A McMichael

Summary

Affiliation: University of Oxford
Country: UK

Publications

  1. pmc T cell cross-reactivity and conformational changes during TCR engagement
    Jean K Lee
    Human Immunology Unit, Medical Research Council, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DS, England, UK
    J Exp Med 200:1455-66. 2004
  2. pmc Lessons learned from HIV-1 vaccine trials: new priorities and directions
    Andrew J McMichael
    Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Nat Immunol 13:423-7. 2012
  3. pmc The immune response during acute HIV-1 infection: clues for vaccine development
    Andrew J McMichael
    Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Nat Rev Immunol 10:11-23. 2010
  4. ncbi request reprint From influenza to HIV--and back?
    Andrew J McMichael
    MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, OX3 9DS, UK
    Nat Immunol 8:1149-51. 2007
  5. pmc Triple bypass: complicated paths to HIV escape
    Andrew J McMichael
    MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DS, UK
    J Exp Med 204:2785-8. 2007
  6. ncbi request reprint The quest for an AIDS vaccine: is the CD8+ T-cell approach feasible?
    Andrew McMichael
    MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Nat Rev Immunol 2:283-91. 2002
  7. ncbi request reprint HIV T cell vaccines, the importance of clades
    Andrew McMichael
    MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DS, UK
    Vaccine 20:1918-21. 2002
  8. ncbi request reprint HIV vaccines
    Andrew J McMichael
    MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DS UK
    Annu Rev Immunol 24:227-55. 2006
  9. ncbi request reprint Immunogenicities of intravenous and intramuscular administrations of modified vaccinia virus Ankara-based multi-CTL epitope vaccine for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in mice
    T Hanke
    Molecular Immunology Group, Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, The John Radcliffe, UK
    J Gen Virol 79:83-90. 1998
  10. ncbi request reprint HIV/AIDS. HLA leaves its footprints on HIV
    Andrew McMichael
    Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Oxford OX3 9DS, UK
    Science 296:1410-1. 2002

Detail Information

Publications100

  1. pmc T cell cross-reactivity and conformational changes during TCR engagement
    Jean K Lee
    Human Immunology Unit, Medical Research Council, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DS, England, UK
    J Exp Med 200:1455-66. 2004
    ..These findings have implications for the rational design of vaccines targeting viruses with unstable genomes...
  2. pmc Lessons learned from HIV-1 vaccine trials: new priorities and directions
    Andrew J McMichael
    Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Nat Immunol 13:423-7. 2012
    ..There is understanding of what makes HIV envelope-specific antibodies broadly neutralizing and new T cell vaccine approaches can overcome virus variability...
  3. pmc The immune response during acute HIV-1 infection: clues for vaccine development
    Andrew J McMichael
    Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Nat Rev Immunol 10:11-23. 2010
    ..In this Review, we discuss recent studies on the kinetics and quality of early immune responses to HIV-1 and their implications for developing a successful preventive HIV-1 vaccine...
  4. ncbi request reprint From influenza to HIV--and back?
    Andrew J McMichael
    MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, OX3 9DS, UK
    Nat Immunol 8:1149-51. 2007
  5. pmc Triple bypass: complicated paths to HIV escape
    Andrew J McMichael
    MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DS, UK
    J Exp Med 204:2785-8. 2007
    ..The complexity of the full escape helps to explain why patients with this HLA type progress to AIDS more slowly than average...
  6. ncbi request reprint The quest for an AIDS vaccine: is the CD8+ T-cell approach feasible?
    Andrew McMichael
    MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Nat Rev Immunol 2:283-91. 2002
    ..Furthermore, the vaccine should match the prevailing virus clade as closely as possible. Vaccines will have to stimulate a wide range of responses, but it is not clear how this can be achieved...
  7. ncbi request reprint HIV T cell vaccines, the importance of clades
    Andrew McMichael
    MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DS, UK
    Vaccine 20:1918-21. 2002
    ..Whether used alone or in a combination with vaccines eliciting HIV-neutralizing antibodies, efforts must be made to develop a T cell vaccine that stimulates a broad and long-lasting response...
  8. ncbi request reprint HIV vaccines
    Andrew J McMichael
    MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DS UK
    Annu Rev Immunol 24:227-55. 2006
    ..The SIV macaque models give encouragement that this is possible, but they need further understanding. Therapeutic vaccination should also be considered...
  9. ncbi request reprint Immunogenicities of intravenous and intramuscular administrations of modified vaccinia virus Ankara-based multi-CTL epitope vaccine for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in mice
    T Hanke
    Molecular Immunology Group, Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, The John Radcliffe, UK
    J Gen Virol 79:83-90. 1998
    ..Also, the correct processing and presentation of some HLA-restricted epitopes in human cells was confirmed...
