    ..We aimed to determine whether aquaporin-4 (AQP4), an astrocyte endfeet bi-directional water channel, is associated with the brain oedema of HE...
  76. doi request reprint Artificial liver support systems in the management of complications of cirrhosis
    Vanessa Stadlbauer
    Liver Failure Group, Institute of Hepatology, Division of Medicine, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    Semin Liver Dis 28:96-109. 2008
    ....
  77. ncbi request reprint Binding of bilirubin and bromosulphthalein to albumin: implications for understanding the pathophysiology of liver failure and its management
    Christian Steiner
    Institute of Hepatology, University College London, London, UK
    Liver Transpl 10:1531-8. 2004
    ..C(bilirubin)/C(alb) appears to be important in albumin dialysis, and generally in liver disease patients, reinforcing the importance of the toxin-binding functions of albumin in liver disease...
  78. ncbi request reprint The role of the Molecular Adsorbents Recirculating System (MARS) in the management of liver failure
    Sambit Sen
    Institute of Hepatology, University College London, London, UK
    Perfusion 19:S43-8. 2004
    ..However, the specific mechanisms underlying these observed clinical changes are as yet unclear. The results of larger controlled clinical trials, as well as studies investigating the pathophysiological basis of its effect, are awaited...
  79. ncbi request reprint Liver failure: basis of benefit of therapy with the molecular adsorbents recirculating system
    Sambit Sen
    Institute of Hepatology, University College London, 69 75 Chenies Mews, London, WC1E 6HX, UK
    Int J Biochem Cell Biol 35:1306-11. 2003
    ..The results of larger controlled clinical trials, as well as studies investigating the pathophysiological basis of its effect, are awaited...
  80. ncbi request reprint The pathophysiological basis of acute-on-chronic liver failure
    Sambit Sen
    Institute of Hepatology, University College London Medical School and University College London Hospitals, London, UK
    Liver 22:5-13. 2002
    ..Because liver failure, whether of the acute or acute-on-chronic variety, is potentially reversible, the stage is set for the application of newer liver support strategies to enhance the recovery process...
  81. ncbi request reprint Acute liver failure: a review
    Shahid A Khan
    Liver Failure Group, Institute of Hepatology, Division of Medicine, University College London, 69 75 Chenies Mews, London WC1E 6HX, UK
    Clin Liver Dis 10:239-58, vii-viii. 2006
    ..This article summarizes the basic patho-physiology underlying ALF, compares epidemiologic trends in the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Far East, and reviews prognostic markers and treatment options for ALF...
  82. ncbi request reprint Emerging indications for albumin dialysis
    Sambit Sen
    Institute of Hepatology, University College of London, 69 75 Chenies Mews, London WC1E 6HX, United Kingdom
    Am J Gastroenterol 100:468-75. 2005
    ....
  83. ncbi request reprint Interorgan ammonia and amino acid metabolism in metabolically stable patients with cirrhosis and a TIPSS
    Steven W M Olde Damink
    Liver Unit and Department of Radiology, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Scotland
    Hepatology 36:1163-71. 2002
    ..Urinary ammonia excretion and urea synthesis appear to be the only way to remove ammonia from the body...
  84. ncbi request reprint Kidney plays a major role in ammonia homeostasis after portasystemic shunting in patients with cirrhosis
    Steven W M Olde Damink
    Department of Surgery, Maastricht University, The Netherlands
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 291:G189-94. 2006
    ..Diminished renal ammonia release and enhanced muscle ammonia uptake are important mechanisms by which the cirrhotic patient maintains ammonia homeostasis after portasystemic shunting...
  85. ncbi request reprint The kidney plays a major role in the hyperammonemia seen after simulated or actual GI bleeding in patients with cirrhosis
    Steven W M Olde Damink
    Department of Surgery, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Hepatology 37:1277-85. 2003
    ..In conclusion, enhanced renal ammonia release has an important role in the hyperammonemia that follows an UGI bleed in patients with cirrhosis. During this hyperammonemic state, muscle is the major site of ammonia removal...
  86. ncbi request reprint Interorgan ammonia metabolism in liver failure
    Steven W M Olde Damink
    Department of Surgery, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Neurochem Int 41:177-88. 2002
    ..The main ammonia producing organs are the intestines and the kidneys, whereas the major ammonia consuming organs are the liver and the muscle...
