Chris McManus

Summary

Affiliation: University College London
Country: UK

Publications

  1. doi request reprint The misinterpretation of the standard error of measurement in medical education: a primer on the problems, pitfalls and peculiarities of the three different standard errors of measurement
    I C McManus
    Academic Centre for Medical Education, UCL Medical School, University College London, London, UK
    Med Teach 34:569-76. 2012
  2. pmc Assessment of examiner leniency and stringency ('hawk-dove effect') in the MRCP(UK) clinical examination (PACES) using multi-facet Rasch modelling
    I C McManus
    Department of Psychology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    BMC Med Educ 6:42. 2006
  3. ncbi request reprint iMAP and iMAP2 produce erroneous statistical maps of eye-movement differences
    I Chris McManus
    Research Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology, Division of Psychology and Language Sciences, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    Perception 42:1075-84. 2013
  4. pmc The UKCAT-12 study: educational attainment, aptitude test performance, demographic and socio-economic contextual factors as predictors of first year outcome in a cross-sectional collaborative study of 12 UK medical schools
    I C McManus
    UCL Medical School, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    BMC Med 11:244. 2013
  5. pmc Construct-level predictive validity of educational attainment and intellectual aptitude tests in medical student selection: meta-regression of six UK longitudinal studies
    I C McManus
    UCL Medical School, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    BMC Med 11:243. 2013
  6. pmc The Academic Backbone: longitudinal continuities in educational achievement from secondary school and medical school to MRCP(UK) and the specialist register in UK medical students and doctors
    I C McManus
    UCL Medical School, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    BMC Med 11:242. 2013
  7. pmc Investigating possible ethnicity and sex bias in clinical examiners: an analysis of data from the MRCP(UK) PACES and nPACES examinations
    I C McManus
    Academic Centre for Medical Education, Division of Medical Education, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    BMC Med Educ 13:103. 2013
  8. doi request reprint Multilocus genetic models of handedness closely resemble single-locus models in explaining family data and are compatible with genome-wide association studies
    I C McManus
    Research Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1288:48-58. 2013
  9. doi request reprint "The anti-developmental, the anti-narrative, the anti-historical": Mondrian as a paradigmatic artist for empirical aesthetics
    Chris McManus
    Research Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom
    Behav Brain Sci 36:152-3. 2013
  10. pmc Arnheim's Gestalt theory of visual balance: Examining the compositional structure of art photographs and abstract images
    I C McManus
    Division of Psychology and Language Sciences, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK E mail
    Iperception 2:615-47. 2011

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. doi request reprint The misinterpretation of the standard error of measurement in medical education: a primer on the problems, pitfalls and peculiarities of the three different standard errors of measurement
    I C McManus
    Academic Centre for Medical Education, UCL Medical School, University College London, London, UK
    Med Teach 34:569-76. 2012
    ..However, it is often the case that the wrong formula is applied, there actually being three different formulae for use in different situations...
  2. pmc Assessment of examiner leniency and stringency ('hawk-dove effect') in the MRCP(UK) clinical examination (PACES) using multi-facet Rasch modelling
    I C McManus
    Department of Psychology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    BMC Med Educ 6:42. 2006
    ....
  3. ncbi request reprint iMAP and iMAP2 produce erroneous statistical maps of eye-movement differences
    I Chris McManus
    Research Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology, Division of Psychology and Language Sciences, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    Perception 42:1075-84. 2013
    ..Previous research using iMAP/iMAP2 may have come to erroneous conclusions about differences in fixation patterns between groups...
  4. pmc The UKCAT-12 study: educational attainment, aptitude test performance, demographic and socio-economic contextual factors as predictors of first year outcome in a cross-sectional collaborative study of 12 UK medical schools
    I C McManus
    UCL Medical School, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    BMC Med 11:244. 2013
    ....