  10. ncbi request reprint HIV/AIDS. HLA leaves its footprints on HIV
    Andrew McMichael
    Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Oxford OX3 9DS, UK
    Science 296:1410-1. 2002
  11. ncbi request reprint How important is the 'quality' of the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response in protection against HIV infection?
    S L Rowland-Jones
    MRC Human Immunology Unit, Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford OX3 9DS, UK
    Immunol Lett 79:15-20. 2001
    ..In this paper we review the data which supports the hypothesis that the quality of the T-cell response, rather than its magnitude, may be an important factor that merits further investigation...
  12. ncbi request reprint Impaired IFN-gamma-secreting capacity in mycobacterial antigen-specific CD4 T cells during chronic HIV-1 infection despite long-term HAART
    Rebecca Sutherland
    MRC Human Immunology Unit, Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, Churchill Hospital, Oxford OX3 7LJ, UK
    AIDS 20:821-9. 2006
    ..To determine whether long-term HAART in chronic HIV-1 infection restores fully functional Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)-specific CD4 T-cell responses...
  13. ncbi request reprint Highly avid, oligoclonal, early-differentiated antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in chronic HIV-2 infection
    Aleksandra Leligdowicz
    Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Eur J Immunol 40:1963-72. 2010
    ..We propose that in chronic HIV-2 infection, the maintenance of early-differentiated, highly avid CD8(+) T cells could account for the non-progressive course of disease. Such responses may be desirable from an HIV vaccine...
  14. ncbi request reprint Broad TCR usage in functional HIV-1-specific CD8+ T cell expansions driven by vaccination during highly active antiretroviral therapy
    Hongbing Yang
    Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK
    J Immunol 179:597-606. 2007
    ..The potential therapeutic benefit of this vaccination approach warrants further investigation...
  15. ncbi request reprint AIDS/HIV. Finding footprints among the trees
    Paul Klenerman
    Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, Peter Medawar Building, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3SY, UK
    Science 315:1505-7. 2007
  16. ncbi request reprint Cytotoxic T lymphocytes recognize structurally diverse, clade-specific and cross-reactive peptides in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 gag through HLA-B53
    L Dorrell
    MRC Human Immunology Group, Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, GB
    Eur J Immunol 31:1747-56. 2001
    ..These results demonstrate the value of combined immunological and structural analyses in defining novel CTL epitopes and have implications for HIV-1 vaccine design...
  17. ncbi request reprint Effective induction of HIV-specific CTL by multi-epitope using gene gun in a combined vaccination regime
    T Hanke
    Molecular Immunology Group, Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, The John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, UK
    Vaccine 17:589-96. 1999
    ..Thus particular sequences of routes or vaccine vehicles rather than simple prime-boost delivery of a single vaccine is critical for an effective elicitation of CTL...
  18. ncbi request reprint Pre-clinical development of a multi-CTL epitope-based DNA prime MVA boost vaccine for AIDS
    T Hanke
    Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, The John Radcliffe Hospital, UK
    Immunol Lett 66:177-81. 1999
    ..Thus, a vaccination regimen for an effective elicitation of CTL has been developed which might facilitate evaluation of the role(s) that these lymphocytes play in the control of SIV and HIV infections...
  19. ncbi request reprint Direct relationship between virus load and systemic immune activation in HIV-2 infection
    Aleksandra Leligdowicz
    Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK
    J Infect Dis 201:114-22. 2010
    ..A consistent positive correlation was identified between the level of HIV-2 viremia and immune activation. We propose that increasing virus load may contribute to systemic immune activation in HIV-2 infection...
  20. ncbi request reprint The human major histocompatibility complex class Ib molecule HLA-E binds signal sequence-derived peptides with primary anchor residues at positions 2 and 9
    V Braud
    Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, GB
    Eur J Immunol 27:1164-9. 1997
    ..Using alanine and glycine substitutions, we could define primary anchor residues at positions 2 and 9 and secondary anchor residues at position 7 and possibly 3...
  21. ncbi request reprint Lessons from IAVI-006, a phase I clinical trial to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of the pTHr.HIVA DNA and MVA.HIVA vaccines in a prime-boost strategy to induce HIV-1 specific T-cell responses in healthy volunteers
    A Guimaraes-Walker
    Medical Research Council, Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DS, UK
    Vaccine 26:6671-7. 2008
    ..This study set the basis for later clinical trials and demonstrated the safety of these candidate HIV vaccines. The safety and immunogenicity results are presented and the lessons derived from this clinical trial are discussed...
  22. ncbi request reprint Screening for HIV-specific T-cell responses using overlapping 15-mer peptide pools or optimized epitopes
    Tara Beattie
    MRC Human Immunology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    AIDS 18:1595-8. 2004
    ..These factors should be considered in the monitoring of HIV vaccine trials...