  87. ncbi request reprint Gc-globulin to predict outcome in acute liver failure: a panacea?
    Rajiv Jalan
    Liver Transpl 11:1169-71. 2005
  88. ncbi request reprint Systemic and regional hemodynamics in pigs with acute liver failure and the effect of albumin dialysis
    Lars M Ytrebø
    Department of Digestive Surgery, University Hospital Northern Norway, Tromsø, Norway
    Scand J Gastroenterol 41:1350-60. 2006
    ....
  89. ncbi request reprint Induced hyperammonemia alters neuropsychology, brain MR spectroscopy and magnetization transfer in cirrhosis
    Sherzad Balata
    Liver Unit, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland
    Hepatology 37:931-9. 2003
    ..Induced hyperammonemia resulted in an increase in brain Glx/Cr ratio and a decrease in MTR, which may indicate an increase in brain water as the operative mechanism...
  90. ncbi request reprint Anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha monoclonal antibody therapy in severe alcoholic hepatitis
    Herbert Tilg
    Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Hospital Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
    J Hepatol 38:419-25. 2003
    ..Severe alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is associated with high mortality. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) has been demonstrated to play an important role in its pathophysiology...
  91. ncbi request reprint Lack of renal improvement with nonselective endothelin antagonism with tezosentan in type 2 hepatorenal syndrome
    Florence Wong
    Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Toronto General Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
    Hepatology 47:160-8. 2008
    ..The plasma tezosentan concentrations were 79 +/- 34 ng/mL at a steady state during infusion at 0.3 mg/hour. The plasma endothelin-1 concentrations increased from 2.7 +/- 0.3 pg/mL at the baseline to 19.1 +/- 7.3 pg/mL (P < 0.05)...
  92. ncbi request reprint Malnutrition and diabetes mellitus are related to hepatic encephalopathy in patients with liver cirrhosis
    Evangelos Kalaitzakis
    Section of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden
    Liver Int 27:1194-201. 2007
    ..Our aim was to investigate the effects of malnutrition and diabetes mellitus on HE in unselected patients with liver cirrhosis...
  93. ncbi request reprint Association of reduced extracellular brain ammonia, lactate, and intracranial pressure in pigs with acute liver failure
    Christopher Rose
    Department of Cellular Neuroscience, Max Delbruck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Germany
    Hepatology 46:1883-92. 2007
    ..The mechanism of how MARS reduces extracellular brain ammonia requires further investigation...
  94. ncbi request reprint Ammonia and inflammation in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy: Pandora's box?
    Gavin Wright
    Hepatology 46:291-4. 2007
  95. ncbi request reprint Isoleucine infusion during "simulated" upper gastrointestinal bleeding improves liver and muscle protein synthesis in cirrhotic patients
    Steven W M Olde Damink
    Department of Surgery, Academic Hospital, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Hepatology 45:560-8. 2007
    ..The data show that hepatic and muscle protein synthesis is stimulated by improving the amino acid composition of the upper GI bleed by simultaneous intravenous isoleucine administration...
  96. ncbi request reprint Is minimal hepatic encephalopathy completely reversible following liver transplantation?
    Christopher Rose
    Liver Transpl 10:84-7. 2004
  97. ncbi request reprint Nitric oxide mediates the reduced vasoconstrictor response to angiotensin II in patients with preascitic cirrhosis
    Ahmed Helmy
    Liver Unit, Department of Medicine, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    J Hepatol 38:44-50. 2003
    ..This study aims to assess the role of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) in the reduced vascular responsiveness to angiotensin II (ANG-II) in eight patients with preascitic cirrhosis compared with eight age- and sex-matched healthy controls...
  98. ncbi request reprint Impact of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt for secondary prophylaxis of oesophageal variceal haemorrhage: a single-centre study over an 11-year period
    Rajiv Jalan
    Liver Unit, Royal Infirmary Edinburg, UK
    Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 14:615-26. 2002
    ....
  99. ncbi request reprint Primary prophylaxis of variceal hemorrhage: a randomized controlled trial comparing band ligation, propranolol, and isosorbide mononitrate
    Hock F Lui
    Centre for Liver and Digestive Disorders, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Scotland
    Gastroenterology 123:735-44. 2002
    ..This randomized controlled trial compared variceal band ligation (VBL), propranolol (PPL), and isosorbide-5-mononitrate (ISMN) in the prevention of first esophageal variceal bleed...