  5. pmc Construct-level predictive validity of educational attainment and intellectual aptitude tests in medical student selection: meta-regression of six UK longitudinal studies
    I C McManus
    UCL Medical School, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    BMC Med 11:243. 2013
    ..That problem of interpretation can be solved by calculating construct-level predictive validity, an estimate of true predictor-outcome correlation across the range of applicant abilities...
  6. pmc The Academic Backbone: longitudinal continuities in educational achievement from secondary school and medical school to MRCP(UK) and the specialist register in UK medical students and doctors
    I C McManus
    UCL Medical School, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    BMC Med 11:242. 2013
    ..Two of the studies used the AH5, a group test of general intelligence (that is, intellectual aptitude). Sex and ethnic differences were also analyzed in light of the changing demographics of medical students over the past decades...
  7. pmc Investigating possible ethnicity and sex bias in clinical examiners: an analysis of data from the MRCP(UK) PACES and nPACES examinations
    I C McManus
    Academic Centre for Medical Education, Division of Medical Education, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    BMC Med Educ 13:103. 2013
    ..In this paper we report a novel method for assessing sex and ethnic bias in over 2000 examiners who had taken part in the PACES and nPACES (new PACES) examinations of the MRCP(UK)...
  8. doi request reprint Multilocus genetic models of handedness closely resemble single-locus models in explaining family data and are compatible with genome-wide association studies
    I C McManus
    Research Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1288:48-58. 2013
    ..Based on the ENGAGE meta-analysis of GWASs, we estimate at least 40 loci are involved in determining handedness...
  9. doi request reprint "The anti-developmental, the anti-narrative, the anti-historical": Mondrian as a paradigmatic artist for empirical aesthetics
    Chris McManus
    Research Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom
    Behav Brain Sci 36:152-3. 2013
    ..4.2, para.2). Those criticisms are unjustified, both within the approaches of empirical aesthetics and the historical context and aims of Mondrian's work...
  10. pmc Arnheim's Gestalt theory of visual balance: Examining the compositional structure of art photographs and abstract images
    I C McManus
    Division of Psychology and Language Sciences, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK E mail
    Iperception 2:615-47. 2011
    ..Although the detailed results did not support the Arnheim-Ross theory, several significant results were found which clearly require explanation by any adequate theory of the aesthetics of visual composition...
  11. pmc Resitting a high-stakes postgraduate medical examination on multiple occasions: nonlinear multilevel modelling of performance in the MRCP(UK) examinations
    I C McManus
    Academic Centre for Medical Education, Division of Medical Education, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, UK
    BMC Med 10:60. 2012
    ..In the UK, the issue of resits has become of particular interest since the General Medical Council issued a consultation and is considering limiting the number of attempts candidates may make at examinations...
  12. pmc Living with primary ciliary dyskinesia: a prospective qualitative study of knowledge sharing, symptom concealment, embarrassment, mistrust, and stigma
    Simon Whalley
    Department of Psychology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    BMC Pulm Med 6:25. 2006
    ..The present study had the twin aims of carrying out a qualitative study of the adult patients living with PCD, and using a structured design to validate the questionnaire measure of stigma...
  13. pmc Mapping medical careers: questionnaire assessment of career preferences in medical school applicants and final-year students
    K V Petrides
    School of Psychology and Human Development Institute of Education University of London London WC1H 0AA, UK
    BMC Med Educ 4:18. 2004
    ..In this study, we use three large-scale cohorts of medical students to produce maps of medical careers...
  14. pmc The standard error of measurement is a more appropriate measure of quality for postgraduate medical assessments than is reliability: an analysis of MRCP(UK) examinations
    Jane Tighe
    MRCP UK Central Office, 11, St Andrews Place, London NW1 4LE, UK
    BMC Med Educ 10:40. 2010
    ..This study investigated the extent to which the necessarily narrower ability range in candidates taking the second of the three part MRCP(UK) diploma examinations, biases assessment of reliability and SEM...