  23. pmc Robust Gag-specific T cell responses characterize viremia control in HIV-2 infection
    Aleksandra Leligdowicz
    Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, Republic of The Gambia
    J Clin Invest 117:3067-74. 2007
    ..A better understanding of how HIV-2 infection is controlled may identify correlates of effective protective immunity essential for the design of HIV vaccines...
  24. ncbi request reprint Interaction of HLA-B27 homodimers with KIR3DL1 and KIR3DL2, unlike HLA-B27 heterotrimers, is independent of the sequence of bound peptide
    Simon Kollnberger
    MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Oxford, UK
    Eur J Immunol 37:1313-22. 2007
    ..By contrast with HLA heterotrimers, B27(2) binding to KIR did not depend on the sequence of the bound peptide. Differences in KIR binding to classical HLA and B27(2) could be involved in the pathogenesis of spondyloarthritis...
  25. ncbi request reprint CD56bright human NK cells differentiate into CD56dim cells: role of contact with peripheral fibroblasts
    Antoni Chan
    Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford, UK
    J Immunol 179:89-94. 2007
    ..Our data support a linear differentiation model of human NK development in which immature CD56(bright) NK cells can differentiate into CD56(dim) cells...
  26. ncbi request reprint Efficient priming of antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes by human cord blood dendritic cells
    Mariolina Salio
    Cancer Research UK Tumour Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, OX3 9DS, Oxford, UK
    Int Immunol 15:1265-73. 2003
    ..Furthermore, these findings have important implications for the development of vaccine strategies in early life and for the reconstitution of a functional CTL repertoire after bone marrow transplantation...
  27. ncbi request reprint Safety and tolerability of recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing an HIV-1 gag/multiepitope immunogen (MVA.HIVA) in HIV-1-infected persons receiving combination antiretroviral therapy
    Lucy Dorrell
    MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DS, UK
    Vaccine 25:3277-83. 2007
    ..These data confirm the safety of MVA.HIVA in HIV-1-infected individuals and provide support for further evaluation of MVA-vectored vaccines in prophylactic and therapeutic immunisation strategies...
  28. ncbi request reprint Cell-surface expression and immune receptor recognition of HLA-B27 homodimers
    Simon Kollnberger
    Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Arthritis Rheum 46:2972-82. 2002
    ..We undertook this study to ascertain if patients with spondylarthritis express beta(2)-microglobulin-free HLA-B27 heavy chains in the form of homodimers and receptors for HLA-B27 homodimers...
  29. pmc Expansion and diversification of virus-specific T cells following immunization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals with a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara/HIV-1 Gag vaccine
    Lucy Dorrell
    MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DS, United Kingdom
    J Virol 80:4705-16. 2006
    ..These data suggest that immunization with MVA.HIVA is a feasible strategy to enhance potentially protective T-cell responses in individuals with chronic HIV-1 infection...
  30. ncbi request reprint Design and tests of an HIV vaccine
    Andrew McMichael
    MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford, UK
    Br Med Bull 62:87-98. 2002
    ..However, in addition to the problems of generating neutralising antibodies and mucosal immunity, the difficulty of inducing broad cellular responses able to protect against all clades of HIV, remains an important issue...
  31. pmc Reappraisal of the relationship between the HIV-1-protective single-nucleotide polymorphism 35 kilobases upstream of the HLA-C gene and surface HLA-C expression
    Tumena W Corrah
    Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford OX3 9DS, United Kingdom
    J Virol 85:3367-74. 2011
    ..We suggest that association of the -35 SNP and HIV-1 load manifests as a result of linkage disequilibrium of this polymorphism with both favorable and unfavorable HLA-C and -B alleles...
  32. pmc Comparing pooled peptides with intact protein for accessing cross-presentation pathways for protective CD8+ and CD4+ T cells
    Hongwei Zhang
    MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford OX3 9DS, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 284:9184-91. 2009
    ..These data suggest that overlapping long peptides are cross-presented through more varied intracellular routes and are more efficient in priming protective immunity than the whole protein...
  33. pmc High pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion and loss of high avidity cross-reactive cytotoxic T-cells during the course of secondary dengue virus infection
    Tao Dong
    MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 2:e1192. 2007
    ..Generally attributed to the phenomenon of antibody-dependent enhancement, recent observations indicate that T-cells may also influence disease phenotype...
  34. pmc 25 years of HIV research on virology, virus restriction, immunopathogenesis, genes and vaccines
    E Scherer
    Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Clin Exp Immunol 154:6-14. 2008
    ..This review summarizes the historical findings, recent work and future directions presented at this meeting...
  35. ncbi request reprint Activation of the lectin DC-SIGN induces an immature dendritic cell phenotype triggering Rho-GTPase activity required for HIV-1 replication
    Ashleigh Hodges
    Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford OX3 9DS, UK
    Nat Immunol 8:569-77. 2007
    ..Activation of LARG in DCs exposed to HIV was required for the formation of virus-T cell synapses. Thus, HIV sequestration by and stimulation of DC-SIGN helps HIV evade immune responses and spread to cells...
  36. ncbi request reprint Nef-mediated lipid raft exclusion of UbcH7 inhibits Cbl activity in T cells to positively regulate signaling
    Alison Simmons
    MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford OX3 9DS, United Kingdom
    Immunity 23:621-34. 2005
    ..Thresholds for activation of signaling involve the intricate balance of positive and negative regulators. Here we provide evidence for Nef disruption of a negative regulator of T cell signaling in promoting HIV replication...
  37. ncbi request reprint Prospects for an AIDS vaccine
    Andrew McMichael
    Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford
    Clin Med 3:269-72. 2003
  38. ncbi request reprint Original antigenic sin and apoptosis in the pathogenesis of dengue hemorrhagic fever
    Juthathip Mongkolsapaya
    MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, OX3 9DS, UK
    Nat Med 9:921-7. 2003
    ....
  39. pmc Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax protein binds to assembled nuclear proteasomes and enhances their proteolytic activity
    J Hemelaar
    Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DU, United Kingdom
    J Virol 75:11106-15. 2001
    ..These data suggest that the association of Tax with the proteasome and the enhanced proteolytic activity do not target Tax for rapid degradation and may not determine its immunodominance...
  40. ncbi request reprint Deletion of the CD4 silencer element supports a stochastic mechanism of thymocyte lineage commitment
    R K Leung
    Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Level 7, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK
    Nat Immunol 2:1167-73. 2001
    ..This finding strongly supports a stochastic over an instructive mechanism of coreceptor down-regulation...
  41. ncbi request reprint Presentation of viral antigen controlled by a gene in the major histocompatibility complex
    V Cerundolo
    Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford, UK
    Nature 345:449-52. 1990
    ..5), but in the present case the genetic defect can be mapped within the MHC locus on human chromosome 6...
  42. pmc HLA-B27: natural function and pathogenic role in spondyloarthritis
    Andrew McMichael
    MRC Human Immunology Group, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Arthritis Res 4:S153-8. 2002
    ..We are currently investigating the possibility that such interactions could be involved in disease pathogenesis...
  43. ncbi request reprint Nef triggers a transcriptional program in T cells imitating single-signal T cell activation and inducing HIV virulence mediators
    A Simmons
    MRC Human Immunology Unit, Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford OX3 9DS, United Kingdom
    Immunity 14:763-77. 2001
    ..New genes associated with Nef include CDK9, the induction of which enhances Tat function. Thus, Nef acts as a master switch early in the viral life cycle, forcing an environment conducive to dynamic viral production...
  44. pmc Design and pre-clinical evaluation of a universal HIV-1 vaccine
    Sven L├ętourneau
    Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, The John Radcliffe, Oxford, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 2:e984. 2007
    ..One of the big roadblocks in development of HIV-1/AIDS vaccines is the enormous diversity of HIV-1, which could limit the value of any HIV-1 vaccine candidate currently under test...
  45. ncbi request reprint Induction of long-lasting multi-specific CD8+ T cells by a four-component DNA-MVA/HIVA-RENTA candidate HIV-1 vaccine in rhesus macaques
    Eung Jun Im
    MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Eur J Immunol 36:2574-84. 2006
    ....
  46. ncbi request reprint Early acquisition of cytolytic function and transcriptional changes in a primary CD8+ T-cell response in vivo
    Christopher Chiu
    Department of Immunology, Wright Fleming Institute, Imperial College, London, and John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Blood 109:1086-94. 2007
    ..However, T-cell proliferation was not observed until 48 hours. We therefore conclude that clonal expansion rather than acquisition of effector function is the rate-limiting step in the development of a primary CTL response...
  47. ncbi request reprint Strong TCR conservation and altered T cell cross-reactivity characterize a B*57-restricted immune response in HIV-1 infection
    Geraldine M A Gillespie
    Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 177:3893-902. 2006
    ..Collectively, our findings highlight unusual features of the B*5701/B*5703-KF11-specific immune responses which could influence disease progression and that might be important to consider when designing future vaccine regimens...