  15. pmc 'It gives you an understanding you can't get from any book.' The relationship between medical students' and doctors' personal illness experiences and their performance: a qualitative and quantitative study
    Katherine Woolf
    Academic Centre for Medical Education, Royal Free and University College Medical School, 4th Floor, Holborn Union Building, Archway Campus, Highgate Hill, London N19 5LW, UK
    BMC Med Educ 7:50. 2007
    ....
  16. pmc The effect of a brief social intervention on the examination results of UK medical students: a cluster randomised controlled trial
    Katherine Woolf
    Academic Centre for Medical Education ACME, UCL Division of Medical Education DoME, UCL Whittington Campus, London, UK
    BMC Med Educ 9:35. 2009
    ..Cohen et al.'s methods were replicated in the different setting of UK undergraduate medical education...
  17. pmc Graduates of different UK medical schools show substantial differences in performance on MRCP(UK) Part 1, Part 2 and PACES examinations
    I C McManus
    Department of Psychology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    BMC Med 6:5. 2008
    ....
  18. ncbi request reprint Eye centring in portraits: a theoretical and empirical evaluation
    I Christopher McManus
    Department of Psychology, University College London, Gower Street, London, UK
    Perception 36:167-82; discussion 183-8. 2007
    ..We conclude that one eye tends to be relatively close to the vertical midline because of geometric constraints on the placing of a relatively large object, the head, within a pictorial frame...
  19. ncbi request reprint Aesthetic activities and aesthetic attitudes: influences of education, background and personality on interest and involvement in the arts
    I C McManus
    Department of Psychology, University College London, UK
    Br J Psychol 97:555-87. 2006
    ..Class, age and sex had no direct relationship to aesthetic attitudes...
  20. doi request reprint Predictive validity of the Biomedical Admissions Test: an evaluation and case study
    I C McManus
    Division of Psychology and Language Sciences, Research Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology, University College London, UK
    Med Teach 33:53-7. 2011
    ..We show with BMAT that it is the knowledge part of the test which does all the predictive work. We show that without evidence of incremental validity it is difficult to assess the value of any selection tests for medicine...
  21. ncbi request reprint The modern mythology of the left-handedness of Alexander the Great
    I C McManus
    Department of Psychology, University College, London, UK
    Laterality 11:566-72. 2006
    ..That itself may derive in part from the medieval Hebrew Book of Jossippon, which mentions Alexander talking of the superiority of the left hand and of how "kings stemming from the tribe of kings are left-handed"...
  22. pmc Even one star at A level could be "too little, too late" for medical student selection
    Chris McManus
    Dept of Psychology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    BMC Med Educ 8:16. 2008
    ..This study assessed the likely utility of additional grades of A* or of A**...
  23. pmc The educational background and qualifications of UK medical students from ethnic minorities
    I C McManus
    Dept of Psychology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    BMC Med Educ 8:21. 2008
    ..This study uses two large-scale databases to examine the educational attainment of W and NW students...
  24. doi request reprint Science in the Making: Right Hand, Left Hand. II: The duck-rabbit figure
    I C McManus
    Department of Psychology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    Laterality 15:166-85. 2010
    ..There was also a very significant tendency for female viewers to use more typical descriptions of the duck, whereas males used a wider variety of types...
  25. doi request reprint Science in the Making: Right Hand, Left Hand. III: Estimating historical rates of left-handedness
    I C McManus
    UCL Department of Psychology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    Laterality 15:186-208. 2010
    ..What does seem indisputable is that rates of left-handedness fell during most of the nineteenth century, only subsequently to rise in the twentieth century...
  26. doi request reprint Science in the Making: Right Hand, Left Hand. I: A BBC television programme broadcast in 1953
    I C McManus
    Department of Psychology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    Laterality 15:136-65. 2010
    ..In two subsequent papers we will describe our analysis of the data from the postcards, which represents an unusual, large-scale survey of handedness in the mid-twentieth century...