  48. ncbi request reprint Maintenance of HIV-specific CD4+ T cell help distinguishes HIV-2 from HIV-1 infection
    Melody G Duvall
    Medical Research Council MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 176:6973-81. 2006
    ..This study demonstrates that HIV-2-infected donors have a well-preserved and functionally heterogeneous HIV-specific memory CD4+ T cell response that is associated with delayed disease progression in the majority of infected people...
  49. pmc Memory T cells established by seasonal human influenza A infection cross-react with avian influenza A (H5N1) in healthy individuals
    Laurel Yong Hwa Lee
    MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom
    J Clin Invest 118:3478-90. 2008
    ..Thus, vaccine formulas inducing heterosubtypic T cell-mediated immunity may confer broad protection against avian and human influenza A viruses...
  50. pmc T cell responses to whole SARS coronavirus in humans
    Chris Ka fai Li
    MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    J Immunol 181:5490-500. 2008
    ..Our study provides a roadmap for the immunogenicity of SARS-CoV and types of immune responses that may be responsible for the virus clearance, and should serve as a benchmark for SARS-CoV vaccine design and evaluation...
  51. ncbi request reprint Immunisation with recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing HIV-1 gag in HIV-1-infected subjects stimulates broad functional CD4+ T cell responses
    Beatrice O Ondondo
    MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Eur J Immunol 36:2585-94. 2006
    ..These findings indicate that functional virus-specific T helper cells can be boosted by vaccination in chronic HIV-1 infection. Further evaluation of their role in viraemia control is warranted...
  52. ncbi request reprint Clinical experience with plasmid DNA- and modified vaccinia virus Ankara-vectored human immunodeficiency virus type 1 clade A vaccine focusing on T-cell induction
    Tomas Hanke
    Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, MRC Human Immunology Unit, University of Oxford, The John Radcliffe, Oxford OX3 9DS, UK
    J Gen Virol 88:1-12. 2007
    ..Thus, whilst the search is on for ways to enhance T-cell priming, MVA is a useful boosting vector for human subunit genetic vaccines...
  53. pmc Increased frequencies of CD4+ CD25(high) regulatory T cells in acute dengue infection
    Kerstin Luhn
    Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Medical Reasearch Council Human Immunology Unit, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    J Exp Med 204:979-85. 2007
    ..0001) in contrast to severe cases (P = 0.2145). We conclude that although T reg cells expand and function normally in acute dengue infection, their relative frequencies are insufficient to control the immunopathology of severe disease...
  54. pmc Dendritic cells are less susceptible to human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) infection than to HIV-1 infection
    Melody G Duvall
    MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DS, United Kingdom
    J Virol 81:13486-98. 2007
    ....
  55. ncbi request reprint The T cell repertoire in infection and vaccination: implications for control of persistent viruses
    Miles P Davenport
    Department of Haematology, Prince of Wales Hospital and Centre for Vascular Research, University of New South Wales, Kensington NSW, Australia
    Curr Opin Immunol 19:294-300. 2007
    ..Recent advances have increased our understanding of the interactions between persistent viruses and the available T cell repertoire, and will guide approaches to the generation and maintenance of an 'ideal' T cell response...
  56. ncbi request reprint Persistent HIV-1-specific cellular responses despite prolonged therapeutic viral suppression
    Victor Appay
    Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK
    AIDS 16:161-70. 2002
    ..It leads to significant reductions of plasma viremia, often to undetectable levels, but it can also be linked with the reduction and disappearance of detectable HIV-specific CD8 T-cell responses...
  57. ncbi request reprint Generation and characterisation of CD1d tetramer produced by a lentiviral expression system
    Demin Li
    Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford, UK
    J Immunol Methods 330:57-63. 2008
    ..The CD1d tetramer generated from these stable cell lines should facilitate a wide range of studies on the biology and clinical applications of CD1d-restricted NKT cells...
  58. pmc Polyfunctional T cell responses are a hallmark of HIV-2 infection
    Melody G Duvall
    MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Eur J Immunol 38:350-63. 2008
    ..Polyfunctional HIV-specific T cell responses are a hallmark of non-progressive HIV-2 infection and may be related to good clinical outcome in this setting...
  59. ncbi request reprint Studies of a prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine candidate based on modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) with and without DNA priming: effects of dosage and route on safety and immunogenicity
    Barry S Peters
    Kings College London, UK
    Vaccine 25:2120-7. 2007
    ..Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) and plasmid DNA (pTHr) expressed HIV-1 clade A gag p24 and p17 fused to a string of 25 overlapping CD8+ T cell epitopes (HIVA)...
  60. ncbi request reprint Combined single-clade candidate HIV-1 vaccines induce T cell responses limited by multiple forms of in vivo immune interference
    Natasha Larke
    Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Eur J Immunol 37:566-77. 2007
    ..Thus, these results have important ramifications for the design of both prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines against HIV-1 and other highly variable pathogens...
  61. ncbi request reprint Conflicting selective forces affect T cell receptor contacts in an immunodominant human immunodeficiency virus epitope
    Astrid K N Iversen
    Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9AD, UK
    Nat Immunol 7:179-89. 2006
    ..Thus, viral escape from CTL responses does not necessarily correlate with disease progression...
  62. ncbi request reprint HIV-1 down-regulates the expression of CD1d via Nef
    Nan Chen
    MRC Human Immunology Unit and Molecular Immunology Group, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford, OX3 9DS, UK
    Eur J Immunol 36:278-86. 2006
    ....
  63. ncbi request reprint Fully functional HLA B27-restricted CD4+ as well as CD8+ T cell responses in TCR transgenic mice
    Matthew Roddis
    Edward Jenner Institute for Vaccine Research, Compton, Nr Newbury, Berkshire RG 20 7NN, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 172:155-61. 2004
    ..We believe that this model provides a novel system for the study of unusual T cell behavior in vivo...
  64. pmc Characterization of the CD4+ T cell response to Epstein-Barr virus during primary and persistent infection
    Elisabeth Amyes
    MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, The John Radcliffe, OX3 9DS Oxford, United Kingdom
    J Exp Med 198:903-11. 2003
    ..There are striking parallels in terms of the differentiation of CD8+ T cells specific for EBV and CMV. The results challenge current ideas on the definition of memory subsets...
  65. ncbi request reprint The HIV protease inhibitor indinavir reduces immature dendritic cell transendothelial migration
    Kathryn T Whelan
    Human Immunology Unit, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, GB
    Eur J Immunol 33:2520-30. 2003
    ..Our results strongly suggest that IDV inhibits host proteases necessary for DC migration and may, therefore, affect DC immunoregulation in HIV-1-infected patients...
  66. ncbi request reprint The T cell surface--how well do we know it?
    Edward J Evans
    Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, The University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford OX3 9DU, United Kingdom
    Immunity 19:213-23. 2003
    ....
  67. ncbi request reprint Medicine. The need for a global HIV vaccine enterprise
    Richard D Klausner
    Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA 98102, USA
    Science 300:2036-9. 2003
    ....
  68. pmc Mature CD8(+) T lymphocyte response to viral infection during fetal life
    Arnaud Marchant
    Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom
    J Clin Invest 111:1747-55. 2003
    ..The finding of a mature and functional CD8(+) T cell response to HCMV suggests that the machinery required to prime such responses is in place during fetal life and could be used to immunize newborns against viral pathogens...
  69. ncbi request reprint Lymphoblastoid cells express HLA-B27 homodimers both intracellularly and at the cell surface following endosomal recycling
    Lucy A Bird
    MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford OX3 9DS, Great Britain
    Eur J Immunol 33:748-59. 2003
    ..Cell surface expressed HLA-B27 homodimers are likely to be immunologically reactive ligands for NK family immunoreceptors and, hence, could play a pathogenic role in spondyloarthritis...
  70. ncbi request reprint HIV: Bad news for stop--start therapy?
    Andrew J McMichael
    Nature 420:371, 373. 2002
  71. ncbi request reprint Lack of Epstein-Barr virus- and HIV-specific CD27- CD8+ T cells is associated with progression to viral disease in HIV-infection
    Debbie van Baarle
    Department of Clinical Viro Immunology, CLB Sanquin and Landsteiner Laboratory of the Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    AIDS 16:2001-11. 2002
    ..To investigate the underlying mechanism of this loss of immune control phenotypic analysis of HIV- and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific CD8+ T cells was performed...
  72. pmc Effects of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) directed against a single simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Gag CTL epitope on the course of SIVmac239 infection
    Todd M Allen
    Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53715, USA
    J Virol 76:10507-11. 2002
    ..By themselves, these strong CTL responses failed to control SIVmac239 replication...
  73. ncbi request reprint Tetrameric complexes of HLA-E, HLA-F, and HLA-G
    David S J Allan
    Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, OX3 9DS, UK
    J Immunol Methods 268:43-50. 2002
    ..HLA-G tetramers interacted with immunoglobulin-like transcript-2 (ILT2) and ILT4 receptors, aiding the understanding of HLA-G function during pregnancy. Tetrameric complexes of HLA-F also bound to ILT2 and ILT4...
  74. ncbi request reprint Gonococcal cervicitis is associated with reduced systemic CD8+ T cell responses in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected and exposed, uninfected sex workers
    Rupert Kaul
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
    J Infect Dis 185:1525-9. 2002
    ..Impaired function of virus-specific CD8(+) lymphocytes may partly explain the deleterious effects of gonococcal cervicitis on HIV-1 immune control and susceptibility...