  27. doi request reprint A Left Handed Compliment: A newly discovered, early nineteenth-century lithograph by John Lewis Marks
    I C McManus
    Division of Psychology and Language Science, University College London, London, UK
    Laterality 15:270-88. 2010
    ..The print can be placed in the context of a scatological English vernacular humour that extends from Shakespeare through to Donald McGill and into the present day...
  28. ncbi request reprint The psychometrics of photographic cropping: the influence of colour, meaning, and expertise
    I Christopher McManus
    Division of Psychology and Language Sciences, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    Perception 40:332-57. 2011
    ..Cropping, it is suggested, is an ideal paradigm for experimental aesthetics, allowing precise experimental control with Fechner's Method of Production, a technique which normally is not easy to use...
  29. pmc Vocation and avocation: leisure activities correlate with professional engagement, but not burnout, in a cross-sectional survey of UK doctors
    I C McManus
    Academic Centre for Medical Education, Division of Medical Education, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    BMC Med 9:100. 2011
    ..This study evaluated those claims in a large group of doctors practicing in the UK while taking into account a wide range of background variables...
  30. ncbi request reprint The causal links between stress and burnout in a longitudinal study of UK doctors
    I C McManus
    Department of Psychology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    Lancet 359:2089-90. 2002
    ..High levels of personal accomplishment increased stress levels (beta=0 080), whereas depersonalisation lowered stress levels (beta=-0 105)...
  31. ncbi request reprint Stigmatization, physical illness and mental health in primary ciliary dyskinesia
    I C McManus
    University College London, UK
    J Health Psychol 11:467-82. 2006
    ..Neuroticism, extroversion, openness to experience, age, age at diagnosis and being female indirectly affected stigmatization via mental health...
  32. ncbi request reprint Objects look different sizes in the right and left eyes
    I C McManus
    Department of Psychology, University College London, UK
    Laterality 9:245-65. 2004
    ....
  33. pmc Stress, burnout and doctors' attitudes to work are determined by personality and learning style: a twelve year longitudinal study of UK medical graduates
    I C McManus
    Department of Psychology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom
    BMC Med 2:29. 2004
    ....
  34. ncbi request reprint Note: half-a-million basic colour words: Berlin and Kay and the usage of colour words in literature and science
    I C McManus
    Department of Psychology, University College London, UK
    Perception 26:367-70. 1997
    ..That hypothesis is now further supported by the frequencies of the eleven English basic colour words in 507,256 cases in eight large computerised data bases, there being a rank correlation of 0.802 with the Berlin and Kay order...
  35. ncbi request reprint The handedness of Leonardo da Vinci: a tale of the complexities of lateralisation
    I C McManus
    Department of Psychology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    Brain Cogn 55:262-8. 2004
    ..This suggests that individual differences in handedness, and behavioural laterality in general, have a structural complexity which is not fully encompassed by simple measures of direction or degree of handedness...
  36. pmc Medical school differences: beneficial diversity or harmful deviations?
    I C McManus
    Department of Psychology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    Qual Saf Health Care 12:324-5. 2003
  37. pmc A levels and intelligence as predictors of medical careers in UK doctors: 20 year prospective study
    I C McManus
    Department of Psychology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT
    BMJ 327:139-42. 2003
    ..To assess whether A level grades (achievement) and intelligence (ability) predict doctors' careers...
  38. ncbi request reprint How consultants, hospitals, trusts and deaneries affect pre-registration house officer posts: a multilevel model
    I C McManus
    Academic Centre for Medical Education, Centre for Health Informatics and Multi professional Education CHIME, Royal Free and University College Medical School, London, UK
    Med Educ 36:35-44. 2002
    ..To use multilevel modelling to determine how much of the variation was due to the effects of consultant firms, hospitals, trusts and deaneries, as well as variation at the level of the individual doctor...
  39. pmc Intercalated degrees, learning styles, and career preferences: prospective longitudinal study of UK medical students
    I C McManus
    Reseach Centre for Medical Education, Centre for Health Informatics, Royal Free and University College Medical School, University College London, London N19 3UA
    BMJ 319:542-6. 1999
    ..However, the effects are much reduced in schools where most students intercalate a degree. Introduction of intercalated degrees for all medical students without sufficient resources may not therefore achieve its expected effects...
  40. pmc Factors affecting likelihood of applicants being offered a place in medical schools in the United Kingdom in 1996 and 1997: retrospective study
    I C McManus
    Centre for Health Informatics and Multi professional Education, Royal Free and University College Medical School, University College London, Whittington Hospital Campus, London N19 5NF
    BMJ 317:1111-6; discussion 1116-7. 1998
    ..To assess the relation between a range of measures and the likelihood of applicants to medical schools in the United Kingdom being offered a place overall and at each medical school, with particular emphasis on ethnic minority applicants...
  41. pmc Clinical experience, performance in final examinations, and learning style in medical students: prospective study
    I C McManus
    Academic Department of Psychiatry, Imperial College School of Medicine at St Mary s, London
    BMJ 316:345-50. 1998
    ....
  42. ncbi request reprint Right-left and the scrotum in Greek sculpture
    I C McManus
    Department of Psychology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    Laterality 9:189-99. 2004
    ..The present study examines data on scrotal asymmetry in more detail, and puts them in the context of Greek theories of functional differences between the right side and the left side...
  43. pmc Handedness and situs inversus in primary ciliary dyskinesia
    I C McManus
    Department of Psychology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    Proc Biol Sci 271:2579-82. 2004
    ..Intriguingly, one behavioural lateralization, wearing a wrist-watch on the right wrist, did correlate with situs inversus...
  44. ncbi request reprint Is light in pictures presumed to come from the left side?
    I Christopher McManus
    Department of Psychology, University College London, London, UK
    Perception 33:1421-36. 2004
    ..Contrary to the study of Sun and Perona (1998, Nature Neuroscience 1 183-184), there was no association with handedness or other measures of functional lateralisation...
  45. pmc Unhappiness and dissatisfaction in doctors cannot be predicted by selectors from medical school application forms: a prospective, longitudinal study
    I C McManus
    Department of Psychology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    BMC Med Educ 5:38. 2005
    ..Here we combine data from a long-term prospective study of medical student selection and training, with an experimental approach in which a large number of assessors used a paired comparison technique to predict outcome...
  46. pmc Intellectual aptitude tests and A levels for selecting UK school leaver entrants for medical school
    I C McManus
    Department of Psychology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT
    BMJ 331:555-9. 2005
  47. ncbi request reprint Sir James Paget's research into medical education
    I C McManus
    Department of Psychology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    Lancet 366:506-13. 2005
  48. pmc The wealth of distinguished doctors: retrospective survey
    I C McManus
    Department of Psychology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT
    BMJ 331:1520-3. 2005
    ..To assess changes in the wealth of distinguished doctors in the United Kingdom between 1860 and 2001...
  49. pmc Changes in standard of candidates taking the MRCP(UK) Part 1 examination, 1985 to 2002: analysis of marker questions
    I C McManus
    Dept of Psychology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    BMC Med 3:13. 2005
    ..This paper describes two complementary studies of marker questions for 52 diets of the MRCP(UK) Part 1 Examination over the years 1985 to 2001 to assess whether standards have changed...
  50. pmc The attractions of medicine: the generic motivations of medical school applicants in relation to demography, personality and achievement
    I C McManus
    Department of Psychology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    BMC Med Educ 6:11. 2006
    ....
  51. pmc Detecting cheating in written medical examinations by statistical analysis of similarity of answers: pilot study
    I C McManus
    Department of Psychology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT
    BMJ 330:1064-6. 2005
    ..To assess whether a computer program using a variant of Angoff's method can detect anomalous behaviour indicative of cheating in multiple choice medical examinations...