  75. ncbi request reprint Development of a DNA-MVA/HIVA vaccine for Kenya
    Tomas Hanke
    MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, The John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DS, UK
    Vaccine 20:1995-8. 2002
    ..These results have boosted expectations for the prime-boost vaccinations...
  76. ncbi request reprint Cross-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes against a HIV-1 p24 epitope in slow progressors with B*57
    Geraldine M A Gillespie
    MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford, OX3 9DS, UK
    AIDS 16:961-72. 2002
    ....
  77. ncbi request reprint Memory CD8+ T cells vary in differentiation phenotype in different persistent virus infections
    Victor Appay
    MRC Human Immunology Unit, Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Nat Med 8:379-85. 2002
    ..These findings challenge the current definitions of memory and effector subsets in humans, and suggest that ascribing effector and memory functions to subsets with different differentiation phenotypes is no longer appropriate...
  78. ncbi request reprint Dynamics of T cell responses in HIV infection
    Victor Appay
    Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 168:3660-6. 2002
    ..These observations have significant implications for our understanding of T cell responses in human viral infections in general and indicate that the definition of effector and memory subsets in humans may need revision...
  79. ncbi request reprint Clonal selection, clonal senescence, and clonal succession: the evolution of the T cell response to infection with a persistent virus
    Miles P Davenport
    Theoretical Biology and Biophysics, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA
    J Immunol 168:3309-17. 2002
    ..Comparison of the model output with the experimental results obtained from primary and persistent EBV infection suggests that there is indeed a role for cellular senescence in shaping the immune response to persistent infection...
  80. pmc Immune activation and CD8+ T-cell differentiation towards senescence in HIV-1 infection
    Laura Papagno
    Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom
    PLoS Biol 2:E20. 2004
    ..It can be driven by excessive levels of immune stimulation. This may be part of the mechanism through which HIV-1-mediated immune activation exhausts the capacity of the immune system...
  81. ncbi request reprint A human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) clade A vaccine in clinical trials: stimulation of HIV-specific T-cell responses by DNA and recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vaccines in humans
    Matilu Mwau
    MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, The John Radcliffe, Oxford OX3 9DS, UK
    J Gen Virol 85:911-9. 2004
    ..These results are very encouraging and justify further vaccine development...
  82. pmc Induction of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific T cells by a bluetongue virus tubule-vectored vaccine prime-recombinant modified virus Ankara boost regimen
    Natasha Larke
    MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, The John Radcliffe, Oxford OX3 9DS, United Kingdom
    J Virol 79:14822-33. 2005
    ..Its usefulness in primates, including humans, remains to be determined...
  83. ncbi request reprint Altered primary CD8+ T cell response to a modified virus Ankara(MVA)-vectored vaccine in the absence of CD4+ T cell help
    Marie J Estcourt
    MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, The John Radcliffe, Oxford, UK
    Eur J Immunol 35:3460-7. 2005
    ..These phenomena were observed in the lymph nodes draining the MVA.HIVA-NP immunization site and were similar, but delayed by 2-3 days in spleen and non-draining lymph nodes...
  84. ncbi request reprint Molecular signatures distinguish human central memory from effector memory CD8 T cell subsets
    Tim Willinger
    Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Oxford, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 175:5895-903. 2005
    ..Altogether, our results distinguish T(CM) and T(EM)/T(EMRA) at the molecular level and are consistent with the concept that T(CM) represent memory stem cells...
  85. ncbi request reprint Human CD4+ T cells are predominantly distributed among six phenotypically and functionally distinct subsets
    Elisabeth Amyes
    Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 175:5765-73. 2005
    ..Knowledge of where T cells lie on this model informs about their functional capacity and can reflect their history of Ag exposure...
  86. ncbi request reprint Expression of leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors and natural killer receptors on virus-specific CD8+ T cells during the evolution of Epstein-Barr virus-specific immune responses in vivo
    Kathryn Poon
    MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, The John Radcliffe, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Viral Immunol 18:513-22. 2005
    ..Thus, in the later stages of persistent infection, protective immunity to EBV may be reduced due to the preferential accumulation of hyporesponsive EBV-specific CD8+ T cells...
  87. ncbi request reprint Phase I clinical trial safety of DNA- and modified virus Ankara-vectored human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccines administered alone and in a prime-boost regime to healthy HIV-1-uninfected volunteers
    Inese Cebere
    MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, The John Radcliffe, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford OX3 9DS, UK
    Vaccine 24:417-25. 2006
    ..HIVA DNA and MVA.HIVA vaccines either alone or in a prime-boost regime to healthy HIV-1/2-negative adults indicated that the vaccines were safe and warranted further testing of this approach in larger phase I/II studies...