  52. ncbi request reprint Left-handers have a lower prevalence of arthritis and ulcer
    I C McManus
    Department of Psychology, University College London, UK
    Laterality 10:97-102. 2005
    ..942, 95% CI 0.922-0.962; Ulcer: OR = 0.920, 95% CI 0.896-0.944...
  53. pmc Performance in the MRCP(UK) Examination 2003-4: analysis of pass rates of UK graduates in relation to self-declared ethnicity and gender
    Neil G Dewhurst
    MRCP UK Central Office, Andrew s Place, London, UK
    BMC Med 5:8. 2007
    ..We examined the effects of ethnicity and gender on pass rates in UK medical graduates sitting the Membership of the Royal Colleges of Physicians in the United Kingdom [MRCP(UK)] Examination in 2003-4...
  54. ncbi request reprint The shortened Study Process Questionnaire: an investigation of its structure and longitudinal stability using confirmatory factor analysis
    R A Fox
    Royal Free and University College Medical School, London, UK
    Br J Educ Psychol 71:511-30. 2001
    ..The longitudinal analysis supports this hypothesis and suggests that these learning approaches are partly stable during medical school undergraduate training and partly modifiable under the influence of the educational environment...
  55. ncbi request reprint UK doctors' attitudes to the General Medical Council's Performance Procedures, 1997-99
    I C McManus
    Centre for Health Informatics and Multi-professional Education (CHIME, Royal Free and University College Medical School, London, UK
    Med Educ 35:60-9. 2001
    ..CONCLUSIONS: Although doctors became more aware of the procedures, that increasing awareness was not accompanied by an increasing agreement with the procedures' underlying principles or their wider implications...
  56. ncbi request reprint Changing PACES: developments to the examination in 2009
    Andrew Elder
    MRCP UK Central Office, Royal College of Physicians of the United Kingdom, London
    Clin Med 11:231-4. 2011
    ..This brief paper explains the rationale for change and summarises the development and implementation process...
  57. ncbi request reprint The effect of a psychiatric attachment on students' attitudes to and intention to pursue psychiatry as a career
    Monica McParland
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Sciences, University College London, UK
    Med Educ 37:447-54. 2003
    ..The relationships between attitudes, career intentions and academic performance were examined...
  58. ncbi request reprint Reliability of the MRCP(UK) Part I Examination, 1984-2001
    I C McManus
    Department of Psychology, University College London, UK MRCP UK Central Office, London, UK
    Med Educ 37:609-11. 2003
    ....
  59. pmc Ethnicity and academic performance in UK trained doctors and medical students: systematic review and meta-analysis
    Katherine Woolf
    Academic Centre for Medical Education, UCL Division of Medical Education, London N19 5LW, UK
    BMJ 342:d901. 2011
    ..To determine whether the ethnicity of UK trained doctors and medical students is related to their academic performance...
  60. pmc A pre-post test evaluation of the impact of the PELICAN MDT-TME Development Programme on the working lives of colorectal cancer team members
    Cath Taylor
    Florence Nightingale School of Nursing and Midwifery, King s College London, London, UK
    BMC Health Serv Res 10:187. 2010
    ..The Programme reached almost all colorectal cancer teams across England. We took the opportunity to assess the impact of participating in this novel team-based Development Programme on the working lives of colorectal cancer team members...
  61. ncbi request reprint Reversed bodies, reversed brains, and (some) reversed behaviors: of zebrafish and men
    Chris McManus
    Department of Psychology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom
    Dev Cell 8:796-7. 2005
    ..The implication is that, as in humans, there are at least two independent mechanisms for generating asymmetry...
  62. ncbi request reprint Commentary: How to derive causes from correlations in educational studies
    I C McManus
    Department of Psychology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT
    BMJ 326:429-32. 2003