  88. ncbi request reprint Vaccine route, dose and type of delivery vector determine patterns of primary CD8+ T cell responses
    Marie J Estcourt
    MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, The John Radcliffe, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Eur J Immunol 35:2532-40. 2005
    ..Both rMVA and DNA induced comparable IFN-gamma production, which increased with cell divisions. Taken together, the vaccine type, dose and route have a strong influence on the spatial and temporal patterns of initial T cell responses...
  89. ncbi request reprint Structures of three HIV-1 HLA-B*5703-peptide complexes and identification of related HLAs potentially associated with long-term nonprogression
    Guillaume B E Stewart-Jones
    Division of Structural Biology, Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 175:2459-68. 2005
    ....
  90. ncbi request reprint Therapeutic immunization of highly active antiretroviral therapy-treated HIV-1-infected patients: safety and immunogenicity of an HIV-1 gag/poly-epitope DNA vaccine
    Lucy Dorrell
    MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Oxford, UK
    AIDS 19:1321-3. 2005
    ..We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity, in HIV-1-infected individuals under HAART suppression, of a DNA vaccine, pTHr.HIVA...
  91. pmc Modified vaccinia Ankara expressing HIVA antigen stimulates HIV-1-specific CD8 T cells in ELISpot assays of HIV-1 exposed infants
    Jennifer A Slyker
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Kenya
    Vaccine 23:4711-9. 2005
    ..These results demonstrate the relevance of HIV-1 clade A consensus-derived immunogen HIVA for the viruses currently circulating in Nairobi...
  92. ncbi request reprint Deficiency of a subset of T-cells with immunoregulatory properties in sarcoidosis
    Ling Pei Ho
    Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 7DS, UK
    Lancet 365:1062-72. 2005
    ..We explored whether abnormalities in these cells are implicated in the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis...
  93. ncbi request reprint Biodistribution and persistence of an MVA-vectored candidate HIV vaccine in SIV-infected rhesus macaques and SCID mice
    Tomas Hanke
    MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, The John Radcliffe, Oxford OX3 9DS, UK
    Vaccine 23:1507-14. 2005
    ..Therefore, the MVA.HIVA vaccine is considered safe for application in phase I clinical trials in HIV-1-infected human subjects. These results also contribute to the confidence of using MVA as a smallpox vaccine...
  94. ncbi request reprint HIV-1 Env-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses in exposed, uninfected Kenyan sex workers: a prospective analysis
    Rupert Kaul
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
    AIDS 18:2087-9. 2004
    ..Annual HIV incidence was 5.8%. CTL were independently associated with age and recent HIV-1 exposure,but were not prospectively associated with protection in a multivariable model that included HIV-1 exposure and duration of sex work...
  95. ncbi request reprint CD56bright NK cells are enriched at inflammatory sites and can engage with monocytes in a reciprocal program of activation
    Nicola Dalbeth
    Division of Medicine, Imperial College London, Commonwealth Building, Hammersmith Campus, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN, UK
    J Immunol 173:6418-26. 2004
    ..Such a positive feedback loop is likely to be important in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis...
  96. ncbi request reprint HLA-B27 heavy chain homodimers are expressed in HLA-B27 transgenic rodent models of spondyloarthritis and are ligands for paired Ig-like receptors
    Simon Kollnberger
    Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 173:1699-710. 2004
    ..The binding of B27(2) to PIR is inhibited by HC10, an mAb that ameliorates arthritis in HLA-B27(+) beta(2)m(-/-) mice. The expression and PIR recognition of B27(2) could explain the pathogenesis of rodent spondyloarthritis...
  97. ncbi request reprint DNA vaccines against human immunodeficiency virus type 1
    Marie J Estcourt
    MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Oxford, UK
    Immunol Rev 199:144-55. 2004
    ....
  98. ncbi request reprint CD4(-)CD8alphaalpha subset of CD1d-restricted NKT cells controls T cell expansion
    Ling Pei Ho
    Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 7DS, UK
    J Immunol 172:7350-8. 2004
    ..We suggest that one mechanism by which CD1d-restricted NKT cells can exert a regulatory role is by containing the proliferation of activated T cells, possibly through timely lysis of APCs or activated T cells bearing CD1d...
  99. ncbi request reprint A DNA/MVA-based candidate human immunodeficiency virus vaccine for Kenya induces multi-specific T cell responses in rhesus macaques
    Edmund G T Wee
    MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, The John Radcliffe, Oxford OX3 9DS, UK
    J Gen Virol 83:75-80. 2002
    ..These results have both boosted our expectations for the performance of these vaccines in humans and increased our confidence about the choice of these assays as the primary readouts in the on-going human trials...